Indians of Minnesota

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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Minnesota]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Minnesota]]''  
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<p><i><a href="United States">United States</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Minnesota">Minnesota</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a href="American Indian Genealogy">American Indian Research</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Indians_of_Minnesota" class="selflink">Indians_of_Minnesota</a></i>
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</p><p>The word Minnesota comes from a Dakota Indian word meaning "sky-tinted water"
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</p><p>Two major Native American tribes—the Dakota (or Sioux) and the Ojibwa (Anishinabe or Chippewa)—lived in the area that is now Minnesota. Small groups from other tribes now also reside in the state, including the Winnebago, who once had reservation land there. By the late 1860s treaties had pushed the Indians off lands they had occupied and moved them onto reservations.
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</p><p>Many American Indians still live on reservations in Minnesota. Seven Ojibwa reservations are located in the northern part of the state, and four Dakota communities occupy lands in the southern part. Other American Indians reside in urban areas. More than 9,000 people of Ojibwa ancestry live in Minneapolis, and about 3,000 Ojibwa, Dakota, and Winnebago are in St. Paul. There are smaller groups of American Indian people in Duluth and Bemidji.
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</p>
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<h2> Tribes and Bands of Minnesota  </h2>
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<p>The following list of American Indians who have lived in Minnesota has been compiled from Hodge's <i>Handbook of American Indians...</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</span> and from Swanton's <i>The Indian Tribes of North America</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online].</span>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
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</p>
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<ul><li><a href="Arapaho Indians">Arapaho</a>
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</li><li><a href="Cheyenne Indians">Cheyenne</a>
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</li><li><a href="Chippewa Indians">Chippewa</a> or Ojibwa
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</li><li>Dakota
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</li><li>Fox
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</li><li><a href="Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska">Iowa</a>
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</li><li>Missouri
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</li><li><a href="Omaha Indians">Omaha</a>
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</li><li><a href="Oto Indians">Oto</a>
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</li><li><a href="Ottawa Indians">Ottawa</a>
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</li><li><a href="Ponca Tribe">Ponca</a>
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</li><li>Sauk
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</li><li><a href="Winnebago Indians">Winnebago</a>
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</li><li><a href="Wyandot Indians">Wyandot</a>
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</li></ul>
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<p><b>Chippewa Bands:</b>
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</p>
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<ul><li><a href="Bois Forte Band of Chippewa Indians">Bois Fort</a>
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</li><li><a href="Cass Lake Band of Chippewa Indians">Cass Lake</a>
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</li><li><a href="Fond du Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Fond Du Lac</a>
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</li><li><a href="Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Grand Portage</a>
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</li><li><a href="Lake Winnibigoshish Band of Chippewa Indians">Lake Winnibigoshish</a>
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</li><li><a href="Mille Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Mille Lac</a>
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</li><li><a href="Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians">Pembina</a>
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</li><li><a href="Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians">Pillager</a>
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</li><li>Rainy Lake
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</li><li>Snake River
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</li><li><a href="White Oak Point Band of Chippewa Indians">White Oak Point</a>
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</li></ul>
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<h2> Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  </h2>
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<p><a href="Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs">Agencies</a> and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the <a href="Bureau of Indian Affairs">Bureau of Indian Affairs</a> and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
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</p><p>The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's <i>Office of Indian Affairs...</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</span>, Hill's <i>Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</span>, and others.
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</p>
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<ul><li><a href="Birch Cooley Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Birch Cooley Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Consolidated Chippewa Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Consolidated Chippewa Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Crow Wing Indian Subagency (Minnesota)">Crow Wing Subagency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Fond du Lac Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Fond du Lac Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Grand Portage Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Grand Portage Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Great Lakes Indian Agency (Wisconsin)">Great Lakes Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="La Pointe Indian Agency (Wisconsin)">La Pointe Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Leech Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Leech Lake Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Lower Sioux Agency</a> -- part of St. Peters Agency
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</li><li><a href="Milk River Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Milk River Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Minnesota Agency</a>, Route 3, P.O. Box 112, Cass Lake, MN 56633
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</li><li><a href="Nett Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Nett Lake Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Pipestone Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Pipestone Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Red Lake Agency</a>, Red Lake, MN 56671
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</li><li><a href="Sandy Lake Indian Subagency (Minnesota)">Sandy Lake Subagency</a>
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</li><li><a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">St. Peters Agency</a> 1824-1879
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</li><li><a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Upper Sioux Agency</a> -- part of St. Peters Agency<br>
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</li><li><a href="Vermillion Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Vermillion Lake Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="White Earth Indian Agency (Minnesota)">White Earth Agency</a>
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</li><li><a href="Winnebago Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Winnebago Agency</a>
