Indians of Arkansas

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[[Portal:Arkansas|Arkansas]] tribes were removed to Oklahoma early in the 1830s.  
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Arkansas]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Arkansas|Indians of Arkansas]]''
  
== Tribes and Bands of Arkansas ==
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Arkansas tribes were removed to Oklahoma early in the 1830s. {{Adoption ARGenWeb}}
  
The following list of tribes is compiled from the ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotescolumns=*%2C0%2C0titleno=553639disp=Handbook+of+American+Indians+north+of+Me++ film 1320577 item 1].)</ref>, by Frederick Webb Hodge, and ''The Indian Tribes of North America<ref>Swanton, John R. ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/arizona/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].'' Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145.</ref>'', by John R. Swanton, as well as others.
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=== Tribes and Bands of Arkansas  ===
  
Caddo, Cahinnio, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Illinois, Kaskinampo, Michigamea, Mosopelea, Ofo, Osage, Quapaw, Seneca, Seminole, Shawnee, Tunica, Tunica-Karoa, Yazoo  
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The following list of tribes is compiled from the Frederick Webb Hodge, and ''The Indian Tribes of North America'' Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of Utah, 1987. {{FHL|553639|item|disp=FHL film 1320577 Item 1}} and Swanton, John R. ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/arkansas/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].'' Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145 ''by John R. Swanton, as well as others. ''
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*[[Caddo Indians|Caddo]]
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*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cahinnio Cahinnio]
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*[[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]]
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*[[Chickasaw Indians|Chickasaw]]
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*[http://www.museum.state.il.us/muslink/nat_amer/post/htmls/il.html Illinois]
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*[http://www.google.com/search?q=Kaskinampo+Indians&rls=com.microsoft:en-us&ie=UTF-8&oe=UTF-8&startIndex=&startPage=1 Kaskinampo]
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*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/illinois/michigameaindianhist.htm Michigamea]
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*[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/ohio/index.htm Mosopelea]
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*[http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rls=com.microsoft%3Aen-us&q=Mosopelea+Indians&aq=f&aqi=&oq= Ofo]
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*[[Osage Indians|Osage]]
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*[[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]]
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*[[Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe of Louisiana|Tunica]]
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*[http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&rls=com.microsoft%3Aen-us&q=Yazoo+Indians&btnG=Search&aq=f&aqi=&oq= Yazoo]
  
 
The Caddo Indians were farmers, ceded land and removed to Texas then removed to Indian Territory-Oklahoma  
 
The Caddo Indians were farmers, ceded land and removed to Texas then removed to Indian Territory-Oklahoma  
  
== Reservations ==
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=== Agencies ===
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Arkansas has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''
  
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
+
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}
 +
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}), and others.
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ar.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Arkansas.  
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A brief history of each agency and an explanation of the availability of at least some records for each, are listed on the page for the agency.  
  
== Agencies  ==
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*[[Arkansas Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Arkansas Agency]], 1807-1834
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*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Cherokee Agency]]
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
+
=== Family History Library  ===
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Arkansas has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=247426&disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=207428&disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
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For a complete list of available records, use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location.  
  
A brief history of each agency and an explanation of the availability of at least some records for each are listed on the page for the agency.  
+
*Chickamauga Cherokee Tribal Enrollment. {{FHL|544141|item|disp=FHL film 1597951 (first of 6 films)}}.
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*Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1832-1970.{{FHL|589948|item|disp=FHL film 1602871 (first of 22 films)}}.
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*Arkansas Superintendency 1824-1834. The Family History Library has no records at this time.
  
*[[Arkansas Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Arkansas Agency]], 1807-1834
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=== Reservations  ===
*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (Arkansas)|Cherokee Agency]]
+
  
== Superintendency  ==
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
  
The '''Arkansas Superintendency '''was created in 1819, under the the Secretary of War until 1824 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established. The superintendency was disolved and the Cherokee Choctaw, Quapaw and other tribes living in the area west of Arkansas were placed in the new Western Superintendency.  
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Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.  
  
'''Jurisdiction over the tribes:''' Cherokee, Quapaw, Choctaw, Osage, Shawnee, Caddo and Delaware
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
  
There was a government Indian factory (trading post) established on the Arkansas river known as the Arkansas Post.
+
A list of reservations has been compiled and included in the following:
  
1825 An agency for the '''Choctaw''' living west of the Mississippi river remained under the Arkansas Superintendency until 1828.  
+
*''National Atlas of the United States of America'' [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/fedlands.html#list National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations.]
  
