Indians of Oklahoma

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
m (added links)
m (Remove &nsbp)
(42 intermediate revisions by 9 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +
''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Oklahoma]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Oklahoma]]''
 +
 
See also [[Native American Research in Oklahoma|Native American Research in Oklahoma]] and [[Oklahoma Indian Tribes|Oklahoma Indian Tribes]]  
 
See also [[Native American Research in Oklahoma|Native American Research in Oklahoma]] and [[Oklahoma Indian Tribes|Oklahoma Indian Tribes]]  
  
 
== Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma  ==
 
== Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma  ==
  
[[Image:Okterritory.png|thumb|400px|Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory about 1890s]]  
+
[[Image:Okterritory.png|thumb|400px|Okterritory.png]]  
  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
  
Alabama, Apache, Apalachee, Anadarko, Arapaho, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chippewa, Camanche, Creek, Delaware, Fox, Hitchiti, Illinois, Iowa, Iroquois, Jicarilla, Kansa, Kaskaskia, Kaw, Kichai, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Koasati, Lipan, Miami, Kikasuki, Missouri, Modoc, Muklasa, Munsee, Muskhogean, Muskogee, Natchez, Nez Perce, Okmulgee, Osage, Oto, Oto-Missouri, Ottawa. Pawnee, Peoria, Piankashaw, Ponca, Potwatomi, Quajpaw, Sauk (Sac and Fox), Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Tawakoni, Tawehash, Tonkawa, Tuskegee, Waco, Wea, Wichita, Wyandot, Yscani, Yuchi  
+
Alabama, [[Apache Indians|Apache]], Apalachee, [[Arapaho Indians|Arapaho]], Biloxi, [[Caddo Indians|Caddo]], [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee]], [[Cheyenne Indians|Cheyenne]], [[Chickasaw Indians|Chickasaw]], [[Comanche Indians|Comanche]], [[Creek Indians|Creek]], [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]], Fox, Hitchiti, Illinois, [[Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma|Iowa]], [[Iroquois Confederacy|Iroquois]], Jicarilla, [[Kansa Indians|Kansa]], Kichai, [[Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma|Kickapoo]], [[Kiowa Indians|Kiowa]], Kiowa-Apache, Koasati, Lipan, [[Miami Indians|Miami]], Mikasuki, Missouri, [[Modoc Indians|Modoc]], Muklasa, [[Munsee Indians|Munsee]], Muskhogean, Muskogee, [[Natchez Indians|Natchez]], [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], Okmulgee, [[Osage Indians|Osage]], [[Oto Indians|Oto]], [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]]. [[Pawnee Indians|Pawnee]], [[Peoria Indians|Peoria]], Piankashaw, [[Ponca Tribe|Ponca]], [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi]], [[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]], Sauk [[Seminole Indians|Seminole]], [[Seneca Indians|Seneca]], [[Shawnee Indians|Shawnee]], [[Tawakonie Indian Tribe, Oklahoma|Tawakonie]], Tawehash, [[Tonkawa Indians|Tonkawa]], Waco, Wea, [[Wichita Indians|Wichita]], [[Wyandot Indians|Wyandot]], Yscani, [[Yuchi Indians|Yuchi]]
  
 
Oto-Missouri, Seneca-Cayuga, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Citizen Potawatomi, Eastern Shawnee, Fort Sill Indians, Kiowa-Chiricahua Bands  
 
Oto-Missouri, Seneca-Cayuga, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Citizen Potawatomi, Eastern Shawnee, Fort Sill Indians, Kiowa-Chiricahua Bands  
Line 23: Line 25:
 
=== '''Other Tribes'''  ===
 
=== '''Other Tribes'''  ===
  
Some of the western land forfeited by the Five Civilized Tribes was reserved for other tribes through later treaties. These lands in the Indian Territory were assigned to tribes such as the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, and Cheyenne. Other tribes were later brought in at various periods from Texas, Nebraska, California, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, and other states. As many as 65 tribes were eventually relocated to the state, including:
+
Some of the western land forfeited by the Five Civilized Tribes was reserved for other tribes through later treaties. These lands in the Indian Territory were assigned to tribes such as the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, and Cheyenne. Other tribes were later brought in at various periods from Texas, Nebraska, California, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, and other states. As many as 65 tribes were eventually relocated to the state.
  
