Indians of Idaho

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
(23 intermediate revisions by 9 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
''[[Idaho|Idaho]]'' ► Indians of Idaho
+
''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Idaho]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Idaho]]''[[Image:Apsaroke horse trappings.jpg|thumb|right|Apsaroke horse trappings.jpg]]
  
[[Image:Nez Perce Camp Lapwai -Idaho 1899.jpg|center|400px]] <br>
+
[[Image:Nez Perce Camp Lapwai -Idaho 1899.jpg|center|239x159px|Nez Perce Camp Lapwai -Idaho 1899.jpg]] [[Image:766px-An Assiniboin indian and a Yanktonan indian 0045v.jpg|thumb|right|201x157px|766px-An Assiniboin indian and a Yanktonan indian 0045v.jpg]]  
  
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
+
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].  
  
== Tribes and Bands of Idaho  ==
+
=== Tribes and Bands of Idaho  ===
  
 
The following list of American Indians, who have lived in Idaho, has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> ,&nbsp;Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online]</ref>. and other sources. Some of the names may&nbsp;be variant spellings or alternative names for the same tribe.  
 
The following list of American Indians, who have lived in Idaho, has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> ,&nbsp;Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online]</ref>. and other sources. Some of the names may&nbsp;be variant spellings or alternative names for the same tribe.  
Line 16: Line 16:
 
*[[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]] -- primarily located in central Idaho, but historically were also associated with southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], [[. 400-403.</ref>  
 
*[[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]] -- primarily located in central Idaho, but historically were also associated with southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], [[. 400-403.</ref>  
 
*[[Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation, Utah|Northwestern Band of Shoshoni ]]-- primarily located in northern Utah, near the Idaho border. Also known as the Washakie Band of Shoshoni.<br>
 
*[[Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation, Utah|Northwestern Band of Shoshoni ]]-- primarily located in northern Utah, near the Idaho border. Also known as the Washakie Band of Shoshoni.<br>
*Numa -- another name for the Northern Paiute<br>
+
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paiute_people Numa ]-- another name for the Northern Paiute<br>
 
*[[Paiute Indians|Paiute]] -- primarily located in Nevada, California, and Utah, although they ranged into southwestern Idaho at times<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403</ref><br>
 
*[[Paiute Indians|Paiute]] -- primarily located in Nevada, California, and Utah, although they ranged into southwestern Idaho at times<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403</ref><br>
*Paloos or Palouse -- primarily located in Washington, although they did extend up the Palouse River into Idaho<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403</ref>  
+
*[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palouse Paloos or Palouse] -- primarily located in Washington, although they did extend up the Palouse River into Idaho<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403</ref>  
*[[Pend d'Oreille Indians|Pend d'Oreille]]  
+
*[[Pend d'Oreille Indians|Pend d'Oreille]]&nbsp;-- Name after the Pend Oreille &nbsp;River. It drains throught the Rock Mountains.
*[[Salish Indians|Salish]] <br>
+
*[[Salish Indians|Salish]]&nbsp;--&nbsp;In the early 1840's one of their leaders had a "vision" of the "Blackrobes" who would come with spiritual teaching. <br>
*Shahaptian  
+
*[http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/00652925/ Shahaptian]&nbsp;--&nbsp;Indian tribes of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington state
 
*[[Sheepeater Indians|Sheepeater ]]-- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 405.</ref><br>
 
*[[Sheepeater Indians|Sheepeater ]]-- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 405.</ref><br>
 
*[[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]] or Shoshoni (Northern and Western) -- the Northern Shoshoni were primarily located in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 403-405.</ref>. The Western Shoshoni have been historically associated with central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and a small part of California<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 405-410.</ref><br>
 
*[[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]] or Shoshoni (Northern and Western) -- the Northern Shoshoni were primarily located in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 403-405.</ref>. The Western Shoshoni have been historically associated with central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and a small part of California<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 405-410.</ref><br>
*Skitswish -- another name for the Coeur d'Alene<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 411-412.</ref><br>
+
*[https://familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Coeur_d%27Alene_Indians Skitswish ]-- another name for the Coeur d'Alene<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], pp. 411-412.</ref><br>
*Snake -- another name for the Northern Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403.</ref><br>
+
*[http://www.shoshoneindian.com/ Snake] -- another name for the Northern Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 403.</ref><br>
 
*[[Spokane Indians|Spokan]] -- primarily located in Washington, they extended a few miles into northern Idaho<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 412.</ref>  
 
*[[Spokane Indians|Spokan]] -- primarily located in Washington, they extended a few miles into northern Idaho<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 412.</ref>  
*Tukuarika (Sheepeater) -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 405.</ref><br>
+
*[https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Sheepeater_Indians Tukuarika] (Sheepeater) -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online], p. 405.</ref><br>
  
