Indians of Louisiana

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== Tribes and Bands of Louisiana ==
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Louisiana]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Louisiana]]'' {{Adoption LAGenWeb}}
  
The following list of tribes is compiled from:
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=== Tribes and Bands of Louisiana  ===
  
*Hodge, Frederick Webb.''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico].'' Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907  
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The following list of American Indians who have lived in Louisiana has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/louisiana/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
*Swanton, John W. ''[http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/louisiana/index.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].'' Smithsonian Institution Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin #145
+
  
=== '''Tribes and Bands'''  ===
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*Acolapissa
 +
*Adai
 +
*Alabama
 +
*Apalachee
 +
*Atakapa
 +
*Avoyel
 +
*Bayogoula
 +
*Biloxi
 +
*[[Caddo Indians|Caddo]]
 +
*Chatot
 +
*Chawasha
 +
*[[Chitimacha Tribe|Chitimacha]]
 +
*[[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw]]
 +
*Doustioni
 +
*Houma
 +
*Kadohadacho
 +
*Koasati or Coushatta
 +
*Koroa
 +
*Mugulasha
 +
*[[Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Oklahoma|Muskogee]]
 +
*[[Natchez Indians|Natchez]]
 +
*Natchitoches Confederacy
 +
*Ofogoula
 +
*Okelousa
 +
*Opelousa
 +
*Ouachita
 +
*Pascagoula
 +
*[[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]]
 +
*Quinipissa
 +
*Souchitioni
 +
*Taensa
 +
*Tangipahoa
 +
*Tawasa
 +
*Tunica
 +
*[[Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe of Louisiana|Tunica-Biloxi]]
 +
*Washa
 +
*Yatasi
  
Acolapissa, Adai, Alabama, Atakapa, Avoyel, Bayogoula, Biloxi, Caddo, Chatot, Chawasha, Chitimacha, Choctaw, Coushatta, Doustioni, Houma, Kadohadacho, Koasati, Koroa, Mugulasha, Muskogee, Natchez, Natchitoches Confederacy, Ofo, Okelousa, Opelousa, Ouachita, Pascagoula, Quapaw, Quinipissa, Souchitioni, Taensa, Tangipahoa, Tawasa, Tensas, Tunica, Tunica-Biloxi, Washa, Yatasi
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=== Tribe Recognized by the State of Louisiana  ===
  
== Reservations and Agencies  ==
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First True Native Americans Tribe, Inc., Adais Caddo Indians, Inc., Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee (separated from United Houma Nation, Ind.) (Bayou LaFourche Band, Grand Caillou/Duladc Band and Isle de Jean Charles Band),&nbsp; Clifton-Choctaw Indians (also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.), Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy, Point-Au-Chien Tribe (separated from United Houma Nation, Ind., and United Houma Nation
  
=== Reservations ===
+
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs ==
  
Reservations were established by treaty,&nbsp; with westward expansion and settlement occured. Tribes ceded land and were removed to restricted and reserved land. Reservation names in bold are current reservations. As identified in the [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/fedlands.html#ia National Atlas of the United States of America], only the Chitemacha Reservation is a current federally-recognized reservation:
+
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and sub-agencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
  
'''Chitemacha Reservation '''(Federal, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe: Chitimacha)  
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Louisiana has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.{{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}</ref>, and others.
  
'''Coushatta Reservation '''(State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe: Coushatta)  
+
*[[Caddo Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Caddo Agency]]
 +
*[[Choctaw Indian Agency (Mississippi)|Choctaw Agency]], 421 Powell, Philadelphia, MS 39350
 +
*[[Lower Louisiana Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Lower Louisiana Agency]]
 +
*[[Natchitoches Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Natchitoches Agency]]
 +
*[[Red River Indian Agency (Louisiana)|Red River Agency]]
  
Penobscot Reservation
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== Family History Library  ==
  
