Indians of New York

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
m
(42 intermediate revisions by 9 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
== Tribes and Bands of New York ==
+
''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[New York]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[Indians_of_New_York|Indians of New York]]''
  
Allegany, Algonquin, Cattaraugus, Cayuga, Delaware or Lenni Lenape, Erie, Esopus, Iroquois, Mahican, Mohawk, Mohegan, Montauk, Munsee, Neutral, Oneida, Onondaga, Poospatuck, Saponi, Seneca, Shinnecock, Susquehanna, Tonawanda, Tuscarora, Tutelo, Wappinger, Wenrohronon
+
<br>
  
'''Five Nations:''' Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca
+
== Tribes and Bands of New York  ==
  
'''Six Indian Nations:''' Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora
+
The following list of American Indians who have lived in New York has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newyork/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
  
'''Reference'''
+
*[[Delaware Indians|Delaware]] or Lenni Lenape
 +
*Erie
 +
*[[Iroquois Confederacy|Iroquois]]
 +
*Mahican
 +
*[[Mohegan Indians|Mohegan]]
 +
*Montauk
 +
*Neutral
 +
*[[Oneida Nation of New York|Oneida]]
 +
*[[Onondaga Indians|Onondaga]]<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1286200768267_904" />
 +
*Saponi
 +
*[[Seneca Indians|Seneca]]
 +
*[[Tuscarora Indians|Tuscarora]]
 +
*Tutelo
 +
*Wappinger
 +
*Wenrohronon
  
:Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=553639&disp=Handbook+of+American+Indians+north+of+Me%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Handbook&nbsp;of American Indians North of Mexico]''. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethonolgy, Bulletin #30 1907.
+
===== Tribes Recognized by the State of New York  =====
  
:Swanton, John R. [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1121826&disp=The+Indian+tribes+of+North+America%20%20&columns=*,0,0 T''he Indian tribes of North America'']. ( [http://www.accessgenealogy.com http://www.accessgenealogy.com] ) Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145.
+
Unkechague Poosepatuck Tribe, Shinnecock Tribe, and Unkechague Indian Nation of Poospatuck Indians
  
== Reservations  ==
 
  
*Akwesasne Reservation:  
+
'''[[Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy|Five Nations]]:''' [[Mohawk Indians|Mohawk]], [[Oneida Nation of New York|Oneida]], [[Onondaga Indians|Onondaga]], [[Cayuga Indians|Cayuga]], and [[Seneca Nation of New York|Seneca]]
*Allegany Reservation: State, under jurisdiction _______ Tribe: Seneca
+
*Buffalo Creek Reservation:
+
*Cattaraugus Reservation: State, under jurisdiction of ______ Office Tribe: Seneca
+
*Cayuga Nation: &nbsp;under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: ______
+
*Erie Reservation:
+
*Oil Springs Reservation:
+
*Oneida Nation:
+
*Onondaga Reservation:
+
*Poospatuck Reservation: , , Tribe: Poospatuck
+
*Seneca Nation: State, under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Seneca  
+
*Shinnecock Reservation: &nbsp;State, under jurisdiction of ______ Tribe: Shinnecock
+
*St. Regis Mohawk Reservation: , under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: _____
+
*Tonawanda Reservation: ,under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Tonawanda Band of Seneca
+
*Tuscarora Nation: , under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe:______
+
  
'''Reference'''  
+
'''[[Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy|Six Indian Nations]]:''' [[Mohawk Indians|Mohawk]], Oneida, [[Onondaga Indians|Onondaga]], [[Cayuga Indians|Cayuga]], [[Seneca Indians|Seneca and]] [[Tuscarora Indians|Tuscarora]]
  
:Isaacs, Katherine M., editor. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&title=Omni+Gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+America&pretitle=Omni+Gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+America Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America]''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices. Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
+
== Agencies  ==
  
== Agencies ==
+
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
  
*New York Liason Office, Federal Bldg., 100 S. Clinton St., Syracuse, NY 13202
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in New York has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
*New York Agency 1829-1880  
+
*Seneca&nbsp; Agency&nbsp; 1824-1832
+
*Six Nations Agency 1824-1834
+
  