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</li></ul>
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<p>Minnesota Superintendency 1849-1856
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</p>
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<h2> Indian Schools  </h2>
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<p>The Office of Indian Affairs (now the <a href="Bureau of Indian Affairs">Bureau of Indian Affairs</a>) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
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</p><p>In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (<a href="American Indian School Records">read more...</a>)
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</p><p>The following list of Indian Schools in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</span>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</span>, and others.
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</p>
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<ul><li>Bena School
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</li><li>Bishop Whipple Indian School - Norton, MN
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</li><li>Birch Coulee Day School
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</li><li><a href="Cass Lake Indian School (Minnesota)">Cass Lake School</a>
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</li><li><a href="Grand Portage Indian School (Minnesota)">Grand Portage School</a>
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</li><li><a href="Leech Lake Indian Boarding School (Minnesota)">Leech Lake Boarding School</a>
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</li><li>Minnesota Agency School census 1912-1917, 1946-1947 and permanent school census cards Family History Library 1st <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|223429|title-id|disp=film 1266710}}</span>
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</li><li>Morris Industrial School
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</li><li><a href="Nett Lake Indian School (Minnesota)">Nett Lake School</a>
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</li><li><a href="Pipestone Indian Boarding School">Pipestone Indian Boarding School</a>
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</li><li>Pleasant Nook-Granite Falls,MN
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</li><li>Prairie Island - Egglston, MN
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</li><li>Red Lake Agency school census 1922-1927 Family History Library <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|265810|title-id|disp=film 1204883 item 2}}</span>
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</li><li><a href="Squaw Point Day School (Minnesota)">Squaw Point Day School</a>
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</li><li>Vermillion Lake School
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</li></ul>
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<h2> Other Repositories  </h2>
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<ul><li>Minnesota Historical Society, 690 Cedar Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
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</li></ul>
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<h2> Family History Library  </h2>
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<p>The Family History Library has many American Indian records from the National Archives - Central Plains Region (Kansas City, Missouri). For the Ojibwa, for instance, microfilms of census, vital, land, and family records are available from 1876 to 1955. Additional sources are at the Minnesota Historical Society Library, including:
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</p>
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<ul><li><i>Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856. M842. </i>There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|403560|title-id|disp=1618093}}</span>.
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</li></ul>
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<ul><li>Powell, Ransom Judd. Papers, Undated and 1843, 1896–1938. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1987. (Family History Library <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|362837|title-id|disp=microfilms 1550598–612}}</span>.) No circulation to Family History Centers. Papers include genealogies, censuses, correspondence, and other records collected by the lawyer for lumber companies that bought White Earth Reservation land. <br>A research study of one Ojibwa family from Minnesota’s White Earth reservation is in:
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</li></ul>
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<ul><li>Byers, Paula K., ed. Native American Genealogical Sourcebook. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1995. (Family History Library <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|722558|title-id|disp=book 970.1 B991n&lt;span id=&quot;fck_dom_range_temp_1221078231959_518&quot; /&gt;}}</span>.) It includes chapters on historical background, research methods and sources, and libraries and archives holding genealogical information on American Indians. The case study reported on pages 54–64 uses records mostly dating between 1885 and 1915 to trace ancestors and descendants of one Ojibwa family. Records used include Indian censuses, United States censuses, Chippewa Commission and Chippewa Agency records, and the Ransom Judd Powell papers. A bibliography of sources for further study on Minnesota Indians is provided. <br>Other books include:
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</li></ul>
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<ul><li>Ebbott, Elizabeth. Indians in Minnesota. 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. (Family History Library <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|358958|title-id|disp=book 970.1 Eb17i}}</span>.) Sponsored by the League of Women Voters of Minnesota, this book deals mainly with social strengths and economic problems of American Indians in modern-day Minnesota. Preliminary chapters give histories of major Indian groups in the state and shifting government policies toward them. Includes maps and tables showing the locations of Indian groups on and off reservations in 1980. <br>Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul, Minnesota). Chippewa and Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles, and Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969. (Family History Library <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|642630|title-id|disp=book 970.3 D149c}}</span> .) A list of printed and manuscript sources on Minnesota’s two major tribes. Much new material has been added to the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society since this book was published. <br>See also the chapter on "The Dakota and Ojibwa" in They Chose Minnesota, described in the "Minorities" article. For sources on the Sioux War of 1862, see the "Military Records" article. Steps to effective research are listed in the "United States Native Races" article.
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</li></ul>
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<p>Records of the various tribes can be found by looking under the name of the tribe in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog and under "Indians of North America – Minnesota." Many of the records are also listed in the Place Search of the catalog under:
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</p><p>MINNESOTA – NATIVE RACES
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</p>
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<ul><li><i>Records of the United States attorneys and marshal for the District of Minnesota, 1889-1917</i> which include land allotments for the White Earth Chippewas and genealogical charts connected with those allotments. There are 7 microfilms starting with film 1294074. (NARA record group 118 roll 22)
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</li><li><i>Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856</i>There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with <span class="fck_mw_template">{{FHL|403560|title-id|disp=1618093}}</span>.
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</li></ul>
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<p><br>
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</p>
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<h2> Reservations  </h2>
