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Nez Perce Camp Lapwai -Idaho 1899.jpg

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Tribes and Bands of Idaho

The following list of American Indians, who have lived in Idaho, has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] , Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. and other sources. Some of the names may be variant spellings or alternative names for the same tribe.

  • Bannock -- primarily located in southeastern Idaho and western Wyoming[3]
  • Coeur d'Alene --  also known as the Skitswish, primarily associated with northern Idaho[4]
  • Flathead -- primarily located in Montana[5]
  • Kalispel -- primarily located in northern Idaho, although they hunted in Montana, Washington, and Canada[6] 
  • Kutenai -- primarily located in Montana and northern Idaho[7]
  • Nez Perce -- primarily located in central Idaho, but historically were also associated with southeastern Washington and northeastern Oregon[8]
  • Northwestern Band of Shoshoni -- primarily located in northern Utah, near the Idaho border. Also known as the Washakie Band of Shoshoni.
  • Numa -- another name for the Northern Paiute
  • Paiute -- primarily located in Nevada, California, and Utah, although they ranged into southwestern Idaho at times[9]
  • Paloos or Palouse -- primarily located in Washington, although they did extend up the Palouse River into Idaho[10]
  • Pend d'Oreille
  • Salish -- another name for the Flathead.
  • Shahaptian
  • Sheepeater -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni[11]
  • Shoshone or Shoshoni (Northern and Western) -- the Northern Shoshoni were primarily located in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and northeastern Utah[12]. The Western Shoshoni have been historically associated with central and western Idaho, northwestern Utah, central and northeastern Nevada, and a small part of California[13]
  • Skitswish -- another name for the Coeur d'Alene[14]
  • Snake -- another name for the Northern Shoshoni[15]
  • Spokan -- primarily located in Washington, they extended a few miles into northern Idaho[16]
  • Tukuarika (Sheepeater) -- the name of one of the subdivisions of the Western Shoshoni[17]

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[18], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[19], and other sources.

Presently, there are four federally-recognized Indian reservations in Idaho -- the Coeur d'Alene Reservation in northern Idaho, the Duck Valley Reservation on the border of Idaho and Nevada, the Fort Hall Reservation in eastern Idaho, and the Nez Perce Reservation in central Idaho. Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Coeur d'Alene Reservation

The Coeur d'Alene Reservation is located in Northern Idaho and serves the Coeur d'Alene Tribe.

Duck Valley Reservation

The Duck Valley Reservation is located on the southern border of Idaho, in Owyhee County, and in northern Nevada. It serves the Western Shoshone and Northern Paiute Tribes.

Fort Hall Reservation

The Fort Hall Reservation is located just north of Pocatello, Idaho in the eastern part of the state and serves the Shoshone and Bannock Tribes.

Nez Perce Reservation

The Nez Perce Reservation is located in central Idaho, along the Clearwater River and serves the Nez Perce Tribe.

Other Reservations

Some of the Indians of Idaho were associated with other reservations of neighboring states. Some of these reservations may historically have included territory within Idaho. They include:

Historically, there were two other reservations which no longer exist, but which existed for a time in Idaho:

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[20], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[21], and others.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Idaho has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[22], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[23], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Supervising Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Superintendencies

A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. (read more...)

Superintendencies with responsibility for agencies in Idaho included:

  • Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1863-1870 -- 3 films -- National Archives Microcopy #M-832 -- 1st film Family History Library microfilm #1580047

Area Offices

The Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs are administrative in nature and do not contain many records of details about individual Indians. Hence, they are not the most valuable records for tracing American Indian ancestry.

The Area Office with supervisory responsibility over agencies in Idaho is the Portland Area Office.

Major Research Facilities for American Indian Research

National Archives

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is responsible for the preservation of the records of historical importance created by federal offices in the United States of America, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessor, the Office of Indian Affairs. (Read more...)

Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)

Many of the Regional Archives have collected records of the federal offices in their region, including those of the field jurisdictions of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Some of the field jurisdictions are the superintendencies, agencies, schools, factories and area offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

The Pacific Alaska Regional Archives (NARA) in Seattle has jurisdiction for the preservation of the records of federal offices in Idaho, including those of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

(Read more...)

Family History Library

The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has a large collection of American Indian sources, including:

  • Copies of many of the microfilmed records of the National Archives.
  • Copies of some records of agencies and other offices, obtained through their own records preservation program.
  • A book collection of histories, biographies, guides, etc. for American Indian research.

To determine the full extent of their holdings, search their catalog, using their Keyword Search, Place Search, and Subject Search, looking for names of tribes and offices. Many of their holdings are under the subject heading of Native Races.

Historical Societies and Archives

Idaho State Historical Society
2205 Old Penitentiary Road
Boise, Idaho 83712
Phone 208-334-2682
Fax 208-334-2774

Other Facilities

See Also

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907 Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online
  3. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 398-399
  4. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 411-412.
  5. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403.
  6. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 399-400.
  7. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 400.
  8. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, [[. 400-403.
  9. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403
  10. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403
  11. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 405.
  12. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 403-405.
  13. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 405-410.
  14. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, pp. 411-412.
  15. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 403.
  16. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 412.
  17. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online, p. 405.
  18. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  19. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991 (Family History Library book 973 E5)
  20. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  21. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  22. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  23. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.

 

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