Indians of Colorado

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The word [[Colorado]] originates from a Spanish word "ruddy" or "red"
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Colorado]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Colorado]]''
  
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
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The word Colorado originates from a Spanish word "ruddy" or "red"
 
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<br>
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== Tribes&nbsp; and Bands of Colorado  ==
 
== Tribes&nbsp; and Bands of Colorado  ==
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*[[Ute Indians|Ute]] ([[Southern Ute Indian Tribe|Southern]] and [[Ute Mountain Indians|Ute Mountain]])  
 
*[[Ute Indians|Ute]] ([[Southern Ute Indian Tribe|Southern]] and [[Ute Mountain Indians|Ute Mountain]])  
 
*[[Ute Indians|White River Band of Utes]]<br>
 
*[[Ute Indians|White River Band of Utes]]<br>
 
== Reservations  ==
 
 
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 
 
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 
 
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/co.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
 
 
*'''[[Southern Ute Indian Reservation (Colorado)|Southern Ute Reservation]] '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Ute Agency, Tribes: Mauache Capote Ute
 
*'''[[Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reserevation (Colorado)|Ute Mountain Reservation]] '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Ute Mountain Agency, Tribe: Wiminuche Ute<br>
 
  
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
Line 41: Line 26:
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
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The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Conejos Indian Agency (Colorado)|Conejos Agency]]  
 
*[[Conejos Indian Agency (Colorado)|Conejos Agency]]  
Line 63: Line 48:
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
  
The following list of Indian Schools in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Fort Lewis Indian School (Colorado)|Fort Lewis School]]  
 
*[[Fort Lewis Indian School (Colorado)|Fort Lewis School]]  
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For a complete list of available records use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location  
 
For a complete list of available records use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location  
  
*[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]] Records 1813-1878 (108 films - M856) Family History Library 1st [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=589935&disp=Records+of+the+Central+Superintendency+o++ film 1602893]  
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*[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]] Records 1813-1878 (108 films - M856) Family History Library 1st {{FHL|589935|title-id|disp=film 1602893}}
*Colorado Superintendency 1861-1880
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*[[Colorado_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]] 1861-1880
 +
 
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== Reservations  ==
 +
 
 +
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 +
 
 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 +
 
 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/co.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
 +
 
 +
For a currant reservation map - [http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/CO.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Colorado - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atals of the united States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey. <br>
 +
 
 +
*'''[[Southern Ute Indian Reservation (Colorado)|Southern Ute Reservation]] '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Ute Agency, Tribes: Mauache Capote Ute
 +
*'''[[Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation (Colorado)|Ute Mountain Reservation]] '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Ute Mountain Agency, Tribe: Wiminuche Ute<br>
  
 
== See Also:  ==
 
== See Also:  ==
Line 96: Line 96:
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/co.pdf Available online.]  
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/CO.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/colorado/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/colorado/index.htm Available online].
{{Colorado|Colorado}}
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{{American Indian}} {{Colorado|Colorado}}  
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[[Category:Colorado]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Colorado]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 15:41, 19 November 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Colorado Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Colorado

The word Colorado originates from a Spanish word "ruddy" or "red"

Contents

Tribes  and Bands of Colorado

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Colorado has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Colorado has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Family History Library

For a complete list of available records use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[7], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[8], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

For a currant reservation map - Colorado - Indian Reservations - The National Atals of the united States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

See Also:

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  8. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.