Pleasant Point and Indian Township Reservation
+
*Office of Indian Affairs Superintendency of Trade Natchitoches - Sulphur Fork Factory 1809-1821; T 1029; {{FHL|276307|item|disp=FHL film 1025158}}
  
'''Tunica-Biloxi Reservation '''(State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe Tunica-Biloxi)
+
== Reservations  ==
  
=== Agencies ===
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
  
Chactaw Agency, 421 Powell, Philadelphia, MS 39350
+
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
  
<br>
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
  
'''See Also:'''
+
For a current reservation map -&nbsp;[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/LA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Louisiana - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
  
[[Louisiana History|Louisiana History]] for a calendar of events  
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/co.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.{{FHL|433280|item|disp=FHL book 973 E5}}</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
 +
 
 +
*'''Chitimacha Reservation '''Federal, under jurisdiction of [[Choctaw Indian Agency (Mississippi)|Choctaw Agency]], Tribe: Chitimacha
 +
*'''Coushatta Reservation '''State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe: Coushatta
 +
*Pleasant Point and Indian Township Reservation
 +
*'''Tunica-Biloxi Reservation '''State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe Tunica-Biloxi
 +
 
 +
== '''See Also:'''  ==
 +
 
 +
*[[Louisiana History|Louisiana History]] for a calendar of events  
 +
*[[Louisiana Military Records|Louisiana Military]] for a list of forts
 +
 
 +
== References  ==
 +
 
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
==== Bibliography  ====
 +
 
 +
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
 +
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
 +
*Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. [http://picasaweb.google.com/craingen/Surviving_Indian_Groups# Available online].
 +
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
 +
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
 +
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
 +
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].
 +
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
 +
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/LA.pdf Available online].
 +
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]
 +
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/louisiana/index.htm Available online].
 +
 
 +
{{American Indian}} {{Louisiana|Louisiana}}
  
[[Louisiana Military Records|Louisiana Military]] for a list of forts
 
 
[[Category:Louisiana]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Louisiana]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

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Contents

Tribes and Bands of Louisiana

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Louisiana has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

  • Acolapissa
  • Adai
  • Alabama
  • Apalachee
  • Atakapa
  • Avoyel
  • Bayogoula
  • Biloxi
  • Caddo
  • Chatot
  • Chawasha
  • Chitimacha
  • Choctaw
  • Doustioni
  • Houma
  • Kadohadacho
  • Koasati or Coushatta
  • Koroa
  • Mugulasha
  • Muskogee
  • Natchez
  • Natchitoches Confederacy
  • Ofogoula
  • Okelousa
  • Opelousa
  • Ouachita
  • Pascagoula
  • Quapaw
  • Quinipissa
  • Souchitioni
  • Taensa
  • Tangipahoa
  • Tawasa
  • Tunica
  • Tunica-Biloxi
  • Washa
  • Yatasi

Tribe Recognized by the State of Louisiana

First True Native Americans Tribe, Inc., Adais Caddo Indians, Inc., Biloxi-Chitimacha Confederation of Muskogee (separated from United Houma Nation, Ind.) (Bayou LaFourche Band, Grand Caillou/Duladc Band and Isle de Jean Charles Band),  Clifton-Choctaw Indians (also known as Clifton Choctaw Reservation Inc.), Four Winds Tribe, Louisiana Cherokee Confederacy, Point-Au-Chien Tribe (separated from United Houma Nation, Ind., and United Houma Nation

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and sub-agencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Louisiana has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Family History Library

  • Office of Indian Affairs Superintendency of Trade Natchitoches - Sulphur Fork Factory 1809-1821; T 1029; FHL film 1025158

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - Louisiana - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[5], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[6], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Chitimacha Reservation Federal, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe: Chitimacha
  • Coushatta Reservation State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe: Coushatta
  • Pleasant Point and Indian Township Reservation
  • Tunica-Biloxi Reservation State, under jurisdiction of Choctaw Agency, Tribe Tunica-Biloxi

See Also:

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.FHL book 970.1 H551g
  5. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  6. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.FHL book 973 E5

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.