*Alibamu Kiowa Apache Piankashaw
+
*[[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Absentee-Shawnee Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Shawnee  
*Apache Koasati Ponca
+
*[[Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town (Oklahoma)|Alabama Quassarte Tribal Town]]  
*Apalachee Lipan Potawatomi
+
*Alibamu
*Arapaho Miami Quapaw
+
*[[Apache Indians|Apache Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
*Biloxi Mikasuki Sauk
+
*[[Caddo Indians|Caddo Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Caddo
*Caddo Missouri Seneca
+
*[[Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Oklahoma|Citizen Potawatomi Tribe]] (OK): Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Potawatomi  
*Delaware Modoc Shawnee
+
*[[Delaware Indians|Delaware Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Delaware
*Fox Muklasa Tawakoni
+
*[[Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma|Eastern Shawnee Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Shawnee  
*Hitchiti Munsee Tawehash
+
*[[Fort Sill Apache Tribe, Oklahoma|Fort Sill Tribe]]:&nbsp; Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
*Huron Natchez Tonkawa
+
*Huron
*Illinois Nez Percé Tuskegee
+
*[[Miami Indians|Miami Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Miami
*Iowa Okmulgee Waco
+
*[[Thlopthlocco Tribal Town, Oklahoma|Thlopthlocco Tribal Town]]  
*Iroquois Osage Wea
+
*[[Tonkawa Indians|Tonkawa Tribe]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Tankawa
*Jicarilla Oto Wyandot
+
*Tuskegee
*Kansa Ottawa Yscani
+
*[[United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma|United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee]]
*Kichai Pawnee Yuchi
+
*Kickapoo Peoria
+
 
+
== Reservations  ==
+
 
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
+
 
+
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
 
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
+
 
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ok.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
+
 
+
*Absentee-Shawnee Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Shawnee  
+
*Alabama Quassarte Tribal Town  
+
*Apache Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
+
*Caddo Tribe: Federal, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Caddo
+
*[[Cherokee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cherokee Reserevation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Thlequah Agency, Tribe: Cherokee
+
*[[Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne-Arapho Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Concho Agency, Tribes: Cheyenne &amp; Arapho
+
*[[Chickasaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Chickasaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of Ardmore&nbsp;Agency, Tribe:Chickasaw
+
*[[Choctaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Choctaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Talihina Agency, Tribe Choctaw
+
*Citizen Potawatomi Tribe (OK): Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Potawatomi  
+
*[[Kiowa and Comanche Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Comanche Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Comanche
+
*[[Creek Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Creek Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Okmulgee Agency, Tribe: Creek
+
*Delaware Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Delaware
+
*Eastern Shawnee Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Shawnee
+
*Fort Sill Tribe:&nbsp; Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
+
*[[Iowa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Iowa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Iowa
+
*[[Kansa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kansa (or Kaw) Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Kaw
+
*[[Kickapoo Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kickapoo Reservation]]: under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Aggency, Tribe: Kickapoo
+
*[[Kiowa and Comanche Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kiowa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Kiowa
+
*Miami Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Miami
+
*[[Modoc Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Modoc Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Modoc
+
*[[Osage Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|'''Osage''' Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Osage Agency, Tribe: Osage
+
*[[Oto Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Oto Reservation]]:*Otoe-Missouria Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe Ote-Missouria
+
*[[Ottawa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Ottawa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Ottawa
+
*[[Pawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Pawnee Reservation]]: Federal, uncer the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Pawnee
+
*[[Pawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Peoria Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Peoria
+
*[[Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Ponca Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agnency, Tribe: Ponca
+
*[[Potawatomi Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Potawatomi Reservation]]:
+
*[[Quapaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Quapaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Quapaw
+
*[[Sac and Fox Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox Reservation]]: federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Sac and Fox
+
*[[Seminole Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Seminole Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Wewoka Agency, Tribe: Seminole
+
*[[Seneca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Seneca Reservation]]:*Seneca-Cayuga Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Seneco-Cayuga
+
*Thlopthlocco Tribal Town
+
*Tonkawa Tribe: Federal, underth the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Tankawa
+
*United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee  
+
*[[Wichita_Indian_Reservation_(Oklahoma)|Wichita Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Wichita
+
*[[Wyandot_Indian_Reservation_(Oklahoma)|Wyandot Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Wyandot<br>
+
  
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
Line 94: Line 47:
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;titleno=247426&amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;titleno=207428&amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Anadarko Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Anadarko Agency]], P.O. Box 309, Anadarko, OK 73005  
 
*[[Anadarko Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Anadarko Agency]], P.O. Box 309, Anadarko, OK 73005  
*Ardmore Agency  
+
*Ardmore Agency discontinued <br>
 
*[[Cantonment Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cantonment Agency]]  
 
*[[Cantonment Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cantonment Agency]]  
 
*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cherokee Agency]]  
 
*[[Cherokee Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Cherokee Agency]]  
Line 123: Line 76:
 
*[[Shawnee Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Agency]], Route 5, Box 148, Shawnee, OK 74801  
 
*[[Shawnee Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Agency]], Route 5, Box 148, Shawnee, OK 74801  
 
*Tahlequah Agency, P.O.Box 828, Tahequah, OK, 74465  
 
*Tahlequah Agency, P.O.Box 828, Tahequah, OK, 74465  
*[[Talihina Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Talihina Agency]],&nbsp;P. O. Box Drawer H, Talihina, OK 74571  
+
*[[Talihina Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Talihina Agency]], P. O. Box Drawer H, Talihina, OK 74571  
 
*[[Tonkawa Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Tonkawa Agency]]  
 
*[[Tonkawa Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Tonkawa Agency]]  
 
*[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]] 1875-1880  
 
*[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]] 1875-1880  
Line 130: Line 83:
 
*[[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]]
 
*[[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]]
  
