Indians of Idaho

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== Tribes and Bands of Idaho  ==
 
== Tribes and Bands of Idaho  ==
  
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Idaho has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
+
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Idaho has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/idaho/index.htm Available online]</ref>. and other sources. Some of the names may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
  
Cayuse, Colville, Cree, Flathead, Gosiute, [[Kalispel_Indians|Kalispel]], Kitunahan, [[Kutenai_Indians|Kutenai]], Lemhi, Numa, [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]], Paloos, Salish or Flathead, Shahaptian, Sheep Eater, [[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]] (Northern and Western), Skitswish, Snakes, [[Spokane_Indians|Spokan]], Tukuarika (Sheep Eater), Uintah, Umatilla, [[Pend_d'Orielle_Indians|Pend&nbsp;d'Oreille]], Ute, and Northwestern Band of Shoshoni.
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Cayuse, Colville, Cree, Flathead, Gosiute, [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel]], Kitunahan, [[Kutenai Indians|Kutenai]], Lemhi, Numa, [[Paiute Indians|Paiute]], Paloos, Salish or Flathead, Shahaptian, Sheep Eater, [[Shoshone Indians|Shoshone]] (Northern and Western), Skitswish, Snakes, [[Spokane Indians|Spokan]], Tukuarika (Sheep Eater), Uintah, Umatilla, [[Pend d'Orielle Indians|Pend d'Oreille]], Ute, and Northwestern Band of Shoshoni.  
  
 
== Reservations  ==
 
== Reservations  ==
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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/id.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/id.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
  
 
There are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho.  
 
There are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho.  
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=== Duck Valley Reservation  ===
 
=== Duck Valley Reservation  ===
  
The [[Duck Valley Indian Reservation (Idaho and Nevada)|Duck Valley Reservation]] in located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada -- Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute.<br>
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The [[Duck Valley Indian Reservation (Idaho and Nevada)|Duck Valley Reservation]] is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada -- Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute.<br>
  
 
=== Fort Hall Reservation <br> ===
 
=== Fort Hall Reservation <br> ===
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*The [[Colville Indian Reservation (Washington)|Colville Reservation]] in Washington<br>
 
*The [[Colville Indian Reservation (Washington)|Colville Reservation]] in Washington<br>
 
*The [[Flathead Indian Reservation (Montana)|Flathead Reservation]] in Montana<br>
 
*The [[Flathead Indian Reservation (Montana)|Flathead Reservation]] in Montana<br>
*The [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]] in Montana
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*The [[Jocko Indian Reservation (Montana)|Jocko Reservation]] in Montana<br>
  
Historically, there were two other reservations which no longer exist, but which existed for a time in Idaho:  
+
Historically, there were two other reservations which no longer exist, but which existed for a time in Idaho: <br>
  
 
*[[Fort Lemhi Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Lemhi Reservation]] <br>
 
*[[Fort Lemhi Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Fort Lemhi Reservation]] <br>
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Coeur d'Alene Indian Agency (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation  
 
*[[Coeur d'Alene Indian Agency (Idaho)|Coeur d'Alene Agency]] -- the administrative office on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation  
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In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
  
The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Fort Lapwai School (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai School]]
 
*[[Fort Lapwai School (Idaho)|Fort Lapwai School]]

Revision as of 17:23, 16 September 2009

Back to Idaho Portal Page

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Idaho

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Idaho has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. and other sources. Some of the names may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Cayuse, Colville, Cree, Flathead, Gosiute, Kalispel, Kitunahan, Kutenai, Lemhi, Numa, Paiute, Paloos, Salish or Flathead, Shahaptian, Sheep Eater, Shoshone (Northern and Western), Skitswish, Snakes, Spokan, Tukuarika (Sheep Eater), Uintah, Umatilla, Pend d'Oreille, Ute, and Northwestern Band of Shoshoni.

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

There are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho.

Coeur d'Alene Reservation

The Coeur d'Alene Reservation is located in Northern Idaho -- Coeur d'Alene Tribe.

Duck Valley Reservation

The Duck Valley Reservation is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada -- Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute.

Fort Hall Reservation

The Fort Hall Reservation is located just north of Pocatello, Idaho in the eastern part of the state -- Shoshone and Bannock.

Nez Perce Reservation

The Nez Perce Reservation is located in central Idaho, along the Clearwater River -- Nez Perce.

Other Reservations

Some of the Indians of Idaho were residents of other reservations of neighboring states. Some of these reservations may historically have included territory within Idaho. They include:

Historically, there were two other reservations which no longer exist, but which existed for a time in Idaho:

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

  • Coeur d'Alene Agency -- the administrative office on the Coeur d'Alene Reservation
  • Colville Agency
  • Eastern Nevada Agency -- the administrative office on the Duck Valley Reservation
  • Fort Hall Agency -- the administrative office on the Fort Hall Reservation
  • Fort Lapwai Agency -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation for a time.
  • Lemhi Agency -- the administrative office of the old Fort Lemhi Reservation; merged with Fort Hall
  • Nez Perce Agency -- the administrative office on the Nez Perce Reservation
  • Northern Idaho Agency -- the administrative office over the Nez Perce, Coeur d'Alene Indians, and other Northern Idaho Indians, subsequently divided.
  • Plummer Field Office -- serving the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[7], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[8], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Other Field Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Superintendency

A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. (read more...)

Superintendencies with responsibility for agencies in Idaho included:

  • Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1863-1870 -- 3 films -- National Archives Microcopy #M-832 -- 1st film Family History Library microfilm #1580047

Research Facilities

National Archives and Their Regional Archives

Many of the records created by the various departments of the federal government relating to American Indians have been gathered by the National Archives in Washington, DC or by the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). Records that are still actively used by current agencies, schools, and area offices may still be in the custody of those functioning offices.

Family History Library

The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has a large collection of American Indian sources, including:

  • Copies of many of the microfilmed records of the National Archives.
  • Copies of some records of agencies and other offices, obtained through their own records preservation program.
  • A book collection of histories, biographies, guides, etc. for American Indian research.

To determine the full extent of their holdings, search their catalog, using their Keyword Search, Place Search, and Subject Search, looking for names of tribes and offices. Many of their holdings are under the subject heading of Native Races.

Historical Societies and Archives

Idaho State Historical Society
2205 Old Penitentiary Road
Boise, Idaho 83712
Phone 208-334-2682
Fax 208-334-2774

Other Facilities

See Also

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book 973 E5)
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  8. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.