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<p>From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
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</p><p>Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
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</p><p>The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
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</p><p>For a current reservation map -&#160;<a href="http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/MN.gif&amp;imgW=588&amp;imgH=450">Minnesota - Indian Reservations </a>- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
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</p><p>The following list of reservations has been compiled from the <i>National Atlas of the United States of America</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/mn.pdf Available online.]</span>, the <i>Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America</i><span class="fck_mw_ref" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="ref">Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</span>, and other sources. Those reservations named in <b>bold</b> are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
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</p>
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<ul><li><b><a href="Bois Fort Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Bois Forte</a>:</b> 1866 (Chippewa)
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</li><li>Chippewa Reservation: 1867
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</li><li>Dakota or Sioux Reservation: 1851-58&#160; / 1851-62
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</li><li><a href="Deer Creek Indian Reservation (Minnesota)"><b>Deer Creek Reservation</b></a>:
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</li><li><b><a href="Fond du Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Fond du Lac Reservation</a>: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of <a href="Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Minnesota Agency</a>, Tribe: Mississippi Band of Chippewa
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</li><li><b><a href="Grand Portage Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Grand Portage Reservation</a>: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><a href="Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)"><b>Leech Lake Reservation</b></a> 1855 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><b>Lower Sioux Reservation: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
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</li><li><a href="Mdewakanton Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Mdewakanton Reservation</a>: 1884
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</li><li><a href="Menominee Indian Reservation (Wisconsin)">Menominee Reservation</a>: 1845-1845
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</li><li><b><a href="Mille Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Mille Lacs Reservation</a>: </b>1855-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><b>Nett Lake Reservation: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><b>Lower Sioux</b> Community: (Sioux)
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</li><li>Ojibwa or Chippewa Reservation: 1855-1864
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</li><li>Pipestone Reservation:
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</li><li><b>Prairie Island Reservation: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
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</li><li><b>Prior Lake Reservation: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction..........Tribe: Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux
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</li><li><b><a href="Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Red Lake Reservation</a>: </b>1863-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of <a href="Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Red Lake Agency</a>, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><b>Shakopee Mdewakanton: </b>State, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Shakopee Sioux
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</li><li>Sioux Reservation: 1851-1858
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</li><li><b><a href="Vermilion Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Vermillion Lake Reservation</a>:</b> 1881
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</li><li><b>Upper Sioux Reservation: </b>Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
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</li><li>Wabasha Reservation:
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</li><li><b><a href="White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">White Earth Reservation</a>: </b>.........., under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
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</li><li><a href="White Oak Point Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">White Oak Point Reservation</a>:
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</li><li>Winnebago Reservation: 1846-1855 (Houston County)
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</li></ul>
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<h2> <b>See Also</b>  </h2>
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<p><a href="Minnesota History">Minnesota - History</a> for a calendar that includes dates of importance to the Indians of Minnesota
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</p><p><a href="Minnesota Military Records">Minnesota - Military</a> for a list of forts
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</p>
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<h2> References  </h2>
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<p><span class="fck_mw_references" _fck_mw_customtag="true" _fck_mw_tagname="references" />
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</p>
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<h4> Bibliography  </h4>
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<ul><li>Trail of Tears Minnesota's Dakota Indian Exile Begins. Mary H. Bakeman and Antona M. Richardson. Paririe Echoes Park Genealogical Books, Roseville,MN C 2008. FHL book 977.6 H2bm
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</li><li>"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
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</li><li><i>American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications</i>. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
 +
</li><li>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). <i>Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians</i>. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
 +
</li><li>Hill, Edward E. <i>The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches</i>. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
 +
</li><li><i>Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880</i>. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
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</li><li>Hodge, Frederick Webb. <i>Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico</i>. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. <a href="http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm">Available online</a>.
 +
</li><li>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. <i>Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America</i>. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
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</li><li>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations <a href="http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/MN.pdf">Available online.</a>
 +
</li><li><i>Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs</i>. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. <a href="http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm">Available online</a>
 +
</li><li>Swanton John R. <i>The Indian Tribes of North America</i>. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 <a href="http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm">Available online</a>.
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</li></ul>
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<p><span class="fck_mw_template">{{American Indian}}</span> <span class="fck_mw_template">{{Minnesota|Minnesota}}</span>
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</p>
  