== Indian Schools  ==
+
=== Records  ===
 +
 
 +
The Indian Archives Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society has an extensive collection for Native American research including copies of the Dawes Rolls. Many of these records are on microfilm at the'''Family History Library'''.
 +
 
 +
Rolls of Indian Tribes in Oklahoma 1889-1891: Absentee Shawnee (Big Jim's Band), Cheyenne and Arapahoe, Iowa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, Otoe, Missouri, Pawnee, Ponca, Pottawatomie and Fox. by Emily Johnson FHL film: 227281
 +
 
 +
Approved Roll of Osage Indians in Oklahoma, 1921. FHL film: 989199 item 2
 +
 
 +
Vital Records Fort Sill Apaches, 1958-1961 FHL film: 928251 item 8
 +
 
 +
==== School Records  ====
 +
 
 +
*Carter Seminary, 1928-1950. FHL film: 1205529 item 2-6
 +
*Chilcocco Indian School 1885-1901,1944-1952 FHL film: 1205529 items 7-13
 +
*Eucheee Indian School lists, 1940-1947. FHL film: 1205529 item 14
 +
*Eufaula Indian School enrollment lists, 1942-1944, 1949-1950. FHL film: 1205529 item 15-16
 +
*Jones Academy 1926-1952, FHL film: 1205530 items 3-5 and 1205299 items 2-3
 +
*Seneca Indian School. 1943-1950. FHL film: 1205530 items 7-8
 +
*Sequoyah Indian School 1910-1950. FHL film: 1205530 items 9-11, and 1205531, and 1205299 item 4
 +
 
 +
==== Indian Schools  ====
  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
 
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.  
Line 136: Line 109:
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
  
The following list of Indian Schools in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Armstrong Academy (Oklahoma)|Armstrong Academy]]  
 
*[[Armstrong Academy (Oklahoma)|Armstrong Academy]]  
Line 163: Line 136:
 
*[[Sac and Fox Indian School (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox School]]  
 
*[[Sac and Fox Indian School (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox School]]  
 
*[[Seger School (Oklahoma)|Seger School]]  
 
*[[Seger School (Oklahoma)|Seger School]]  
*[[Seneca Indian School (Oklahoma)|Seneca School]]&nbsp;
+
*[[Seneca Indian School (Oklahoma)|Seneca School]]  
 
*[[Sequoyah Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Sequoyah Indian High School]]  
 
*[[Sequoyah Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Sequoyah Indian High School]]  
 
*Sequoyah Orphan Training School -- see Sequoyah Boarding School  
 
*Sequoyah Orphan Training School -- see Sequoyah Boarding School  
*[[Tulahassee Indian Orphan Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Tulahassee Orphan Boarding School ]]  
+
*[[Tulahassee Indian Orphan Boarding School (Oklahoma)|Tulahassee Orphan Boarding School]]  
*[[Tuskahoma Indian Female Academy (Oklahoma)|Tuskahoma Female Academy ]]  
+
*[[Tuskahoma Indian Female Academy (Oklahoma)|Tuskahoma Female Academy]]  
 
*[[Wheelock Academy (Oklahoma)|Wheelock Academy]]
 
*[[Wheelock Academy (Oklahoma)|Wheelock Academy]]
  
== Indian Health Facilities  ==
+
==== Indian Health Facilities  ====
  
 
*[[Choctaw and Chickasaw Hospital (Oklahoma)|Choctaw and Chickasaw Hospital]]  
 
*[[Choctaw and Chickasaw Hospital (Oklahoma)|Choctaw and Chickasaw Hospital]]  
Line 176: Line 149:
 
*[[Pawnee-Ponca Indian Hospital (Oklahoma)|Pawnee-Ponca Hospital]]  
 
*[[Pawnee-Ponca Indian Hospital (Oklahoma)|Pawnee-Ponca Hospital]]  
 
*[[Shawnee Indian Sanatorium (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Sanatorium]]
 
*[[Shawnee Indian Sanatorium (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Sanatorium]]
 
== Records  ==
 
  
 
=== '''Land allotment records'''  ===
 
=== '''Land allotment records'''  ===
  
Many Indians received allotments of land. These records are described in the United States Research Outline (30972). A major set relating to Oklahoma is the land allotment records of the Five Civilized Tribes. These records are often referred to as the “Dawes Rolls”.  
+
{{Main|American Indian Allotment Records}}
 +
 
 +
Many Indians received allotments of land. These records are described in the United States Research Outline (30972).  
  
 
=== '''Dawes Rolls'''  ===
 
=== '''Dawes Rolls'''  ===
 +
 +
{{Main|Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes}}
  
 
The Dawes “Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes” was established in 1898 to enroll individuals as citizens of one of the five tribes. When the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes were dissolved in 1908, the U.S. Government granted parcels of their land to qualified native individuals.  
 
The Dawes “Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes” was established in 1898 to enroll individuals as citizens of one of the five tribes. When the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes were dissolved in 1908, the U.S. Government granted parcels of their land to qualified native individuals.  
Line 189: Line 164:
 
Many white persons had married Native Americans, and thus were eligible for land. The enrollment records of the Dawes Commission were used to determine eligibility for land.  
 