'''Reference'''
+
*New York Liaison Office, Federal Bldg., 100 S. Clinton St., Syracuse, NY 13202
 
+
*[[New York Indian Agency (New York)|New York Agency]] 1829-1880
:Hill, Edward E. ''[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=247426&disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&columns=*,0,0 The Office of Indian Affairs], 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.
+
*[[Seneca Indian Agency (New York)|Seneca Agency]] 1824-1832
 +
*[[Six Nations Indian Agency (New York)|Six Nations Agency]] 1824-1834
 +
*[[Osage River Indian Agency (Kansas)|Osage River Agency]]
  
 
== Family History Library  ==
 
== Family History Library  ==
Line 50: Line 48:
 
Records of American Indians in [[New York|New York]] are listed in the [[Family History Library Catalog Place Search|Family History Library Catalog Place Search]] under NEW YORK - NATIVE RACES and in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe or language group, such as IROQUOIS and ALGONQUIAN. Additional records are listed in the Subject Search under INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA - NEW YORK.  
 
Records of American Indians in [[New York|New York]] are listed in the [[Family History Library Catalog Place Search|Family History Library Catalog Place Search]] under NEW YORK - NATIVE RACES and in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe or language group, such as IROQUOIS and ALGONQUIAN. Additional records are listed in the Subject Search under INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA - NEW YORK.  
  
*Duke University Oral History Collection 8 films Family History Library 1st film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=654561&disp=Duke+Indian+oral+history+collection+and+++ 1486555 fiche 6052870]
+
*Duke University Oral History Collection 8 films Family History Library 1st film {{FHL|654561|title-id|disp=1486555 fiche 6052870}}
*Census films 1885-1924 Family History Library films  
+
*Census 1854 New york Indians living in Kansas FHL Film: &nbsp;989204
*Holland Company Records 1790-1800 (Buffalo and Erie Counties) 23 films Family History Library 1st film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=586737&disp=Holland+Land+Company+records+and+related++ 1549981]
+
*Census films 1885-1924 Family History Library films: 579700-579709
*Cattaraugus Reservation-Vital Records 1883-1940. &nbsp;Family History Library &nbsp;film [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlefilmnotes&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=193274&disp=Vital+statistics+%28abt.+1883-19402++ 962208 item 7]
+
*Land and Property&nbsp; Cayuga County, Reservation deeds, 1822-1901 FHL films: 852061-852074
 +
*Holland Company Records 1790-1800 (Buffalo and Erie Counties) 23 films Family History Library 1st film {{FHL|586737|title-id|disp=1549981}}
 +
*Cattaraugus Reservation-Vital Records 1883-1940. Family History Library film {{FHL|193274|title-id|disp=962208 item 7}}
  
== External Links ==
+
 
 +
== Reservations ==
 +
 
 +
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 +
 
 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 +
 
 +
For a current reservation map -&nbsp;[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/NY.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 New&nbsp;York&nbsp;- Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
 +
 
 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ny.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
 +
 
 +
*Akwesasne Reservation:
 +
*[[Allegany Indian Reservation (New York)|Allegany Reservation]]: State, under jurisdiction _______ Tribe: Seneca
 +
*Buffalo Creek Reservation:
 +
*[[Cattaraugus Indian Reservation (New York)|Cattaraugus Reservation]]: State, under jurisdiction of ______ Office Tribe: Seneca
 +
*[[Cayuga Indian Reservation (New York)|Cayuga Nation]]: &nbsp;under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: ______
 +
*Erie Reservation:
 +
*[[Oil Springs Indian Reservation (New York)|Oil Springs Reservation]]:
 +
*[[Reservation: Oneida Tribes: Oneida Acres: 350 Established by: Treaty of Nov. 11, 1794 (VII, 44); arrangement with the State of New York. (See Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1877. 168.)
 +
*[[Oneida Indian Reservation]]: Oneida Tribes: Oneida, Onondaga, St. Regis Acres: 6,100 Established by: Treaty and arrangement with the State of New York November 11, 1794.Oneida Reservation:
 +
*[[Onondaga Indian Reservation (New York)|Onondaga Reservation]]:
 +
*[[Poosepatuck Indian Reservation (New York)|Poosepatuck Reservation]]: , , Tribe: Poosepatuck
 +
*Seneca Nation: State, under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Seneca
 +
*[[Shinnecock Indian Reservation (New York)|Shinnecock Reservation]]: State, under jurisdiction of ______ Tribe: Shinnecock
 +
*[[St. Regis Indian Reservation (New York)|St. Regis Reservation]]: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Mohawk<br>
 +
*[[Tonawanda Indian Reservation (New York)|Tonawanda Reservation]]: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Tonawanda Band of Seneca
 +
*[[Tuscarora Indian Reservation (New York)|Tuscarora Reservation]]: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe:______
  
