Indians of Oklahoma

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== Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma  ==
 
== Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma  ==
  
[[Image:Okterritory.png|thumb|Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory about 1890s]]  
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[[Image:Okterritory.png|thumb|400px|Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory about 1890s]]  
  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/oklahoma/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.  

Revision as of 18:28, 26 May 2009

See also Native American Research in Oklahoma and Oklahoma Indian Tribes

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Oklahoma

Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory about 1890s

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.

Alabama, Apache, Apalachee, Anadarko, Arapaho, Biloxi, Caddo, Cherokee, Cheyenne, Chickasaw, Chippewa, Camanche, Creek, Delaware, Fox, Hitchiti, Illinois, Iowa, Iroquois, Jicarilla, Kansa, Kaskaskia, Kaw, Kichai, Kickapoo, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Koasati, Lipan, Miami, Kikasuki, Missouri, Modoc, Muklasa, Munsee, Muskhogean, Muskogee, Natchez, Nez Perce, Okmulgee, Osage, Oto, Oto-Missouri, Ottawa. Pawnee, Peoria, Piankashaw, Ponca, Potwatomi, Quajpaw, Sauk (Sac and Fox), Seminole, Seneca, Shawnee, Tawakoni, Tawehash, Tonkawa, Tuskegee, Waco, Wea, Wichita, Wyandot, Yscani, Yuchi

Oto-Missouri, Seneca-Cayuga, Cheyenne-Arapaho, Citizen Potawatomi, Eastern Shawnee, Fort Sill Indians, Kiowa-Chiricahua Bands

The Oklahoma Historical Society also has identified the "American Indian Nations" within the boundaries of their state. That list is available on their web site.

Five Civilized Tribes (Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole)

Beginning in the 1820s, the U.S. Government began moving all tribes east of the Mississippi River to the Indian Territory in western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. A series of treaties provided for the removal of almost all principal eastern tribes.

The Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek, and Seminole (known as the Five Civilized Tribes) were among the many southeastern tribes who were removed by treaty to Indian Territory. In 1838 the Cherokees who had not already moved voluntarily were forced to move to Indian Territory. This migration became known as the “Trail of Tears.” Large parcels of land were distributed to these five tribes who became self-governing “Nations.”

White settlers moving west after the Civil War pressured the government to extinguish Indian title to lands and relocate the Indians. The alliance between the Five Civilized Tribes and the Confederacy during the Civil War also provided Congress with an excuse to realign tribal boundaries. Treaties in 1866 and later reduced the land of the Five Civilized Tribes by almost half. These created the “Unassigned Lands” in central Oklahoma that were eventually opened for land runs.

Other Tribes

Some of the western land forfeited by the Five Civilized Tribes was reserved for other tribes through later treaties. These lands in the Indian Territory were assigned to tribes such as the Kiowa, Comanche, Wichita, and Cheyenne. Other tribes were later brought in at various periods from Texas, Nebraska, California, Oregon, Idaho, Arizona, and other states. As many as 65 tribes were eventually relocated to the state, including:

  • Alibamu Kiowa Apache Piankashaw
  • Apache Koasati Ponca
  • Apalachee Lipan Potawatomi
  • Arapaho Miami Quapaw
  • Biloxi Mikasuki Sauk
  • Caddo Missouri Seneca
  • Delaware Modoc Shawnee
  • Fox Muklasa Tawakoni
  • Hitchiti Munsee Tawehash
  • Huron Natchez Tonkawa
  • Illinois Nez Percé Tuskegee
  • Iowa Okmulgee Waco
  • Iroquois Osage Wea
  • Jicarilla Oto Wyandot
  • Kansa Ottawa Yscani
  • Kichai Pawnee Yuchi
  • Kickapoo Peoria

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Absentee-Shawnee Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Shawnee
  • Alabama Quassarte Tribal Town
  • Apache Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
  • Caddo Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Caddo
  • Cherokee Nation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Thlequah Agency, Tribe: Cherokee
  • Cheyenne-Arapho: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Concho Agency, Tribes: Cheyenne & Arapho
  • Chickasaw Nation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Ardmore Agency, Tribe:Chickasaw
  • Choctaw Nation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Talihina Agency, Tribe Choctaw
  • Citizen Potawatomi Tribe (OK): Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Potawatomi
  • Comanche Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Comanche
  • Creek Nation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Okmulgee Agency, Tribe: Creek
  • Delaware Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Delaware
  • Eastern Shawnee Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Shawnee
  • Fort Sill Tribe:  Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Apache
  • Iowa Tribe (OK): Federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Iowa
  • Kaw Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Kaw
  • Kickapoo Tribe (OK): under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Aggency, Tribe: Kickapoo
  • Kiowa Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Kiowa
  • Miami Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Miami
  • Modoc Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Miami Agency, Tribe: Modoc
  • Osage Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of the Osage Agency, Tribe: Osage
  • Otoe-Missouria Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe Ote-Missouria
  • Ottawa Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Ottawa
  • Pawnee Tribe: Federal, uncer the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Pawnee
  • Peoria Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Peoria
  • Ponca Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agnency, Tribe: Ponca
  • Potawatomi Reservation:
  • Quapaw Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Quapaw
  • Sac and Fox Tribe (OK): federal, under the jurisdiction of Shawnee Agency, Tribe: Sac and Fox
  • Seminole Nation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Wewoka Agency, Tribe: Seminole
  • Seneco-Cayuga Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Seneco-Cayuga
  • Thlopthlocco Tribal Town
  • Tonkawa Tribe: Federal, underth the jurisdiction of Pawnee Agency, Tribe: Tankawa
  • United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee
  • Whichita Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Anadarko Agency, Tribe: Whichita
  • Wyandotte Tribe: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Miami Agency, Tribe: Wyandotte