Many white persons had married Native Americans, and thus were eligible for land. The enrollment records of the Dawes Commission were used to determine eligibility for land.  
  
The commission reviewed the enrollment applications and abstracted the information onto cards known as Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=499091&disp=Enrollment+cards+for+the+five+civilized+%20%20&columns=*,0,0 (On 93 Family History Library films beginning with 1490261.)] These records document about 101,000 Native Americans. The original applications are at the National Archives—Southwest Region and are on 468 Family History Library films, Applications for Enrollment of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914, beginning with [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=361915&disp=Applications+for+enrollment+of+the+Commi%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library film 1439798.]
+
The commission reviewed the enrollment applications and abstracted the information onto cards known as Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. {{FHL|499091|title-id|disp=(On 93 Family History Library films beginning with 1490261.)}} These records document about 101,000 Native Americans. The original applications are at the [[National Archives Southwest Region (Ft. Worth)]] and are on 468 Family History Library films, Applications for Enrollment of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914, beginning with {{FHL|361915|title-id|disp=Family History Library film 1439798.}}
  
 
You can search the [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalrolls/ Dawes Roll] for names of persons.  
 
You can search the [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/finalrolls/ Dawes Roll] for names of persons.  
  
A helpful guide and index to these records is ''Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory.''2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, [1907?].&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=51749&disp=The+final+rolls+of+citizens+and+freedmen%20%20&columns=*,0,0 (Family History Library film 908371 item 2.)]&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=822882&disp=The+index+of+citizens+and+freedmen+of+th%20%20&columns=*,0,0 (Index is&nbsp;on film 962366.)]
+
A helpful guide and index to these records is ''Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory.''2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, [1907?]. {{FHL|51749|title-id|disp=(Family History Library film 908371 item 2.)}} {{FHL|822882|title-id|disp=(Index is on film 962366.)}}
  
 
=== '''Guion Miller Cherokee Rolls'''  ===
 
=== '''Guion Miller Cherokee Rolls'''  ===
  
In 1906, the U.S. Government appointed Guion Miller to compile a roll of Cherokees eligible for compensation from the government for lands taken in the 1830s. Applicants had to document their lineage back to an Eastern Cherokee living in the 1830s and prove that they had not affiliated with any other tribe. Over 45,000 applications that document about 90,000 Cherokees living about 1910 are in Eastern Cherokee Applications, 1906-1909 [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=209173&disp=Eastern+Cherokee+applications%2C+August+%20%20&columns=*,0,0 (On 348 Family History Library films beginning with 378594; film 378594 has an index.)]
+
{{Main|The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll}}
 +
 
 +
In 1906, the U.S. Government appointed Guion Miller to compile a roll of Cherokees eligible for compensation from the government for lands taken in the 1830s. Applicants had to document their lineage back to an Eastern Cherokee living in the 1830s and prove that they had not affiliated with any other tribe. Over 45,000 applications that document about 90,000 Cherokees living about 1910 are in Eastern Cherokee Applications, 1906-1909 {{FHL|209173|title-id|disp=(On 348 Family History Library films beginning with 378594; film 378594 has an index.)}}
  
 
These rolls can be searched online at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/native-americans-guion-miller.html  
 
These rolls can be searched online at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/native-americans-guion-miller.html  
  
=== '''Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Records'''  ===
+
== Doris Duke Oral History Project  ==
 +
 
 +
From 1966 to 1972, several universities conducted oral history interviews with Native Americans. The project was funded by Doris Duke, heiress of the Duke tobacco family. The University of Oklahoma was one of the universities that participated in the project. [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/duke/ Transcripts] of those interviews are online through the University of Oklahoma in Norman. See [[American Indian Oral Histories]]
 +
 
 +
== Indian Pioneer Papers  ==
 +
 
 +
"My mother, Carolina Jones, was born in the state of Tennessee and is buried there. My grandmother on my mother's side, Nancy Jones, was born in the state of Mississippi and is buried in White County, Tennessee. I was born April 3, 1849, at Stagestand, White County, Tennessee... "<ref>University of Oklahoma Libraries Western History Collection ''Interview with William Perry Earles of Ringling, Oklahoma.'' University of Oklahoma, 1938. Interviewer: Ethel V. Elder. Interviewee: William Perry Earles (ID - 10654)</ref>
 +
 
 +
This paragraph begins a fourteen page interview of William Perry Earles of Ringling, Oklahoma, 1938, as part of a project called [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ The Indian-Pioneer Papers ]. In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."<ref name="null">A.M. Gibson, ed., The West Wind Blows: The Autobiography of Edward Everett Dale (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1984), 346-347; Grant Foreman, "The Oklahoma Historical Society," pamphlet, Vertical Files, Library Resources Division, Oklahoma Historical Society (hereafter cited as OHS LRD); "Indian-Pioneer History Project, W.P.A. 131," The Chronicles of Oklahoma, 37 (Winter, 1959-60), 507-509. As reported on okhistory.org/battlecry.html</ref>
 +
 
