Indians of Iowa

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''[[Portal:United States of America|United States]] > [[Iowa|Iowa]] > Indians of Iowa''  
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Iowa]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Iowa]]''  
  
The name Iowa is derived from an Indian word meaning: "this is the place" or "the beautiful land".
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== Information  ==
  
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
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The name Iowa is derived from an Indian word meaning: "this is the place" or "the beautiful land". [[Image:Iowa Indians in color.jpg|thumb|right|400px|Iowa Indians in color.jpg]] To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites see the [[American Indian Genealogy]] article.<br><br>Various field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs --[[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|superintendencies]], agencies, [[American Indian School Records|Indian schools]], and others --created records of births, marriages, deaths, adoptions, censuses, schools, land allotments, probates, and other miscellaneous records. Many of these records are available only at the originating office, if that office is still operating. Some of the original records have been transferred to the [http://www.archives.gov/ National Archives] or to its regional archives. The [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City has microfilm copies of some of these records.  
 
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Various field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs --&nbsp;[[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|superintendencies]], agencies, [[American Indian School Records|Indian schools]], and&nbsp;others --created records of births, marriages, deaths, adoptions, censuses, schools, land allotments, probates, and other miscellaneous records. Many of these records are available only at the originating office, if that office is still operating. Some of the original records have been transferred to the [http://www.archives.gov/ National Archives] or to its regional archives.&nbsp; The [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City has microfilm copies of some of these records.  
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== Tribes and Bands of Iowa  ==
 
== Tribes and Bands of Iowa  ==
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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ia.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
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For a current reservation map -&nbsp;[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/IA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Iowa - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ia.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
  
 
*Keokuk Reservation (or Keokuk Reserve) -- a small reserve for the Sac and Fox Indians, 1832-1836, following the [http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2d.html Black Hawk War], after which they were removed to later reservations.
 
*Keokuk Reservation (or Keokuk Reserve) -- a small reserve for the Sac and Fox Indians, 1832-1836, following the [http://lincoln.lib.niu.edu/blackhawk/page2d.html Black Hawk War], after which they were removed to later reservations.
  
*[http://www.eda.gov/imagecache/edapublic/documents/pdfdocs/18iowa_2epdf/v1/18iowa.pdf '''Sac and Fox Reservation''']-- established in 1867 -- Federal reservation located in Tama County, Iowa, under the jurisdiction of the Sac &amp; Fox Agency. Tribe: Sac and Fox (also known as Mesquakie).
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*'''[[Sac_and_Fox_Reservation,_Iowa|Sac and Fox Reservation]]'''-- established in 1867 -- Federal reservation located in [[Tama County, Iowa|Tama County]], Iowa, under the jurisdiction of the [[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Iowa)|Sac and Fox Agency]]. Tribe: Sac and Fox (also known as Mesquakie).
  
*'''Omaha Reservation -- '''primarily located in the southern part of Thurston County, Nebraska, but a portion extends into Monona County, Iowa. See [[Indians of Nebraska|Indians of Nebraska]] for additional information.
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*'''[[Omaha Indian Reservation (Nebraska)|Omaha Reservation ]]-- '''primarily located in the southern part of [[Thurston County, Nebraska|Thurston County]], [[Indians of Nebraska|Nebraska]], but a portion extends into [[Monona County, Iowa|Monona County]], Iowa. See [[Indians of Nebraska|Indians of Nebraska]] for additional information.
  
*'''Winnebago Reservation -- '''mostly located in Thurston County, Nebraska but there is a small segment in Woodbury County, Iowa, just east of the Missouri River. See [[Indians of Nebraska|Indians of Nebraska]] for additional information.
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*'''[[Winnebago Indian Reservation (Nebraska)|Winnebago Reservation ]]-- '''mostly located in Thurston County, Nebraska but there is a small segment in [[Woodbury County, Iowa|Woodbury County,]] Iowa, just east of the Missouri River. See [[Indians of Nebraska|Indians of Nebraska]] for additional information.
  