The word Minnesota comes from a Dakota Indian word meaning "sky-tinted water"  
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<a _fcknotitle="true" href="Category:Minnesota">Minnesota</a> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Category:Indians_of_the_United_States">Indians_of_the_United_States</a>
 
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Two major Native American tribes—the Dakota (or Sioux) and the Ojibwa (Anishinabe or Chippewa)—lived in the area that is now Minnesota. Small groups from other tribes now also reside in the state, including the Winnebago, who once had reservation land there. By the late 1860s treaties had pushed the Indians off lands they had occupied and moved them onto reservations.
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Many American Indians still live on reservations in Minnesota. Seven Ojibwa reservations are located in the northern part of the state, and four Dakota communities occupy lands in the southern part. Other American Indians reside in urban areas. More than 9,000 people of Ojibwa ancestry live in Minneapolis, and about 3,000 Ojibwa, Dakota, and Winnebago are in St. Paul. There are smaller groups of American Indian people in Duluth and Bemidji.
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== Tribes and Bands of Minnesota ==
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The following list of American Indians who have lived in Minnesota has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
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*[[Arapaho Indians|Arapaho]]
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*[[Cheyenne Indians|Cheyenne]]
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*[[Chippewa Indians|Chippewa]] or Ojibwa
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*Dakota
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*Fox
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*[[Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska|Iowa]]
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*Missouri
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*[[Omaha Indians|Omaha]]
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*[[Oto Indians|Oto]]
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*[[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]]
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*[[Ponca Tribe|Ponca]]
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*Sauk
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*[[Winnebago Indians|Winnebago]]
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*[[Wyandot Indians|Wyandot]]
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'''Chippewa Bands:'''
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*[[Bois Forte Band of Chippewa Indians|Bois Fort]]
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*[[Cass Lake Band of Chippewa Indians|Cass Lake]]
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*[[Fond du Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota|Fond Du Lac]]
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*[[Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota|Grand Portage]]
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*[[Lake Winnibigoshish Band of Chippewa Indians|Lake Winnibigoshish]]
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*[[Mille Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota|Mille Lac]]
+
*[[Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians|Pembina]]
+
*[[Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians|Pillager]]
+
*Rainy Lake
+
*Snake River
+
*[[White Oak Point Band of Chippewa Indians|White Oak Point]]
+
 
+
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
+
 
+
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
+
 
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
+
 
+
*[[Birch Cooley Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Birch Cooley Agency]]
+
*[[Consolidated Chippewa Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Consolidated Chippewa Agency]]
+
*[[Crow Wing Indian Subagency (Minnesota)|Crow Wing Subagency]]
+
*[[Fond du Lac Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Fond du Lac Agency]]
+
*[[Grand Portage Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Grand Portage Agency]]
+
*[[Great Lakes Indian Agency (Wisconsin)|Great Lakes Agency]]
+
*[[La Pointe Indian Agency (Wisconsin)|La Pointe Agency]]
+
*[[Leech Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Leech Lake Agency]]
+
*[[St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Lower Sioux Agency]] -- part of St. Peters Agency
+
*[[Milk River Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Milk River Agency]]
+
*[[Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Minnesota Agency]], Route 3, P.O. Box 112, Cass Lake, MN 56633
+
*[[Nett Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Nett Lake Agency]]
+
*[[Pipestone Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Pipestone Agency]]
+
*[[Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Red Lake Agency]], Red Lake, MN 56671
+
*[[Sandy Lake Indian Subagency (Minnesota)|Sandy Lake Subagency]]
+
*[[St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)|St. Peters Agency]] 1824-1879
+
*[[St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Upper Sioux Agency]] -- part of St. Peters Agency<br>
+
*[[Vermillion Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Vermillion Lake Agency]]
+
*[[White Earth Indian Agency (Minnesota)|White Earth Agency]]
+
*[[Winnebago Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Winnebago Agency]]
+
 
