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The word Colorado originates from a Spanish word "ruddy" or "red"
Tribes and Bands of Colorado
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians... and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
Apache, Arapahoe. Bannock, Cheyenne, Comanche, Jicarilla, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Apache-Navajo, Numa, Pueblos, Shoshone, Uinta, Uncompahgre Band, Ute (Southern and Mountain), White River Band
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
- Southern Ute Reservation Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Ute Agency, Tribes: Mauache Capote Ute
- Ute Mountain Reservation Federal, under jurisdiction of Ute Mountain Agency, Tribe: Wiminuche Ute
- Ute Reservation
Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agencies were created as an administrative division of the federal government to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
- Conejos Agency
- Consolidated Ute Agency
- Denver Special Agency 1871-1875
- Fort Lewis Agency
- Los Pinos Agency
- Middle Park Agency
- Navajo Springs Agency
- Southern Ute Agency, P.O. Box 315, Ignacio, CO 81137
- Uintah and Ouray Agency -- located in eastern Utah; agency which serves the Uintah and Uncompahgre Utes, formerly of the Middle Park and White River Agencies.
- Upper Arkansas Agency
- Upper Platte Agency
- Ute Mountain Agency, General Delivery, Towoac, CO 81334
- White River Agency
- Hill, Edward E., The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (Family History Library book 970.1 H551)
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)
- Fort Lewis School
- Grand Junction School
- Ignacio Boarding School
- Navajo Springs School
- Ute Mountain School
Family History Library
For a complete list of available records use the Family History Library Catalog and search by Tribe and Location
- Central Superintendency Records 1813-1878 (108 films - M856) Family History Library 1st film 1602893
- Colorado Superintendency 1861-1880
Colorado - History for a calendar of events some pertaining to American Indians
Colorado - Military for a list of forts
- ↑ Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- ↑ Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- ↑ National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- ↑ Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
- "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.