== Reservations  ==
+
<br>
 +
 
 +
=== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
 +
 
 +
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
 +
 
 +
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
 +
 
 +
*[[Coeur d'Alene Indian Agency (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation
 +
*[[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]]
 +
*[[Eastern Nevada Indian Agency (Nevada)|Eastern Nevada Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Duck Valley Reservation
 +
*[[Fort Hall Indian Agency (Idaho)|Fort Hall Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Fort Hall Reservation
 +
*[[Fort Lapwai Agency (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation for a time.
 +
*[[Lemhi Indian Agency (Idaho)|Lemhi Agency]] -- the administrative office of the old Fort Lemhi Reservation; merged with Fort Hall
 +
*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation
 +
*[[Northern Idaho Indian Agency (Idaho)|Northern Idaho Agency]] -- the administrative office over the Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene Indians, and other Northern Idaho Indians, subsequently divided.
 +
*[[Plummer Indian Field Office (Idaho)|Plummer Field Office]] -- serving the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.
 +
 
 +
=== Indian Schools  ===
 +
 
 +
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
 +
 
 +
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
 +
 
 +
The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
 +
 
 +
*[[Fort Lapwai School (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai School]]
 +
 
 +
=== Indian Health Facilities  ===
 +
 
 +
*[[Fort Lapwai Sanatorium (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai Sanatorium]]
 +
 
 +
=== Reservations  ===
  
 
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
 
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
Line 37: Line 69:
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/id.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources.
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from:
 +
 
 +
:*''National Atlas of the United States of America'' [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/fedlands.html#list National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations.]
 +
:*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E (Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991) {{FHL|433280|item|disp=FHL book 973 E5}})
  
 
Presently, there are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho. Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
 
Presently, there are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho. Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
  
=== Coeur d'Alene Reservation  ===
+
==== Coeur d'Alene Reservation  ====
  
 
The [[Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Reservation]] is located in Northern Idaho and serves the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.  
 
The [[Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Reservation]] is located in Northern Idaho and serves the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.  
  
=== Duck Valley Reservation  ===
+
==== Duck Valley Reservation  ====
  
 
The [[Duck Valley Indian Reservation (Idaho and Nevada)|Duck Valley Reservation]] is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada. It serves the Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute Tribes.<br>
 
The [[Duck Valley Indian Reservation (Idaho and Nevada)|Duck Valley Reservation]] is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada. It serves the Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute Tribes.<br>
  
=== Fort Hall Reservation <br> ===
+
==== Fort Hall Reservation <br> ====
  
 
The [[Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Hall Reservation]] is located just north of Pocatello, Idaho in the eastern part of the state and serves the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes. <br>
 
The [[Fort Hall Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Hall Reservation]] is located just north of Pocatello, Idaho in the eastern part of the state and serves the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes. <br>
  
=== Nez Perce Reservation  ===
+
==== Nez Perce Reservation  ====
  
 
The [[Nez Perce Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Nez Perce Reservation]] is located in central Idaho, along the Clearwater River and serves the Nez Perce Tribe.  
 
The [[Nez Perce Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Nez Perce Reservation]] is located in central Idaho, along the Clearwater River and serves the Nez Perce Tribe.  
  
=== Other Reservations  ===
+
==== Other Reservations  ====
  
 
Some of the Indians of Idaho were associated with other reservations of neighboring states. Some of these reservations may historically have included territory within Idaho. They include:  
 
Some of the Indians of Idaho were associated with other reservations of neighboring states. Some of these reservations may historically have included territory within Idaho. They include:  
Line 68: Line 103:
  
 
*[[Fort Lemhi Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Lemhi Reservation]] <br>
 
*[[Fort Lemhi Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Lemhi Reservation]] <br>
*Kootenai Reservation<br>
+
*[[Kootenai_Reservation,_Idaho|Kootenai Reservation]]<br>
  
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
+
=== Supervising Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ===
  
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
+
==== Superintendencies ====
 
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.
+
 
+
*[[Coeur d'Alene Indian Agency (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation
+
*[[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]]
+
*[[Eastern Nevada Indian Agency (Nevada)|Eastern Nevada Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Duck Valley Reservation
+
*[[Fort Hall Indian Agency (Idaho)|Fort Hall Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Fort Hall Reservation
+
*[[Fort Lapwai Agency (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation for a time.
+
*[[Lemhi Indian Agency (Idaho)|Lemhi Agency]] -- the administrative office of the old Fort Lemhi Reservation; merged with Fort Hall
+
*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation
+
*[[Northern Idaho Indian Agency (Idaho)|Northern Idaho Agency]] -- the administrative office over the Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene Indians, and other Northern Idaho Indians, subsequently divided.
+
*[[Plummer Indian Field Office (Idaho)|Plummer Field Office]] -- serving the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.
+
 
+
== Indian Schools ==
+
 
+
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
+
 
+
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
+
 
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.
+
 
+
*[[Fort Lapwai School (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai School]]
+
 
+
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
+
 
+
*[[Fort Lapwai Sanatorium (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai Sanatorium]]
+
 
+
== Supervising Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
+
 
+
=== Superintendencies  ===
+
  
 
A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. ([[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|read more...]])  
 
