Indians of Georgia

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
(GA template)
m
(9 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
''[[United States]]   [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Georgia (state)|Georgia]]   [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Indians_of_Georgia|American Indians]]''  
+
''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Georgia (state)|Georgia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Georgia]]''  
  
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>  
+
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
  
 
=== Tribes and Bands of Georgia  ===
 
=== Tribes and Bands of Georgia  ===
Line 30: Line 30:
 
Other tribes may have also been residents of the area of Georgia, at least for a short time.  
 
Other tribes may have also been residents of the area of Georgia, at least for a short time.  
  
=== Reservations ===
+
==== Tribes Recognized by the State of Georgia ====
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
+
The Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council (also known as Cherokee Indians of Georgia, Inc.), Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc., and Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Inc.  
 
+
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
 
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
+
 
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ga.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
+
 
+
*Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee
+
*Tama Tribal Town
+
  
 
=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
 
=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
Line 47: Line 38:
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Georgia has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Georgia has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Creek Indian Agency (Georgia)|Creek Agency]]
 
*[[Creek Indian Agency (Georgia)|Creek Agency]]
Line 55: Line 46:
 
For a complete list of available study the Family History Library Catalog search by Tribe and Locality  
 
For a complete list of available study the Family History Library Catalog search by Tribe and Locality  
  
*Office of Indian Trade 1795-1821 13 films - M1334 Film Family History Library 1st microfilm [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=362382&disp=Records+of+the+Bureau+of+Indian+Affairs++ 1605523]
+
*Office of Indian Trade 1795-1821 13 films - M1334 Film {{FHL|362382|item|disp=FHL film 1605523}}
*Office of Indian Affairs, Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter book of the Creek trading house. 1795-1816, Family History Library film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=362382&disp=Records+of+the+Bureau+of+Indian+Affairs++ 1024433].
+
*Office of Indian Affairs, Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter book of the Creek trading house. 1795-1816, {{FHL|362382|item|disp=FHL film 1024433}}.
 +
 
 +
=== Reservations  ===
 +
 
 +
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 +
 
 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 +
 
 +
For a current reservation map -&nbsp;[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/GA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Georgia - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey
 +
 
 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/fedlands.html#list Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991. {{FHL|433280|item|disp=FHL book 973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
 +
 
 +
*Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee
 +
*Tama Tribal Town
  
 
=== See Also:  ===
 
=== See Also:  ===
Line 66: Line 72:
 
=== References  ===
 
=== References  ===
  
<references />  
+
<references />
  
 
=== Bibliography  ===
 
=== Bibliography  ===
Line 78: Line 84:
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ga.pdf Available online.]  
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/GA.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/georgia/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/georgia/index.htm Available online].
  
{{Georgia|Georgia}}
+
{{American Indian}} {{Georgia|Georgia}}  
  
 
[[Category:Georgia|American Indians]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Georgia|American Indians]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 20:35, 11 June 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Georgia Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Georgia

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Georgia

A list of American Indians who have lived in Georgia has been compiled by John R. Swanton in his The Indian Tribes of North America[1] Many of the tribes in this list may have had very limited contact with the area which became Georgia. Some have become extinct or have been consolidated with other tribes. And some may simply be variant spellings.

Other tribes may have also been residents of the area of Georgia, at least for a short time.

Tribes Recognized by the State of Georgia

The Cherokee of Georgia Tribal Council (also known as Cherokee Indians of Georgia, Inc.), Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokees, Inc., and Lower Muskogee Creek Tribe East of the Mississippi, Inc.

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Georgia has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[2], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[3], and others.

Family History Library

For a complete list of available study the Family History Library Catalog search by Tribe and Locality

  • Office of Indian Trade 1795-1821 13 films - M1334 Film FHL film 1605523
  • Office of Indian Affairs, Superintendent of Indian Trade. Letter book of the Creek trading house. 1795-1816, FHL film 1024433.

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - Georgia - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[4], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[5], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee
  • Tama Tribal Town

See Also:

Georgia-History for a calendar of events

Georgia-Military for a list of forts

References

  1. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  2. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o.)
  3. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  4. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  5. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991. FHL book 973 E5)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.