 
== See Also:  ==
 
== See Also:  ==
Line 63: Line 91:
 
[[New York Military Records|New York -Military]] for a list of forts  
 
[[New York Military Records|New York -Military]] for a list of forts  
  
[[Category:New_York]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+
[[New York Church Records|New York - Church Records]]
 +
 
 +
== References  ==
 +
 
 +
<references />
 +
 
 +
==== Bibliography  ====
 +
 
 +
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
 +
*''American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications''. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
 +
*Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. [http://picasaweb.google.com/craingen/Surviving_Indian_Groups# Available online].
 +
*Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
 +
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
 +
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
 +
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].
 +
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
 +
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/NY.pdf Available online.]
 +
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]
 +
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/newyork/index.htm Available online].
 +
 
 +
{{American Indian}} {{New York|New York}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:New_York|Indians]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 16:00, 25 May 2012

United States go to New York go to American Indian Research go to Indians of New York


Contents

Tribes and Bands of New York

The following list of American Indians who have lived in New York has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Tribes Recognized by the State of New York

Unkechague Poosepatuck Tribe, Shinnecock Tribe, and Unkechague Indian Nation of Poospatuck Indians


Five Nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca

Six Indian Nations: Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in New York has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Family History Library

Records of American Indians in New York are listed in the Family History Library Catalog Place Search under NEW YORK - NATIVE RACES and in the Subject Search under the name of the tribe or language group, such as IROQUOIS and ALGONQUIAN. Additional records are listed in the Subject Search under INDIANS OF NORTH AMERICA - NEW YORK.

  • Duke University Oral History Collection 8 films Family History Library 1st film 1486555 fiche 6052870
  • Census 1854 New york Indians living in Kansas FHL Film:  989204
  • Census films 1885-1924 Family History Library films: 579700-579709
  • Land and Property  Cayuga County, Reservation deeds, 1822-1901 FHL films: 852061-852074
  • Holland Company Records 1790-1800 (Buffalo and Erie Counties) 23 films Family History Library 1st film 1549981
  • Cattaraugus Reservation-Vital Records 1883-1940. Family History Library film 962208 item 7


Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - New York - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[5], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[6], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Akwesasne Reservation:
  • Allegany Reservation: State, under jurisdiction _______ Tribe: Seneca
  • Buffalo Creek Reservation:
  • Cattaraugus Reservation: State, under jurisdiction of ______ Office Tribe: Seneca
  • Cayuga Nation:  under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: ______
  • Erie Reservation:
  • Oil Springs Reservation:
  • [[Reservation: Oneida Tribes: Oneida Acres: 350 Established by: Treaty of Nov. 11, 1794 (VII, 44); arrangement with the State of New York. (See Ind. Aff. Rep. for 1877. 168.)
  • Oneida Indian Reservation: Oneida Tribes: Oneida, Onondaga, St. Regis Acres: 6,100 Established by: Treaty and arrangement with the State of New York November 11, 1794.Oneida Reservation:
  • Onondaga Reservation:
  • Poosepatuck Reservation: , , Tribe: Poosepatuck
  • Seneca Nation: State, under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Seneca
  • Shinnecock Reservation: State, under jurisdiction of ______ Tribe: Shinnecock
  • St. Regis Reservation: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Mohawk
  • Tonawanda Reservation: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe: Tonawanda Band of Seneca
  • Tuscarora Reservation: under jurisdiction of New York Liaison Office, Tribe:______

See Also:

New York- History for a calendar of events

New York -Military for a list of forts

New York - Church Records

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  6. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.