 +
The [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/ University of Oklahoma Western History Collection] has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. <ref>The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/</ref> An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at [http://www.okgenweb.org/pioneer/ OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy.] To view a separate index of the “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” click [http://goodoowah.50megs.com/indpio/ here.]
 +
 
 +
The Collection may also be viewed at the Family History Library. "Indian Pioneer Papers, 1860 - 1935" (Millwood, New York: Kraus Microform, 1989) {{FHL|6016865}}-6016981
 +
 
 +
<br>
 +
 
 +
== '''Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Records'''  ==
  
The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was authorized to administer Indian programs beginning in 1824. A local field agency or subagency of the BIA served the tribes in a given area. Some of the agencies that served Oklahoma were the Concho, Kiowa, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw, and Shawnee. Most of the agency records are at the [http://www.archives.gov/southwest/ National Archives—Southwest Region], with a few at the [http://www.archives.gov/central-plains/kansas-city/ National Archives—Central Plains Region]. For further information see Edward E. Hill, comp., ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians.'' Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1981. [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=207428&disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&columns=*,0,0 (Family History Library fiche 6125461.)]
+
The U.S. [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] (BIA) was authorized to administer Indian programs beginning in 1824. A local field agency or subagency of the BIA served the tribes in a given area. Some of the agencies that served Oklahoma were the Concho, Kiowa, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw, and Shawnee. Most of the agency records are at the [[National Archives Southwest Region (Ft. Worth)]], with a few at the [http://www.archives.gov/central-plains/kansas-city/ National Archives—Central Plains Region]. For further information see Edward E. Hill, comp., ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians.'' Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1981. {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=(Family History Library fiche 6125461.)}}
  
 
The Family History Library has microfilm copies of many records of the BIA and the field agencies including:  
 
The Family History Library has microfilm copies of many records of the BIA and the field agencies including:  
  
 
*Land allotment records.  
 
*Land allotment records.  
*Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940, arranged by agencies for the entire United States [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=filmhitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&filmno=573847 (On 692 Family Histroy Library films beginning with 573847).]
+
*Indian Census Rolls, 1885-1940, arranged by agencies for the entire United States {{FHL|573847|film|disp=(On 692 Family Histroy Library films beginning with 573847).}}
 
*BIA heirship, school, census, annuity, probate, land, vital, and other records.
 
*BIA heirship, school, census, annuity, probate, land, vital, and other records.
  
=== '''Other Records''' ===
+
== Reservations ==
  
The Indian Archives Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society has an extensive collection for Native American research including copies of the Dawes Rolls. Many of these records are on microfilm at the'''Family History Library'''.  
+
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 +
 
 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 +
 
 +
For a current reservation map - [http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/OK.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Oklahoma - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.
 +
 
 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ok.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
 +
 
 +
*[[Absentee Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Absentee-Shawnee Reservation]]
 +
*[[Apache Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Apache Reservation]]
 +
*[[Caddo Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Caddo Reservation]]
 +
*[[Cherokee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cherokee Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Thlequah Agency, Tribe: Cherokee
 +
*[[Cheyenne and Arapaho Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Cheyenne-Arapho Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Concho Agency, Tribes: Cheyenne &amp; Arapho
 +
*[[Chickasaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Chickasaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Ardmore Agency, Tribe:Chickasaw
 +
*[[Choctaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Choctaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Talihina Agency, Tribe Choctaw
 +
*[[Kiowa and Comanche Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Comanche Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Comanche
 +
*[[Creek Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Creek Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Okmulgee Agency, Tribe: Creek
 +
*[[Iowa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Iowa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Iowa
 +
*[[Kansa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kansa (or Kaw) Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Kaw
 +
*[[Kickapoo Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kickapoo Reservation]]: under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Aggency, Tribe: Kickapoo
 +
*[[Kiowa and Comanche Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Kiowa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Kiowa
 +
*[[Modoc Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Modoc Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Modoc
 +
*[[Osage Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|'''Osage''' Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Osage Agency, Tribe: Osage
 +
*[[Oto Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Oto Reservation]]:*Otoe-Missouria Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe Ote-Missouria
 +
*[[Ottawa Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Ottawa Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Ottawa
 +
*[[Pawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Pawnee Reservation]]: Federal, uncer the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Pawnee
 +
*[[Pawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Peoria Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Peoria
 +
*[[Ponca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Ponca Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agnency, Tribe: Ponca
 +
*[[Potawatomi Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Potawatomi Reservation]]:
 +
*[[Quapaw Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Quapaw Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Quapaw
 +
*[[Sac and Fox Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox Reservation]]: federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Sac and Fox
 +
*[[Seminole Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Seminole Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Wewoka Agency, Tribe: Seminole
 +
*[[Seneca Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Seneca Reservation]]:*Seneca-Cayuga Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Seneco-Cayuga
 +
*[[Wichita Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Wichita Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Wichita
 +
*[[Wyandot Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Wyandot Reservation]]: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Wyandot<br>
  