A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. ([[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|read more...]])  
Line 108: Line 113:
 
Superintendencies with responsibility for agencies in Idaho included:  
 
Superintendencies with responsibility for agencies in Idaho included:  
  
*[[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]] of Indian Affairs 1863-1870 -- 3 films -- National Archives Microcopy #M-832 -- 1st film&nbsp;Family History Library microfilm #[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589036&disp=Records+of+the+Idaho+Superintendency+of+%20%20&columns=*,0,0 1580047]
+
*[[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]] of Indian Affairs 1863-1870 -- 3 films -- National Archives Microcopy #M-832 (1st film); {{FHL|589036|item|disp=FHL film 1580047}}
  
=== Area Offices  ===
+
==== Area Offices  ====
  
 
The [[Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] are administrative in nature and do not contain many records of details about individual Indians. Hence, they are not the most valuable records for tracing American Indian ancestry.  
 
The [[Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs]] are administrative in nature and do not contain many records of details about individual Indians. Hence, they are not the most valuable records for tracing American Indian ancestry.  
Line 116: Line 121:
 
The Area Office with supervisory responsibility over agencies in&nbsp;Idaho is the Portland Area Office.  
 
The Area Office with supervisory responsibility over agencies in&nbsp;Idaho is the Portland Area Office.  
  
== Major Research Facilities for American Indian Research  ==
+
=== Major Research Facilities for American Indian Research  ===
  
=== National Archives  ===
+
==== National Archives  ====
  
 
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is responsible for the preservation of the records of historical importance created by federal offices in the United States of America, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessor, the Office of Indian Affairs. ([[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|Read more]]...)  
 
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is responsible for the preservation of the records of historical importance created by federal offices in the United States of America, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessor, the Office of Indian Affairs. ([[American Indian Research in the National Archives of the United States|Read more]]...)  
  
=== Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)  ===
+
==== Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)  ====
  
 
Many of the Regional Archives have collected records of the federal offices in their region, including those of the field jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some of the field jurisdictions are the superintendencies, agencies, schools, factories and area offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
Many of the Regional Archives have collected records of the federal offices in their region, including those of the field jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some of the field jurisdictions are the superintendencies, agencies, schools, factories and area offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
Line 130: Line 135:
 
([[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|Read more]]...)  
 
([[American Indian Research in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)|Read more]]...)  
  
=== Family History Library  ===
+
==== Family History Library  ====
  
 
The [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City has a large collection of American Indian sources, including:  
 
The [[American Indian Research in the Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City has a large collection of American Indian sources, including:  
Line 140: Line 145:
 
To determine the full extent of their holdings, search their catalog, using their Keyword Search, Place Search, and Subject Search, looking for names of tribes and offices. Many of their holdings are under the subject heading of Native Races.  
 
To determine the full extent of their holdings, search their catalog, using their Keyword Search, Place Search, and Subject Search, looking for names of tribes and offices. Many of their holdings are under the subject heading of Native Races.  
  
=== Historical Societies and Archives  ===
+
==== Historical Societies and Archives  ====
  
 
Idaho State Archives<br>2205 Old Penitentiary Road<br>Boise, Idaho 83712<br>Phone 208-334-2682<br>Fax 208-334-2774  
 
Idaho State Archives<br>2205 Old Penitentiary Road<br>Boise, Idaho 83712<br>Phone 208-334-2682<br>Fax 208-334-2774  
  
=== Other Facilities  ===
+
==== Other Facilities  ====
  
== See Also  ==
+
=== See Also  ===
  
 
*[[Idaho Church Records|Idaho - Church]] for a list of missions  
 
*[[Idaho Church Records|Idaho - Church]] for a list of missions  
Line 152: Line 157:
 
*[[Idaho Military Records|Idaho - Military]] for a list of forts
 
*[[Idaho Military Records|Idaho - Military]] for a list of forts
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />
  
==== Bibliography  ====
+
=== Bibliography  ===
  
 
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.  
 
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.  
Line 165: Line 170:
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/id.pdf Available online.]  
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ID.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online].
 +
 +
{{American Indian}} {{Idaho|Idaho}} {{ featured article }}
  
 
[[Category:Idaho]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Idaho]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 20:58, 15 November 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Idaho Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Idaho
Apsaroke horse trappings.jpg
Nez Perce Camp Lapwai -Idaho 1899.jpg
766px-An Assiniboin indian and a Yanktonan indian 0045v.jpg

To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites click here.