 
== Agencies  ==
 
== Agencies  ==
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Iowa has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
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The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Iowa has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Council Bluffs Subagency (Iowa)|Council Bluffs Subagency]]  
 
*[[Council Bluffs Subagency (Iowa)|Council Bluffs Subagency]]  
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*[[Turkey River Indian Subagency (Iowa)|Turkey River Subagency]] 1842-1846  
 
*[[Turkey River Indian Subagency (Iowa)|Turkey River Subagency]] 1842-1846  
 
*[[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]]  
 
*[[Upper Missouri Indian Agency|Upper Missouri Agency]]  
*Winnebago Agency
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*[[Winnebago Indian Agency (Iowa)|Winnebago Agency]]
  
 
== Half-Breed Tract  ==
 
== Half-Breed Tract  ==
  
In the early 1800s, a tract of land was set aside by the federal government in Lee County, Iowa for the descendants of French fur trappers and other Europeans who had inter-married with Native Americans. These individuals were called "half-breeds." Thus the tract of land came to be known as the "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Half_Breed_Tract Half-Breed Tract]." Similar tracts were established in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemaha_Half-Breed_Reservation Nebraska], Minnesota, and Wisconsin.  
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In the early 1800s, a tract of land was set aside by the federal government in Lee County, Iowa for the descendants of French fur trappers and other Europeans who had inter-married with Native Americans. These individuals were called "half-breeds." Thus the tract of land came to be known as the "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Half_Breed_Tract Half-Breed Tract]." Similar tracts were established in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nemaha_Half-Breed_Reservation Nebraska], [[Indians of Minnesota|Minnesota]], and [[Indians of Wisconsin|Wisconsin]].  
  
 
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
 
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
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==== Family History Library  ====
 
==== Family History Library  ====
  
Many Indian records have been microfilmed and copies are housed at the [http://www.familysearch.org/Eng/Library/FHLC/frameset_fhlc.asp Family History Library] in Salt Lake City. To find American Indian records in the Family History Library Catalog look in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe, such as:  
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Many Indian records have been microfilmed and copies are housed at the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]] in Salt Lake City. To find American Indian records in the Family History Library Catalog look in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe, such as:  
  
[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&title=Iowa+fox+indians&pretitle=Iowa+fox+indians Fox Indians] | [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&title=+Potawatomi&pretitle=+Potawatomi Potawatomi Indians] | [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=subjectdetails&subject=312451&subject_disp=Sauk+Indians&columns=*,0,0 Sauk Indians]
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{{FHL|Iowa fox indians|title|disp=Fox Indians}} | {{FHL| Potawatomi|title|disp=Potawatomi Indians}} | {{FHL|312451|subject-id|disp=Sauk Indians}}
  
 
For further information on American Indians, see:  
 
For further information on American Indians, see:  
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''Iowa History Reference Guide'' <ref>Petersen, William John. Iowa History Reference Guide. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1952. (FHL book 977.7 A3p; computer number 241027.) This bibliography includes sections about American Indians, immigration, land, government, courts, military, schools, churches, businesses, history, and biographies. It is arranged by subject and has an index. </ref>Pages 22–31 list books and articles about the various American Indian tribes, agents, treaties, and the half-breed tract in Iowa.  
 
''Iowa History Reference Guide'' <ref>Petersen, William John. Iowa History Reference Guide. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1952. (FHL book 977.7 A3p; computer number 241027.) This bibliography includes sections about American Indians, immigration, land, government, courts, military, schools, churches, businesses, history, and biographies. It is arranged by subject and has an index. </ref>Pages 22–31 list books and articles about the various American Indian tribes, agents, treaties, and the half-breed tract in Iowa.  
  