 
== Family History Library  ==
 
== Family History Library  ==
Line 223: Line 252:
 
Five Civilized Tribes Museum<br>Federal Building <br>Agency Hill<br>Honor Heights Drive<br>Muskogee, OK 74401<br>Telephone: 918-683-1701<br>Fax: 918-683-3070<br>Internet: [http://www.fivetribes.org/ www.fivetribes.org]  
 
Five Civilized Tribes Museum<br>Federal Building <br>Agency Hill<br>Honor Heights Drive<br>Muskogee, OK 74401<br>Telephone: 918-683-1701<br>Fax: 918-683-3070<br>Internet: [http://www.fivetribes.org/ www.fivetribes.org]  
  
*Oklahoma Historical Society - Indain Archive Division Cherokee&nbsp; 129 films [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=529945&disp=Cherokee+Nation%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History&nbsp;Library &nbsp;1st film 1666294], Chickasaw 31 films 1st film 1666136, Choctaw 90 films&nbsp; 1st film 1666451, Creek 51 films Family History Library1st film 1666121, and Seminole 6 films 1st film 1666130  
+
*Oklahoma Historical Society - Indain Archive Division Cherokee 129 films {{FHL|529945|title-id|disp=Family History Library 1st film 1666294}}, Chickasaw 31 films 1st film 1666136, Choctaw 90 films 1st film 1666451, Creek 51 films Family History Library1st film 1666121, and Seminole 6 films 1st film 1666130  
*Dawes Commission Rolls - Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (cards, Index M1186&nbsp;and Applicaiton M1301)&nbsp;
+
*Dawes Commission Rolls - Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes (cards, Index M1186 and Applicaiton M1301)  
 
*Guion Miller Rolls (M1104)  
 
*Guion Miller Rolls (M1104)  
*Central Superintendency 108 films M856 [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589935&disp=Records+of+the+Central+Superintendency+o%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library 1st film 1602893]
+
*Central Superintendency 108 films M856 {{FHL|589935|title-id|disp=Family History Library 1st film 1602893}}
*Southern Superintendency 22 films M640 [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=589948&disp=Records+of+the+Southern+Superintendency+%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library 1st film 1602871]
+
*Southern Superintendency 22 films M640 {{FHL|589948|title-id|disp=Family History Library 1st film 1602871}}
*Muskogee Area Office 12 films [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=237236&disp=Agency+records%2C+1883%2D1945%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library 1st film 1205785]
+
*Muskogee Area Office 12 films {{FHL|237236|title-id|disp=Family History Library 1st film 1205785}}
*Indian Pioneer Papers 1860-1935 1012 fiches&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=505140&disp=Indian+pioneer+papers%2C+1860%2D1935%20%20&columns=*,0,0 Family History Library&nbsp;1st fiche 6016865]
+
*Indian Pioneer Papers 1860-1935 1012 fiches {{FHL|505140|title-id|disp=Family History Library 1st fiche 6016865}}
 +
 
 +
See also Family History Library catalog [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Oklahoma+Native+Races&prekeyword=Oklahoma+Native+Races Oklahoma Natvie Races] ror over 600 titles of interest
  
 
=== '''Inventories and guides'''  ===
 
=== '''Inventories and guides'''  ===
Line 236: Line 267:
  
 
*Debo, Angie. “Major Indian Record Collections in Oklahoma,” in ''Indian-White Relations: A Persistent Paradox'', edited by Jane Smith and Robert Kvasnicka. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1976.  
 
*Debo, Angie. “Major Indian Record Collections in Oklahoma,” in ''Indian-White Relations: A Persistent Paradox'', edited by Jane Smith and Robert Kvasnicka. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1976.  
*Svoboda, Joseph G. ''Guide to American Indian Resource Materials in Great Plains Repositories.'' Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, Center for Great Plains Studies, 1983.&nbsp;
+
*Svoboda, Joseph G. ''Guide to American Indian Resource Materials in Great Plains Repositories.'' Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, Center for Great Plains Studies, 1983.
 
+
== Doris Duke Oral History Project  ==
+
  
In the mid-1900s, several universities conducted oral history interviews with Native Americans. The project was funded by Doris Duke, heiress of the Duke tobacco family. The University of Oklahoma was one of the universities that participated in the project. [http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/duke/ Transcripts] of those interviews are online through the University of Oklahoma in Norman.
+
{{reflist}}
  
 
== Other Repositories  ==
 
== Other Repositories  ==
  
*Oklahoma Historical Society, 2100 North Lincoln Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73105  
+
*Oklahoma Historical Society, 800 Nazih Zudih Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105  
 
*Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Federal Building, Muskogee, Oklahoma 73022
 
*Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Federal Building, Muskogee, Oklahoma 73022
  
Line 268: Line 297:
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/ok.pdf Available online.]  
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/OK.pdf Available online.]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].
  
