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Tribes and Bands of Oregon
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Oregon has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians... and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
Ahantchuyuk, Athapascan, Alsea, Atfalati, Bannock, Calapooya, Chinook, Cayuse, Chastacosta, Chelamela, Chepenafa, Chetco, Clackamas, Clatskanie, Clatsop, Clowwewalla, Dakubetede, Hanis, Kalapooian, Kuitsh, Kusan, Klamath, Latgawa, Lohim, Luckiamute, Lakmiut, Lutuamian, Miluk, Mishikhwutmetunne, Modoc, Molala, Multnomah, Nez Perce, Paiute (Northern), Pit River, Salishan, Santiam, Shahaptiahn, Shasta, Shoshoni, Siletz, Siuslaw, Skilloot, Snake, Takelma, Taltushtuntude, Tenino, Tillamook, Tututni, Tyigh, Umatilla, Umpqua, Waillatpus, Walla Walla, Walpapi, Wasco (Wascopum), Watlala, Yahuskin, Yakima, Yakonan, Yamel, Yaquina, Yoncalla
Burns Paiute Tribe
Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians
Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
- Burns Paiute Reservation
- Celilo Village
- Confederated Tribe of Coos, Lower Umpqua & Siuslaw Indians
- Coos, Lower Umpqua and Siuslaw Reservation:
- Coquille Indian Tribal Community
- Cow Creek
- Fort McDermitt Reservation:
- Grand Ronde Reservation:
- Siletz Reservation: Federal /State, under the jurisdiction of Siletz Agency
- Umatilla Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Umatilla Agency, Tribes: Cayuse, Walla Walla and Umatilla
- Warm Springs Reservation: Federal, under the jurisdiction of Warm Springs Agency, Tribes: Warm Springs, Northern Paiute, and Wasco
Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agencies were created as an administrative division of the federal government to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
- Chiloquin Sub-Agency
- Grand Ronde Agency
- Grand Ronde - Siletz Agency
- Fort Hall Agency, Fort Hall, ID 83203
- Klamath Agency
- Malheur Agency
- Northern Idaho Agency
- Port Orford Agency
- Puget Sound District Agency
- Rogue River Agency
- Roseburg, Greenville & Tule River Agencies (See also California)
- Siletz Agency, P.O. Box 539, Siletz, OR 97380
- Southeastern District Agency
- Umatilla Agency, P.O. Box 520, Pendelton, OR 97801
- Warm Springs Agency, P.O.Box 1239, Warm Springs, OR 97761
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs,1824-1880: Historical Sketches. Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc., 1974 (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o).
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)
The following list of Indian Schools in Oregon has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
- Chemawa Indian School (Family History Library film 1028472)
- Salem School
- Siletz School
- Warm Springs School
Oregon- Church for a list of missions
Oregon-History for a calendar of events
Oregon- Military for a list of forts
Family History Library
The Family History Library has histories of the various tribes that have lived in Oregon. The library also has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs' records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, and heirships. In general, these are for 1877 to 1952 and include records of the Chemawa Indian School, Grand Ronde-Siletz and Klamath agencies and the Portland Area Office. The original documents are at the National Archives—Pacific Alaska Region (Seattle) and their internet site.
- Of special value are the Family Index Cards, 1938-1950 from the Portland Office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (Family History Library films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471) and Family History and Medical Data, 1904-1937 from the Klamath Agency (Family History Library films 1028454 item 2 to 1028455).
- A useful guide is Charles E. McChesney, Rolls of Certain Indian Tribes in Oregon and Washington (Fairfield, Washington: Ye Galleon Press, l969; Family History Library book 970.1 R659).
Other records are also listed in the Subject Search of the Family History Library Catalog under the name of the tribe or in the Place Search of the catalog under the name of the state and various subjects, such as PROBATE RECORDS and LAND AND PROPERTY.
- Jesuits Mission 1853-1960, 34 films, 1st film 1671639 (covering eastern Washington, northern Idaho, western Montana and northeast Oregon)
- Chemawa Indian School 1883-1947, 1st film 1028472 (based in Salem, Oregon)
- Territorial Papers of Oregon 1848-1907, 12 films M1049, 1st film 1695681
- Department of Interior 1849-1907, 10 films M0814, 1st film 1695733
- Office of Indian Affairs Oregon Superintendency 1848-1873, 29 films, 1st film 1617787
- Oregon Superintendency 1842-1880
Records available on the internet can be located by using a search engine with key words such as "Indians Tribes Oregon".
The records are various and covers many different type of records such as births, marriages, deaths, land allotments, school records.
|Film #||Years Covered||Agency||Specifics|
|1025313||1901-1950||Grand Ronde-Siletz||Contains registers of Indian families, 1901-1902, 1922-1927, 1940; census rolls, 1932-1945, 1950.|
|| Warm Springs
||School census & related information|
| 1021383 item 1
| Census 1880, 1882, 1915, 1934|
| 1021384 item 9
|| Warm Springs
|| Burns census (of Paiutes)|
| 1023185 item 2
|| Warm Springs
|| School census|
|| 1920-1924, 1927
||Umatilla Agency census|
| 576913 items 13-14
|| Census for Klamath Indians in the Klamath Agency at Klamath, Oregon, 1892-1893|
|576913 item 18||1896||Klamath||Census for Klamath Indians in the Klamath Agency at Klamath, Oregon, 1896|
| 576913 item 4
|| Census for Klamath, Modoc Indians in the Klamath Agency at Klamath Oregon, 1886|
| 576913 item 6-7
|| Census for Klamath, Modoc Indians in the Klamath Agency at Klamath Oregon, 187-1888|
| 576913 item 10
|| Census for Klamath, Modoc Indians in the Klamath Agency at Klamath Oregon, 1889|
- ↑ Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- ↑ Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- ↑ National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- ↑ Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- ↑ Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- ↑ Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.