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Oklahoma has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[7], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[8], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Records

Land allotment records

Many Indians received allotments of land. These records are described in the United States Research Outline (30972). A major set relating to Oklahoma is the land allotment records of the Five Civilized Tribes. These records are often referred to as the “Dawes Rolls”.

Dawes Rolls

The Dawes “Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes” was established in 1898 to enroll individuals as citizens of one of the five tribes. When the governments of the Five Civilized Tribes were dissolved in 1908, the U.S. Government granted parcels of their land to qualified native individuals.

Many white persons had married Native Americans, and thus were eligible for land. The enrollment records of the Dawes Commission were used to determine eligibility for land.

The commission reviewed the enrollment applications and abstracted the information onto cards known as Enrollment Cards for the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914. (On 93 Family History Library films beginning with 1490261.) These records document about 101,000 Native Americans. The original applications are at the National Archives—Southwest Region and are on 468 Family History Library films, Applications for Enrollment of the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, 1898-1914, beginning with Family History Library film 1439798.

You can search the Dawes Roll for names of persons.

A helpful guide and index to these records is Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, The Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory.2 vols. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, [1907?]. (Family History Library film 908371 item 2.)     (Index is on film 962366.)

Guion Miller Cherokee Rolls

In 1906, the U.S. Government appointed Guion Miller to compile a roll of Cherokees eligible for compensation from the government for lands taken in the 1830s. Applicants had to document their lineage back to an Eastern Cherokee living in the 1830s and prove that they had not affiliated with any other tribe. Over 45,000 applications that document about 90,000 Cherokees living about 1910 are in Eastern Cherokee Applications, 1906-1909 (On 348 Family History Library films beginning with 378594; film 378594 has an index.)

These rolls can be searched online at http://www.archives.gov/research/arc/native-americans-guion-miller.html

Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Records

The U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) was authorized to administer Indian programs beginning in 1824. A local field agency or subagency of the BIA served the tribes in a given area. Some of the agencies that served Oklahoma were the Concho, Kiowa, Osage, Pawnee, Quapaw, and Shawnee. Most of the agency records are at the National Archives—Southwest Region, with a few at the National Archives—Central Plains Region. For further information see Edward E. Hill, comp., Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians. Washington, D.C.: National Archives, 1981. (Family History Library fiche 6125461.)

The Family History Library has microfilm copies of many records of the BIA and the field agencies including:

Other Records

The Indian Archives Division of the Oklahoma Historical Society has an extensive collection for Native American research including copies of the Dawes Rolls. Many of these records are on microfilm at theFamily History Library.

Family History Library

These are listed in the Family History Library Catalog under Oklahoma Historical Society. Indian Archives Division. The Society's collections are described in Lawrence Kelly, “Indian Records in the Oklahoma Historical Society Archives,” The Chronicles of Oklahoma, 54: 227-44 [Oklahoma Periodicals].

Another major repository for Oklahoma Indian records is:

Five Civilized Tribes Museum
Federal Building
Agency Hill
Honor Heights Drive
Muskogee, OK 74401
Telephone: 918-683-1701
Fax: 918-683-3070
Internet: www.fivetribes.org

Inventories and guides

The following guides describe some of the records available for Indian research:

  • Debo, Angie. “Major Indian Record Collections in Oklahoma,” in Indian-White Relations: A Persistent Paradox, edited by Jane Smith and Robert Kvasnicka. Washington, D.C.: Howard University Press, 1976.
  • Svoboda, Joseph G. Guide to American Indian Resource Materials in Great Plains Repositories. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska, Center for Great Plains Studies, 1983. 

Doris Duke Oral History Project

In the mid-1900s, several universities conducted oral history interviews with Native Americans. The project was funded by Doris Duke, heiress of the Duke tobacco family. The University of Oklahoma was one of the universities that participated in the project. Transcripts of those interviews are online through the University of Oklahoma in Norman.

Other Repositories

  • Oklahoma Historical Society, 2100 North Lincoln Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73105
  • Five Civilized Tribes Agency, Federal Building, Muskogee, Oklahoma 73022

See Also

Oklahoma Church for a list of missions

Oklahoma History for a calendar of events

Oklahoma Military for a list of forts

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  7. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  8. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.