1825-1826: Most Quapaw were removed to the Caddo or '''Red River Agency '''on the Red River west of Arkansas.  
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*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E (Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991) {{FHL|433280|item|disp=FHL book 973 E5}})
  
1832 Supervision of the Cherokee Indians only
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*Reservation Map - [http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/AR.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Arkansas - Indian Reservations ]- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
  
1834 Most of the Indians had been removed from Arkansas further west.
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=== Superintendency  ===
  
== Family History Library  ==
+
The '''[[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]] '''was created in 1819&nbsp;under the the Secretary of War, until 1824 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established. The superintendency was dissolved and the Cherokee Choctaw, Quapaw and other tribes living in the area west of Arkansas were placed in the new Western Superintendency.
  
For a complete list of available records use the Family History Library Catalog search by Tribe, and Location
+
'''Jurisdiction over the tribes:''' Cherokee, Quapaw, Choctaw, Osage, Shawnee, Caddo and Delaware.
  
*Chickamauga Cherokee Tribal Enrollment. (6 Family History Library films starting with [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=544141&disp=Application+for+Chickamauga+tribal+enrol%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1597951]
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There was a government Indian factory (trading post) established on the Arkansas river known as the Arkansas Post.  
*Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1832-1970. (22 films Family History Library films beginning with&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589948&disp=Records+of+the+Southern+Superintendency+%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1602871].)  
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*Arkansas Superintendency 1824-1834. The Family History Library has no records at this time.
+
  
== See also:  ==
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1825 An agency for the '''Choctaw''' living west of the Mississippi River, remained under the Arkansas Superintendency until 1828.
  
[[Arkansas History|Arkansas-History]] for a calendar of events
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1825-1826: Most Quapaw were removed to the Caddo or '''[[Red River Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Red River Agency]] '''on the Red River, west of Arkansas.
  
== References  ==
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1832 Supervision of the Cherokee Indians only.
  
<references />  
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1835 The last Indian tribes had been removed from Arkansas to present-day Oklahoma. Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs have been transcribed in:<br>  
  
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:*Baker, Jack D.&nbsp;''Cherokee Emigration Rolls, 1817-1835.'' Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: Baker Pub., 1977. {{FHL|58571|item|disp=FHL book 970.3 C424be}}. {{WorldCat|3892556|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat).}}
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 +
=== See also:  ===
 +
 +
[[Arkansas History|Arkansas-History]] for a calendar of events.
 +
 +
[[Arkansas Military Records|Arkansas Military&nbsp;Records]] for a list of forts.
 +
 +
=== Bibliography  ===
 +
 +
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
 
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.  
 
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
 +
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. {{FHL|553639|title-id|disp=Available online}}.
 +
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
 +
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/AR.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
+
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/arkansas/index.htm Available online].
 +
 
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{{American Indian}} {{Arkansas|Arkansas}}
  
 
[[Category:Arkansas]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Arkansas]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 16:08, 8 August 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Arkansas Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Arkansas

Arkansas tribes were removed to Oklahoma early in the 1830s.
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Contents

Tribes and Bands of Arkansas

The following list of tribes is compiled from the Frederick Webb Hodge, and The Indian Tribes of North America Salt Lake City: Genealogical Society of Utah, 1987. FHL film 1320577 Item 1 and Swanton, John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145 by John R. Swanton, as well as others.

The Caddo Indians were farmers, ceded land and removed to Texas then removed to Indian Territory-Oklahoma

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Arkansas has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...

  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g), and others.

A brief history of each agency and an explanation of the availability of at least some records for each, are listed on the page for the agency.

Family History Library

For a complete list of available records, use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location.

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

A list of reservations has been compiled and included in the following:

  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E (Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991) FHL book 973 E5)

Superintendency

The Arkansas Superintendency was created in 1819 under the the Secretary of War, until 1824 when the Bureau of Indian Affairs was established. The superintendency was dissolved and the Cherokee Choctaw, Quapaw and other tribes living in the area west of Arkansas were placed in the new Western Superintendency.

Jurisdiction over the tribes: Cherokee, Quapaw, Choctaw, Osage, Shawnee, Caddo and Delaware.

There was a government Indian factory (trading post) established on the Arkansas river known as the Arkansas Post.

1825 An agency for the Choctaw living west of the Mississippi River, remained under the Arkansas Superintendency until 1828.

1825-1826: Most Quapaw were removed to the Caddo or Red River Agency on the Red River, west of Arkansas.

1832 Supervision of the Cherokee Indians only.

1835 The last Indian tribes had been removed from Arkansas to present-day Oklahoma. Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs have been transcribed in:

See also:

Arkansas-History for a calendar of events.

Arkansas Military Records for a list of forts.

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.