[[Category:Oklahoma]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
+
== Web Sites<br>  ==
 +
 
 +
*[http://www.felihkatubbe.com/ChoctawNation/index.html Choctaw Nation, Indian Territory ]<br>
 +
 
 +
{{American Indian}} {{Oklahoma|Oklahoma}}
 +
 
 +
[[Category:Oklahoma]] [[Category:Biography]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 04:26, 31 August 2013

United States Gotoarrow.png Oklahoma Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Oklahoma

See also Native American Research in Oklahoma and Oklahoma Indian Tribes

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma

Okterritory.png

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Alabama, Apache, Apalachee, Arapaho, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Comanche, Creek, Delaware, Fox, Hitchiti, Illinois, Iowa, Iroquois, Jicarilla, Kansa, Kichai, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Koasati, Lipan, Miami, Mikasuki, Missouri, Modoc, Muklasa, Munsee, Muskhogean, Muskogee, Natchez, Nez Perce, Okmulgee, Osage, Oto, Ottawa. Pawnee, Peoria, Piankashaw, Ponca, Potawatomi, Quapaw, Sauk Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Tawakonie, Tawehash, Tonkawa, Waco, Wea, Wichita, Wyandot, Yscani, Yuchi

Oto-Missouri, Seneca-Cayuga, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Citizen Potawatomi, Eastern Shawnee, Fort Sill Indians, Kiowa-Chiricahua Bands

The Oklahoma Historical Society also has identified the "American Indian Nations" within the boundaries of their state. That list is available on their web site.

Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole)

Beginning in the 1820s, the U.S. Government began moving all tribes east of the Mississippi River to the Indian Territory in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. A series of treaties provided for the removal of almost all principal eastern tribes.

The Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole (known as the Five Civilized Tribes) were among the many southeastern tribes who were removed by treaty to Indian Territory. In 1838 the Cherokees who had not already moved voluntarily were forced to move to Indian Territory. This migration became known as the “Trail of Tears.” Large parcels of land were distributed to these five tribes who became self-governing “Nations.”

White settlers moving west after the Civil War pressured the government to extinguish Indian title to lands and relocate the Indians. The alliance between the Five Civilized Tribes and the Confederacy during the Civil War also provided Congress with an excuse to realign tribal boundaries. Treaties in 1866 and later reduced the land of the Five Civilized Tribes by almost half. These created the “Unassigned Lands” in central Oklahoma that were eventually opened for land runs.

Other Tribes

Some of the western land forfeited by the Five Civilized Tribes was reserved for other tribes through later treaties. These lands in the Indian Territory were assigned to tribes such as the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, and Cheyenne. Other tribes were later brought in at various periods from Texas, Nebraska, California, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, and other states. As many as 65 tribes were eventually relocated to the state.

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Records

The Indian Archives Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society has an extensive collection for Native American research including copies of the Dawes Rolls. Many of these records are on microfilm at theFamily History Library.

Rolls of Indian Tribes in Oklahoma 1889-1891: Absentee Shawnee (Big Jim's Band), Cheyenne and Arapahoe, Iowa, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Comanche, and Apache, Otoe, Missouri, Pawnee, Ponca, Pottawatomie and Fox. by Emily Johnson FHL film: 227281

Approved Roll of Osage Indians in Oklahoma, 1921. FHL film: 989199 item 2

Vital Records Fort Sill Apaches, 1958-1961 FHL film: 928251 item 8

School Records

  • Carter Seminary, 1928-1950. FHL film: 1205529 item 2-6
  • Chilcocco Indian School 1885-1901,1944-1952 FHL film: 1205529 items 7-13
  • Eucheee Indian School lists, 1940-1947. FHL film: 1205529 item 14
  • Eufaula Indian School enrollment lists, 1942-1944, 1949-1950. FHL film: 1205529 item 15-16
  • Jones Academy 1926-1952, FHL film: 1205530 items 3-5 and 1205299 items 2-3
  • Seneca Indian School. 1943-1950. FHL film: 1205530 items 7-8
  • Sequoyah Indian School 1910-1950. FHL film: 1205530 items 9-11, and 1205531, and 1205299 item 4

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Land allotment records

Main article: American Indian Allotment Records


Many Indians received allotments of land. These records are described in the United States Research Outline (30972).

Dawes Rolls

Main article: Dawes Commission Enrollment Records for Five U.S. Indian Tribes


The Dawes “Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes” was established in 1898 to enroll individuals as citizens of one of the five tribes. When the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes were dissolved in 1908, the U.S. Government granted parcels of their land to qualified native individuals.

Many white persons had married Native Americans, and thus were eligible for land. The enrollment records of the Dawes Commission were used to determine eligibility for land.

The commission reviewed the enrollment applications and abstracted the information onto cards known as Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. (On 93 Family History Library films beginning with 1490261.) These records document about 101,000 Native Americans. The original applications are at the National Archives Southwest Region (Ft. Worth) and are on 468 Family History Library films, Applications for Enrollment of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914, beginning with Family History Library film 1439798.

You can search the Dawes Roll for names of persons.

A helpful guide and index to these records is Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory.2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, [1907?]. (Family History Library film 908371 item 2.) (Index is on film 962366.)