+
Minnesota Superintendency 1849-1856
+
 
+
== Indian Schools  ==
+
 
+
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
+
 
+
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
+
 
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
+
 
+
*Bena School
+
*Bishop Whipple Indian School - Norton, MN
+
*Birch Coulee Day School
+
*[[Cass Lake Indian School (Minnesota)|Cass Lake School]]
+
*[[Grand Portage Indian School (Minnesota)|Grand Portage School]]
+
*[[Leech Lake Indian Boarding School (Minnesota)|Leech Lake Boarding School]]
+
*Minnesota Agency School census 1912-1917, 1946-1947 and permanent school census cards Family History Library 1st {{FHL|223429|title-id|disp=film 1266710}}
+
*Morris Industrial School
+
*[[Nett Lake Indian School (Minnesota)|Nett Lake School]]
+
*[[Pipestone Indian Boarding School|Pipestone Indian Boarding School]]
+
*Pleasant Nook-Granite Falls,MN
+
*Prairie Island - Egglston, MN
+
*Red Lake Agency school census 1922-1927 Family History Library {{FHL|265810|title-id|disp=film 1204883 item 2}}
+
*[[Squaw Point Day School (Minnesota)|Squaw Point Day School]]
+
*Vermillion Lake School
+
 
+
== Other Repositories  ==
+
 
+
*Minnesota Historical Society, 690 Cedar Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101
+
 
+
== Family History Library  ==
+
 
+
The Family History Library has many American Indian records from the National Archives - Central Plains Region (Kansas City, Missouri). For the Ojibwa, for instance, microfilms of census, vital, land, and family records are available from 1876 to 1955. Additional sources are at the Minnesota Historical Society Library, including:
+
 
+
*''Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856. M842. ''There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with {{FHL|403560|title-id|disp=1618093}}.
+
 
+
*Powell, Ransom Judd. Papers, Undated and 1843, 1896–1938. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1987. (Family History Library {{FHL|362837|title-id|disp=microfilms 1550598–612}}.) No circulation to Family History Centers. Papers include genealogies, censuses, correspondence, and other records collected by the lawyer for lumber companies that bought White Earth Reservation land. <br>A research study of one Ojibwa family from Minnesota’s White Earth reservation is in:
+
 
+
*Byers, Paula K., ed. Native American Genealogical Sourcebook. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1995. (Family History Library {{FHL|722558|title-id|disp=book 970.1 B991n<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1221078231959_518" />}}.) It includes chapters on historical background, research methods and sources, and libraries and archives holding genealogical information on American Indians. The case study reported on pages 54–64 uses records mostly dating between 1885 and 1915 to trace ancestors and descendants of one Ojibwa family. Records used include Indian censuses, United States censuses, Chippewa Commission and Chippewa Agency records, and the Ransom Judd Powell papers. A bibliography of sources for further study on Minnesota Indians is provided. <br>Other books include:
+
 
+
*Ebbott, Elizabeth. Indians in Minnesota. 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. (Family History Library {{FHL|358958|title-id|disp=book 970.1 Eb17i}}.) Sponsored by the League of Women Voters of Minnesota, this book deals mainly with social strengths and economic problems of American Indians in modern-day Minnesota. Preliminary chapters give histories of major Indian groups in the state and shifting government policies toward them. Includes maps and tables showing the locations of Indian groups on and off reservations in 1980. <br>Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul, Minnesota). Chippewa and Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles, and Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969. (Family History Library {{FHL|642630|title-id|disp=book 970.3 D149c}} .) A list of printed and manuscript sources on Minnesota’s two major tribes. Much new material has been added to the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society since this book was published. <br>See also the chapter on "The Dakota and Ojibwa" in They Chose Minnesota, described in the "Minorities" article. For sources on the Sioux War of 1862, see the "Military Records" article. Steps to effective research are listed in the "United States Native Races" article.
+
 
+
Records of the various tribes can be found by looking under the name of the tribe in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog and under "Indians of North America – Minnesota." Many of the records are also listed in the Place Search of the catalog under:  
+
 
+
MINNESOTA – NATIVE RACES
+
 
+
*''Records of the United States attorneys and marshal for the District of Minnesota, 1889-1917'' which include land allotments for the White Earth Chippewas and genealogical charts connected with those allotments. There are 7 microfilms starting with film 1294074. (NARA record group 118 roll 22)
+
*''Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856''There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with {{FHL|403560|title-id|disp=1618093}}.
+
 
+
 
+
== Reservations  ==
+
 
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
+
 
+
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
 
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
+
 
+
For a current reservation map -&nbsp;[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/MN.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Minnesota - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
+
 
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/mn.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
+
 
