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Tribes and Bands of New Mexico

The following list of American Indians who have lived in New Mexico has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Acoma, Anasazi, Apache, Mescalero Apache, Mimbreno Apache, Chiricahua Apache, Comanche, Grants, Hopi, Isleta, Jemez, Jicarilla, Jicarilla Apache, Keresan, Kiowa, Kiowa Apache, Lipan, Monso, Mescaleros Apache, Mimbreno, Mimbus Apache, Navajo, Pecos, Piro, Pueblos, Pueblo, Shuman, Taos, Tewa, Ute, Southern Ute, Mountain Ute, Wiminuche, Zuni

Acoma-Pueblo, Canoncito-Navajo, Jemez-Pueblo, Jicarilla-Pueblo, Laguna-Pueblo, Taos-Pueblo

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Alamo Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of _______ Tribe: Navajo
  • Black Rock Reservation: - Zuni tribe
  • Bosque Redondo Reservation:
  • Cononcita Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of ______, Tribe: Navajo
  • Jicarilla Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Jicarilla Agency, Tribe: Jicarilla Apache
  • Mescalero Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Mescalero Agency, Tribe: Apache
  • Navajo Reservation: Apache tribe
  • Ojo Caliente Reservation:
  • Puerto Cito Reservation: Alamo Navajo tribe
  • Ramah Reservation (Community): Federal, under jurisdiction of Ramah-Navajo Agency, Tribe: Navajo
  • Zuni Reservation: Federal, under jurisdiction of Zuni Agency, Tribe: Zuni

Pueblos

  • Acoma Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Keresan
  • Cochiti Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Kersan
  • Isleta Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Isleta
  • Jemez Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Jemez
  • Laguna Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Laguna Agency, Tribe Keresan
  • Nambe Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tewa
  • Picuris (San Lorenzo) Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tewa
  • Pajoaque Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tewa
  • Sandia Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tewa
  • San Felipe Pueblo - Federal, under juisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Keresan
  • San Ildefanso Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tewa
  • San Juan Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northenr Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tawo-Tewa
  • Santa Ana Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Keresan
  • Santa Clara Pueblo- Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tewa
  • Santo Domingo Pueblo -Federal, under jurisdiction of Southern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Leresan
  • Taos Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tigua
  • Tesuque Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of Northern Pueblos Agency, Tribe: Tano-Tewa
  • Zia Pueblo - Federal, under jurisdiction of  Southern pueblos Agency, Tribe: Keresan

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies were created as an administrative division of the federal government to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

Reference

Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in New Mexico has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Family History Library

The Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs records of births, deaths, marriages, divorces, land allotments and homesteads, and school records and reports. The records were created between 1878 and 1944 at the Eastern Navajo, Jicarilla, Pueblos, Zuni, and other agencies. These original records for New Mexico are located at the National Archives—Rocky Mountain Region (Denver).

Records and information about the various tribes are also listed in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog under the name of the tribe.

  • New Mexico Superintendency 1848-1880 T21 30 films 1st film 1617620

Other Repositories

  • Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1570 Pacheco St., Santa Fe, NM 87501

See Also:

New Mexico-Church for a list of missions. There were many Spanish Missions with Pueblos

New Mexico-History for a calendar of events

New Mexico-Military for a list of forts

Web Sites

The Rocky Mountain Regional Archives of the National Archives and Records Administration -- http://www.archives.gov/rocky-mountain/

Native American Indian Census Rolls for New Mexico -- http://www.us-census.org/native/m595/new_mexico.html

An 1869 study of "Native American Indians of New Mexico -- http://www.logoi.com/notes/newmexico/index.html

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.

 

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