You can also look in the Locality Search in the [[Family History Library Catalog Title Search|Family History Library Catalog]] under:  
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Use the Keyword Search feature on catalog drop down menu of the [https://www.familysearch.org/#form=catalog Family History Library Catalog] to find more records under::  
  
 
::*IOWA - NATIVE RACES  
 
::*IOWA - NATIVE RACES  
 
::*IOWA, [COUNTY]- NATIVE RACES
 
::*IOWA, [COUNTY]- NATIVE RACES
  
[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Iowa+Superintendency+1838-1849&prekeyword=Iowa+Superintendency+1838-1849 Iowa Superintendency 1838-1849]
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{{FHL|Iowa Superintendency 1838-1849|keywords|disp=Iowa Superintendency 1838-1849}}
  
 
== Online&nbsp;Links  ==
 
== Online&nbsp;Links  ==
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*[[Iowa Military Records|Iowa - Military - Forts]]
 
*[[Iowa Military Records|Iowa - Military - Forts]]
  
== References ==
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== Sources and Footnotes ==
  
 
<references />
 
<references />
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*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ia.pdf Available online.]  
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*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/IA.pdf Available online].
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/iowa/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/iowa/index.htm Available online].
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{{American Indian}} {{Iowa|Iowa}}
  
 
[[Category:Iowa]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Iowa]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 13:42, 21 November 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Iowa Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Iowa

Contents

Information

The name Iowa is derived from an Indian word meaning: "this is the place" or "the beautiful land".
Iowa Indians in color.jpg
To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites see the American Indian Genealogy article.

Various field offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs --superintendencies, agencies, Indian schools, and others --created records of births, marriages, deaths, adoptions, censuses, schools, land allotments, probates, and other miscellaneous records. Many of these records are available only at the originating office, if that office is still operating. Some of the original records have been transferred to the National Archives or to its regional archives. The Family History Library in Salt Lake City has microfilm copies of some of these records.

Tribes and Bands of Iowa

Many of these tribes or bands lived in or had only minimal association with the area now known as Iowa. Some of them are only mentioned in treaties as parties to the cession of land in Iowa to the federal government.

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Iowa has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - Iowa - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Keokuk Reservation (or Keokuk Reserve) -- a small reserve for the Sac and Fox Indians, 1832-1836, following the Black Hawk War, after which they were removed to later reservations.

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Iowa has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Half-Breed Tract

In the early 1800s, a tract of land was set aside by the federal government in Lee County, Iowa for the descendants of French fur trappers and other Europeans who had inter-married with Native Americans. These individuals were called "half-breeds." Thus the tract of land came to be known as the "Half-Breed Tract." Similar tracts were established in Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.

Indian Health Facilities

Records

Records of the Indian Tribes of Iowa may be found in the National Archives or in the Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in Lenexa, Kansas.

Records Depositories

The primary records holders are the originating offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and of the respective tribes. Some of those records have been transferred to the National Archives or its Regional Archives. Some original and/or microcopied records have been collected by universities, historical societies, museums, and individuals.

Family History Library

Many Indian records have been microfilmed and copies are housed at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. To find American Indian records in the Family History Library Catalog look in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe, such as:

Fox Indians | Potawatomi Indians | Sauk Indians

For further information on American Indians, see:

Iowa History Reference Guide [7]Pages 22–31 list books and articles about the various American Indian tribes, agents, treaties, and the half-breed tract in Iowa.

Use the Keyword Search feature on catalog drop down menu of the Family History Library Catalog to find more records under::

  • IOWA - NATIVE RACES
  • IOWA, [COUNTY]- NATIVE RACES

Iowa Superintendency 1838-1849

Online Links

See Also

Sources and Footnotes

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. Petersen, William John. Iowa History Reference Guide. Iowa City, Iowa: State Historical Society of Iowa, 1952. (FHL book 977.7 A3p; computer number 241027.) This bibliography includes sections about American Indians, immigration, land, government, courts, military, schools, churches, businesses, history, and biographies. It is arranged by subject and has an index.

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.