+
*'''[[Bois Fort Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Bois Forte]]:''' 1866 (Chippewa)
+
*Chippewa Reservation: 1867
+
*Dakota or Sioux Reservation: 1851-58&nbsp; / 1851-62
+
*[[Deer Creek Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|'''Deer Creek Reservation''']]:
+
*'''[[Fond du Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Fond du Lac Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of [[Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Minnesota Agency]], Tribe: Mississippi Band of Chippewa
+
*'''[[Grand Portage Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Grand Portage Reservation]]: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
+
*[[Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|'''Leech Lake Reservation''']] 1855 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
+
*'''Lower Sioux Reservation: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
+
*[[Mdewakanton Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Mdewakanton Reservation]]: 1884
+
*[[Menominee Indian Reservation (Wisconsin)|Menominee Reservation]]: 1845-1845
+
*'''[[Mille Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Mille Lacs Reservation]]: '''1855-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
+
*'''Nett Lake Reservation: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
+
*'''Lower Sioux''' Community: (Sioux)
+
*Ojibwa or Chippewa Reservation: 1855-1864
+
*Pipestone Reservation:
+
*'''Prairie Island Reservation: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
+
*'''Prior Lake Reservation: '''Federal, under jurisdiction..........Tribe: Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux
+
*'''[[Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Red Lake Reservation]]: '''1863-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of [[Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)|Red Lake Agency]], Tribe: Chippewa
+
*'''Shakopee Mdewakanton: '''State, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Shakopee Sioux
+
*Sioux Reservation: 1851-1858
+
*'''[[Vermilion Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|Vermillion Lake Reservation]]:''' 1881
+
*'''Upper Sioux Reservation: '''Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
+
*Wabasha Reservation:
+
*'''[[White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|White Earth Reservation]]: '''.........., under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
+
*[[White Oak Point Indian Reservation (Minnesota)|White Oak Point Reservation]]:
+
*Winnebago Reservation: 1846-1855 (Houston County)
+
 
+
== '''See Also'''  ==
+
 
+
[[Minnesota History|Minnesota - History]] for a calendar that includes dates of importance to the Indians of Minnesota
+
 
+
[[Minnesota Military Records|Minnesota - Military]] for a list of forts
+
 
+
== References  ==
+
 
+
<references />
+
 
+
==== Bibliography  ====
+
 
+
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
+
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
+
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
+
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
+
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
+
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].
+
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/MN.pdf Available online.]
+
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]
+
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm Available online].
+
 
+
{{American Indian}} {{Minnesota|Minnesota}}
+
 
+
[[Category:Minnesota]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+

Revision as of 17:32, 2 October 2012

<a href="United States">United States</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Minnesota">Minnesota</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a href="American Indian Genealogy">American Indian Research</a> <img src="/learn/wiki/en/images/b/b1/Gotoarrow.png" _fck_mw_filename="Gotoarrow.png" alt="" /> <a _fcknotitle="true" href="Indians_of_Minnesota" class="selflink">Indians_of_Minnesota</a>

The word Minnesota comes from a Dakota Indian word meaning "sky-tinted water"

Two major Native American tribes—the Dakota (or Sioux) and the Ojibwa (Anishinabe or Chippewa)—lived in the area that is now Minnesota. Small groups from other tribes now also reside in the state, including the Winnebago, who once had reservation land there. By the late 1860s treaties had pushed the Indians off lands they had occupied and moved them onto reservations.

Many American Indians still live on reservations in Minnesota. Seven Ojibwa reservations are located in the northern part of the state, and four Dakota communities occupy lands in the southern part. Other American Indians reside in urban areas. More than 9,000 people of Ojibwa ancestry live in Minneapolis, and about 3,000 Ojibwa, Dakota, and Winnebago are in St. Paul. There are smaller groups of American Indian people in Duluth and Bemidji.

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Minnesota

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Minnesota has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online. and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North AmericaSwanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

  • <a href="Arapaho Indians">Arapaho</a>
  • <a href="Cheyenne Indians">Cheyenne</a>
  • <a href="Chippewa Indians">Chippewa</a> or Ojibwa
  • Dakota
  • Fox
  • <a href="Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska">Iowa</a>
  • Missouri
  • <a href="Omaha Indians">Omaha</a>
  • <a href="Oto Indians">Oto</a>
  • <a href="Ottawa Indians">Ottawa</a>
  • <a href="Ponca Tribe">Ponca</a>
  • Sauk
  • <a href="Winnebago Indians">Winnebago</a>
  • <a href="Wyandot Indians">Wyandot</a>

Chippewa Bands:

  • <a href="Bois Forte Band of Chippewa Indians">Bois Fort</a>
  • <a href="Cass Lake Band of Chippewa Indians">Cass Lake</a>
  • <a href="Fond du Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Fond Du Lac</a>
  • <a href="Grand Portage Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Grand Portage</a>
  • <a href="Lake Winnibigoshish Band of Chippewa Indians">Lake Winnibigoshish</a>
  • <a href="Mille Lac Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota">Mille Lac</a>
  • <a href="Pembina Band of Chippewa Indians">Pembina</a>
  • <a href="Pillager Band of Chippewa Indians">Pillager</a>
  • Rainy Lake
  • Snake River
  • <a href="White Oak Point Band of Chippewa Indians">White Oak Point</a>

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

<a href="Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs">Agencies</a> and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the <a href="Bureau of Indian Affairs">Bureau of Indian Affairs</a> and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.), Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American IndiansHill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.), and others.