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Idaho

The following list of American Indians, who have lived in Idaho, has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] , Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. and other sources. Some of the names may be variant spellings or alternative names for the same tribe.

  • Bannock -- primarily located in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming[3]
  • Coeur d'Alene --  also known as the Skitswish, primarily associated with northern Idaho[4]
  • Flathead -- primarily located in Montana[5]
  • Kalispel -- primarily located in northern Idaho, although they hunted in Montana, Washington, and Canada[6] 
  • Kutenai -- primarily located in Montana and northern Idaho[7]
  • Nez Perce -- primarily located in central Idaho, but historically were also associated with southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon[8]
  • Northwestern Band of Shoshoni -- primarily located in northern Utah, near the Idaho border. Also known as the Washakie Band of Shoshoni.
  • Numa -- another name for the Northern Paiute
  • Paiute -- primarily located in Nevada, California, and Utah, although they ranged into southwestern Idaho at times[9]
  • Paloos or Palouse -- primarily located in Washington, although they did extend up the Palouse River into Idaho[10]
  • Pend d'Oreille -- Name after the Pend Oreille  River. It drains throught the Rock Mountains.
  • Salish -- In the early 1840's one of their leaders had a "vision" of the "Blackrobes" who would come with spiritual teaching.
  • Shahaptian -- Indian tribes of Idaho, Oregon, and Washington state
  • Sheepeater -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni[11]
  • Shoshone or Shoshoni (Northern and Western) -- the Northern Shoshoni were primarily located in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah[12]. The Western Shoshoni have been historically associated with central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and a small part of California[13]
  • Skitswish -- another name for the Coeur d'Alene[14]
  • Snake -- another name for the Northern Shoshoni[15]
  • Spokan -- primarily located in Washington, they extended a few miles into northern Idaho[16]
  • Tukuarika (Sheepeater) -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni[17]


Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[18], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[19], and others.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[20], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[21], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from:

Presently, there are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho. Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Coeur d'Alene Reservation

The Coeur d'Alene Reservation is located in Northern Idaho and serves the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.

Duck Valley Reservation

The Duck Valley Reservation is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada. It serves the Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute Tribes.

Fort Hall Reservation

The Fort Hall Reservation is located just north of Pocatello, Idaho in the eastern part of the state and serves the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes.

Nez Perce Reservation

The Nez Perce Reservation is located in central Idaho, along the Clearwater River and serves the Nez Perce Tribe.

Other Reservations

Some of the Indians of Idaho were associated with other reservations of neighboring states. Some of these reservations may historically have included territory within Idaho. They include:

Historically, there were two other reservations which no longer exist, but which existed for a time in Idaho:

Supervising Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Superintendencies

A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. (read more...)

Superintendencies with responsibility for agencies in Idaho included:

Area Offices

The Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are administrative in nature and do not contain many records of details about individual Indians. Hence, they are not the most valuable records for tracing American Indian ancestry.

The Area Office with supervisory responsibility over agencies in Idaho is the Portland Area Office.

Major Research Facilities for American Indian Research

National Archives

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is responsible for the preservation of the records of historical importance created by federal offices in the United States of America, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessor, the Office of Indian Affairs. (Read more...)

Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

Many of the Regional Archives have collected records of the federal offices in their region, including those of the field jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some of the field jurisdictions are the superintendencies, agencies, schools, factories and area offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The Pacific Alaska Regional Archives (NARA) in Seattle has jurisdiction for the preservation of the records of federal offices in Idaho, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

(Read more...)

Family History Library

The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has a large collection of American Indian sources, including:

  • Copies of many of the microfilmed records of the National Archives.
  • Copies of some records of agencies and other offices, obtained through their own records preservation program.
  • A book collection of histories, biographies, guides, etc. for American Indian research.

To determine the full extent of their holdings, search their catalog, using their Keyword Search, Place Search, and Subject Search, looking for names of tribes and offices. Many of their holdings are under the subject heading of Native Races.

Historical Societies and Archives

Idaho State Archives
2205 Old Penitentiary Road
Boise, Idaho 83712
Phone 208-334-2682
Fax 208-334-2774

Other Facilities

See Also

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online
  3. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 398-399
  4. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 411-412.
  5. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403.
  6. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 399-400.
  7. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 400.
  8. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, [[. 400-403.
  9. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403
  10. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403
  11. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 405.
  12. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 403-405.
  13. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 405-410.
  14. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 411-412.
  15. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403.
  16. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 412.
  17. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 405.
  18. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o.)
  19. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  20. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o.)
  21. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.