Guion Miller Cherokee Rolls

Main article: The U.S. Eastern Cherokee or Guion Miller Roll


In 1906, the U.S. Government appointed Guion Miller to compile a roll of Cherokees eligible for compensation from the government for lands taken in the 1830s. Applicants had to document their lineage back to an Eastern Cherokee living in the 1830s and prove that they had not affiliated with any other tribe. Over 45,000 applications that document about 90,000 Cherokees living about 1910 are in Eastern Cherokee Applications, 1906-1909 (On 348 Family History Library films beginning with 378594; film 378594 has an index.)

These rolls can be searched online at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/native-americans-guion-miller.html

Doris Duke Oral History Project

From 1966 to 1972, several universities conducted oral history interviews with Native Americans. The project was funded by Doris Duke, heiress of the Duke tobacco family. The University of Oklahoma was one of the universities that participated in the project. Transcripts of those interviews are online through the University of Oklahoma in Norman. See American Indian Oral Histories

Indian Pioneer Papers

"My mother, Carolina Jones, was born in the state of Tennessee and is buried there. My grandmother on my mother's side, Nancy Jones, was born in the state of Mississippi and is buried in White County, Tennessee. I was born April 3, 1849, at Stagestand, White County, Tennessee... "[7]

This paragraph begins a fourteen page interview of William Perry Earles of Ringling, Oklahoma, 1938, as part of a project called The Indian-Pioneer Papers . In 1936, the Oklahoma Historical Society and University of Oklahoma requested a writer's project grant from the Works Progress Administration (WPA) in which interviews would be conducted with early settlers in Oklahoma who had lived on Indian land. More than 100 writers conducted over 11,000 interviews and were asked to "call upon early settlers and (record) the story of the migration to Oklahoma and their early life here."[8]

The University of Oklahoma Western History Collection has digitized the Indian Pioneer Papers which consists of approximately 80,000 indexed entries arranged alphabetically by personal name, place name, or subject. [9] An index to the Indian Pioneer Papers may also be found at OkGenWeb Oklahoma Genealogy. To view a separate index of the “Indians in the Indian Pioneer Papers” click here.

The Collection may also be viewed at the Family History Library. "Indian Pioneer Papers, 1860 - 1935" (Millwood, New York: Kraus Microform, 1989) FHL 6016865-6016981


Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Records

The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was authorized to administer Indian programs beginning in 1824. A local field agency or subagency of the BIA served the tribes in a given area. Some of the agencies that served Oklahoma were the Concho, Kiowa, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw, and Shawnee. Most of the agency records are at the National Archives Southwest Region (Ft. Worth), with a few at the National Archives—Central Plains Region. For further information see Edward E. Hill, comp., Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians. Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1981. (Family History Library fiche 6125461.)

The Family History Library has microfilm copies of many records of the BIA and the field agencies including:

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map - Oklahoma - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[10], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[11], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

Family History Library

These are listed in the Family History Library Catalog under Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. The Society's collections are described in Lawrence Kelly, “Indian Records in the Oklahoma Historical Society Archives,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma, 54: 227-44 [Oklahoma Periodicals].

Another major repository for Oklahoma Indian records is:

Five Civilized Tribes Museum
Federal Building
Agency Hill
Honor Heights Drive
Muskogee, OK 74401
Telephone: 918-683-1701
Fax: 918-683-3070
Internet: www.fivetribes.org

See also Family History Library catalog Oklahoma Natvie Races ror over 600 titles of interest

Inventories and guides

The following guides describe some of the records available for Indian research:

  • Debo, Angie. “Major Indian Record Collections in Oklahoma,” in Indian-White Relations: A Persistent Paradox, edited by Jane Smith and Robert Kvasnicka. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1976.
  • Svoboda, Joseph G. Guide to American Indian Resource Materials in Great Plains Repositories. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, Center for Great Plains Studies, 1983.


  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. University of Oklahoma Libraries Western History Collection Interview with William Perry Earles of Ringling, Oklahoma. University of Oklahoma, 1938. Interviewer: Ethel V. Elder. Interviewee: William Perry Earles (ID - 10654)
  8. A.M. Gibson, ed., The West Wind Blows: The Autobiography of Edward Everett Dale (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma Historical Society, 1984), 346-347; Grant Foreman, "The Oklahoma Historical Society," pamphlet, Vertical Files, Library Resources Division, Oklahoma Historical Society (hereafter cited as OHS LRD); "Indian-Pioneer History Project, W.P.A. 131," The Chronicles of Oklahoma, 37 (Winter, 1959-60), 507-509. As reported on okhistory.org/battlecry.html
  9. The University of Oklahoma Western History Collections http://digital.libraries.ou.edu/whc/pioneer/
  10. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  11. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.

Other Repositories

  • Oklahoma Historical Society, 800 Nazih Zudih Drive, Oklahoma City, OK 73105
  • Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Federal Building, Muskogee, Oklahoma 73022

See Also

Oklahoma Church for a list of missions

Oklahoma History for a calendar of events

Oklahoma Military for a list of forts

References


Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.

Web Sites