  • <a href="Birch Cooley Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Birch Cooley Agency</a>
  • <a href="Consolidated Chippewa Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Consolidated Chippewa Agency</a>
  • <a href="Crow Wing Indian Subagency (Minnesota)">Crow Wing Subagency</a>
  • <a href="Fond du Lac Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Fond du Lac Agency</a>
  • <a href="Grand Portage Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Grand Portage Agency</a>
  • <a href="Great Lakes Indian Agency (Wisconsin)">Great Lakes Agency</a>
  • <a href="La Pointe Indian Agency (Wisconsin)">La Pointe Agency</a>
  • <a href="Leech Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Leech Lake Agency</a>
  • <a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Lower Sioux Agency</a> -- part of St. Peters Agency
  • <a href="Milk River Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Milk River Agency</a>
  • <a href="Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Minnesota Agency</a>, Route 3, P.O. Box 112, Cass Lake, MN 56633
  • <a href="Nett Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Nett Lake Agency</a>
  • <a href="Pipestone Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Pipestone Agency</a>
  • <a href="Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Red Lake Agency</a>, Red Lake, MN 56671
  • <a href="Sandy Lake Indian Subagency (Minnesota)">Sandy Lake Subagency</a>
  • <a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">St. Peters Agency</a> 1824-1879
  • <a href="St. Peters Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Upper Sioux Agency</a> -- part of St. Peters Agency
  • <a href="Vermillion Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Vermillion Lake Agency</a>
  • <a href="White Earth Indian Agency (Minnesota)">White Earth Agency</a>
  • <a href="Winnebago Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Winnebago Agency</a>

Minnesota Superintendency 1849-1856

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the <a href="Bureau of Indian Affairs">Bureau of Indian Affairs</a>) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (<a href="American Indian School Records">read more...</a>)

The following list of Indian Schools in Minnesota has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.), Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American IndiansHill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.), and others.

  • Bena School
  • Bishop Whipple Indian School - Norton, MN
  • Birch Coulee Day School
  • <a href="Cass Lake Indian School (Minnesota)">Cass Lake School</a>
  • <a href="Grand Portage Indian School (Minnesota)">Grand Portage School</a>
  • <a href="Leech Lake Indian Boarding School (Minnesota)">Leech Lake Boarding School</a>
  • Minnesota Agency School census 1912-1917, 1946-1947 and permanent school census cards Family History Library 1st film 1266710
  • Morris Industrial School
  • <a href="Nett Lake Indian School (Minnesota)">Nett Lake School</a>
  • <a href="Pipestone Indian Boarding School">Pipestone Indian Boarding School</a>
  • Pleasant Nook-Granite Falls,MN
  • Prairie Island - Egglston, MN
  • Red Lake Agency school census 1922-1927 Family History Library film 1204883 item 2
  • <a href="Squaw Point Day School (Minnesota)">Squaw Point Day School</a>
  • Vermillion Lake School

Other Repositories

  • Minnesota Historical Society, 690 Cedar Street, St. Paul, Minnesota 55101

Family History Library

The Family History Library has many American Indian records from the National Archives - Central Plains Region (Kansas City, Missouri). For the Ojibwa, for instance, microfilms of census, vital, land, and family records are available from 1876 to 1955. Additional sources are at the Minnesota Historical Society Library, including:

  • Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856. M842. There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with 1618093.
  • Powell, Ransom Judd. Papers, Undated and 1843, 1896–1938. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1987. (Family History Library microfilms 1550598–612.) No circulation to Family History Centers. Papers include genealogies, censuses, correspondence, and other records collected by the lawyer for lumber companies that bought White Earth Reservation land.
    A research study of one Ojibwa family from Minnesota’s White Earth reservation is in:
  • Byers, Paula K., ed. Native American Genealogical Sourcebook. Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research, 1995. (Family History Library book 970.1 B991n<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1221078231959_518" />.) It includes chapters on historical background, research methods and sources, and libraries and archives holding genealogical information on American Indians. The case study reported on pages 54–64 uses records mostly dating between 1885 and 1915 to trace ancestors and descendants of one Ojibwa family. Records used include Indian censuses, United States censuses, Chippewa Commission and Chippewa Agency records, and the Ransom Judd Powell papers. A bibliography of sources for further study on Minnesota Indians is provided.
    Other books include:
  • Ebbott, Elizabeth. Indians in Minnesota. 4th ed. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press, 1985. (Family History Library book 970.1 Eb17i.) Sponsored by the League of Women Voters of Minnesota, this book deals mainly with social strengths and economic problems of American Indians in modern-day Minnesota. Preliminary chapters give histories of major Indian groups in the state and shifting government policies toward them. Includes maps and tables showing the locations of Indian groups on and off reservations in 1980.
    Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul, Minnesota). Chippewa and Dakota Indians: A Subject Catalog of Books, Pamphlets, Periodical Articles, and Manuscripts in the Minnesota Historical Society. St. Paul, Minnesota: Minnesota Historical Society, 1969. (Family History Library book 970.3 D149c .) A list of printed and manuscript sources on Minnesota’s two major tribes. Much new material has been added to the collections of the Minnesota Historical Society since this book was published.
    See also the chapter on "The Dakota and Ojibwa" in They Chose Minnesota, described in the "Minorities" article. For sources on the Sioux War of 1862, see the "Military Records" article. Steps to effective research are listed in the "United States Native Races" article.

Records of the various tribes can be found by looking under the name of the tribe in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog and under "Indians of North America – Minnesota." Many of the records are also listed in the Place Search of the catalog under:

MINNESOTA – NATIVE RACES

  • Records of the United States attorneys and marshal for the District of Minnesota, 1889-1917 which include land allotments for the White Earth Chippewas and genealogical charts connected with those allotments. There are 7 microfilms starting with film 1294074. (NARA record group 118 roll 22)
  • Records of the Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs, 1849-1856There are 9 microfilms in the Family History Library starting with 1618093.


Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - <a href="http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/MN.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450">Minnesota - Indian Reservations </a>- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of AmericaNational Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online., the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of AmericaIsaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991., and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • <a href="Bois Fort Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Bois Forte</a>: 1866 (Chippewa)
  • Chippewa Reservation: 1867
  • Dakota or Sioux Reservation: 1851-58  / 1851-62
  • <a href="Deer Creek Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Deer Creek Reservation</a>:
  • <a href="Fond du Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Fond du Lac Reservation</a>: Federal, under jurisdiction of <a href="Minnesota Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Minnesota Agency</a>, Tribe: Mississippi Band of Chippewa
  • <a href="Grand Portage Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Grand Portage Reservation</a>: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
  • <a href="Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Leech Lake Reservation</a> 1855 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
  • Lower Sioux Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
  • <a href="Mdewakanton Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Mdewakanton Reservation</a>: 1884
  • <a href="Menominee Indian Reservation (Wisconsin)">Menominee Reservation</a>: 1845-1845
  • <a href="Mille Lac Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Mille Lacs Reservation</a>: 1855-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
  • Nett Lake Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
  • Lower Sioux Community: (Sioux)
  • Ojibwa or Chippewa Reservation: 1855-1864
  • Pipestone Reservation:
  • Prairie Island Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
  • Prior Lake Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction..........Tribe: Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux
  • <a href="Red Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Red Lake Reservation</a>: 1863-1889 Federal, under jurisdiction of <a href="Red Lake Indian Agency (Minnesota)">Red Lake Agency</a>, Tribe: Chippewa
  • Shakopee Mdewakanton: State, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Shakopee Sioux
  • Sioux Reservation: 1851-1858
  • <a href="Vermilion Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">Vermillion Lake Reservation</a>: 1881
  • Upper Sioux Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Minnesota Sioux, Tribe: Eastern or Mississippi Sioux
  • Wabasha Reservation:
  • <a href="White Earth Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">White Earth Reservation</a>: .........., under jurisdiction of Minnesota Agency, Tribe: Chippewa
  • <a href="White Oak Point Indian Reservation (Minnesota)">White Oak Point Reservation</a>:
  • Winnebago Reservation: 1846-1855 (Houston County)

See Also

<a href="Minnesota History">Minnesota - History</a> for a calendar that includes dates of importance to the Indians of Minnesota

<a href="Minnesota Military Records">Minnesota - Military</a> for a list of forts

References

Bibliography

  • Trail of Tears Minnesota's Dakota Indian Exile Begins. Mary H. Bakeman and Antona M. Richardson. Paririe Echoes Park Genealogical Books, Roseville,MN C 2008. FHL book 977.6 H2bm
  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. <a href="http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm">Available online</a>.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations <a href="http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/MN.pdf">Available online.</a>
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. <a href="http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm">Available online</a>
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 <a href="http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/minnesota/index.htm">Available online</a>.

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