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The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) established several field agencies in South Dakota to administer Indian programs on eight different reservations. Various Sioux tribes lived on those reservations, including the Santee, Teton (Brule and Oglala), Yankton, and Yanktonnais. Other Indian tribes who lived in South Dakota in the early nineteenth century included the Arikara, Cheyenne, Omaha, and Poncas.
Tribes and Bands of South Dakota
The following list of American Indians who have lived in South Dakota has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians... and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe.
Arapaho, Arikara, Blackfeet, Brule (Sioux), Cheyenne (Northern), Dakota, Gros Ventre, Hunkpapa, Keyauwee, Kiowa, Loafer,Mandan, Minneconjou, Natchez, Oglala (Sioux), Northern Oglala, Omaha, Pedee, Ponca, Red Cloud Band, Red Leaf Band, Saluda, Santee Sioux, Sewee, Shakori, Shawnee, Siouan, Sisseton Sioux, Sissipahaw, Sugaree, Brule Teton Sioux. Black Pape Sioux, Sioux, Sutaio, Wahzhaghe, Thankton, Two Kettle, Waccamaw, Wahpeton, Wateree, Waxhaw, Winnebago, Winyaw, Wowakita, Yamasee, Yankton (Sioux) Yanktonai (Upper and Lower)
Four Bands of Lakota Sioux: Minnecoujou, Two Kettle, Sans Arc, and Blackfoot
Sioux Tribes: Cheyenne River, Crow Creek, Flandreau Santee, Lower Brule, Oglala, Rosebud, Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate, Standing Rock and Yankton
- Cheyenne River Reservation (created ______)
- Crow Creek Reservation (created ______)
- Flandreau Reservation -- Federal, under jurisdiction of the Flandreau Santee Sioux Agency, Tribe: Flandreau Santee Sioux
- Grande River Reservation
- Lake Traverse Reservation
- Lower Brule Reservation -- Federal, under jurisdiction of the Lower Brule Agency, Tribe: Sioux
- Pine Ridge Reservation or Wowakita Reservation -- Federal, under jurisdiction of the Pine Ridge Agency, Tribe: Oglala Sioux
- Rosebud Reservation (before 1878 Spotted Trail) -- Federal, under jurisdiction of the Rosebud Agency, Tribe: Sioux
- Sisseton Reservation
- Spotted Tail Reservation -- Prior to 1878, this was the name for the current Rosebud Reservation (see above).
- Standing Rock Reservation -- Standing Rock Reservation is located in south-central North Dakota and in north-central South Dakota. It consists of over 3500 square miles in Sioux County, North Dakota and Corson County, South Dakota, along with small parts of Dewey and Ziebach Counties, South Dakota, The population of 8250 (2000 pop. figures) are Dakota and Lakota Sioux.
- Wowakita Reservation -- This is another name for the Pine Ridge Reservation (see above).
- Yankton Reservation -- Federal, under jurisdiction of the Yankton Agency, Tribe Yankton Sioux
- Isaacs, Katherine M., Omni Gazetteer of the United States of American. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservation, Appendix E. Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics. Inc., 1991.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. (Family History Library book 970.1 Sm69; Family History Library film 1320577 Item 1)
- Swanton, John W. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin #145 1984 (Family History Library book: 970.1 S24)
ISBN: 0 8063 1730 2 LC 2002117802
Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs
Agencies were created as an administrative division of the federal government to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
- Cheyenne River Agency
- Crow Creek Agency
- Grand River Agency
- Lower Brule Agency
- Pierre Agency
- Pine Ridge Agency
- Red Cloud Agency
- Rosebud Agency
- Spotted Tail Agency
- Standing Rock Agency
- Upper Missouri Agency
- Whetstone Agency 1871-1874
- Yankton Agency, 1859-1876
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)
The following list of Indian Schools in South Dakota has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
- Chamberlain School
- Flandreau School 1906-1937 (Family History Library film 1017424 )
- Holy Rosary Mission School
- Hope School
- Indian Training School
- Oglala Boarding School
- Oglala Lakota College, near Kyle, four year accredited
- Pierre School (record group 75 roll 167 Family History Library 1205162 )
- Rapid City School (Family History Library film 1204882)
- Sisseton-Wahpeton College.
- Springfield School
In addition to government schools for the Native Americans, several churches established educational institutions for them. Among them were:
- Catholic Mission Schools (Family History Library has some records)
- Protesant Mission Schools (Family History Library has some records)
Indian Health Facilities
The Family History Library has 130 microfilms of BIA records from the Cheyenne River, Pine Ridge, Rosebud, Sisseton, Standing Rock, and other agencies. These include birth, marriage, death, adoption, census, school, land allotment, probate, military, and miscellaneous records. Most of the records were created between 1870 and 1970.
Major James McLaughlin records 1855-1937 (Family History Library 1st film 0541380)
Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs 1813-1878 (108 films M 856 Family History Library 1st film 1602893)
Dakota Superintendency (13 films M1016 Family History Library 1st film 1549632)
1880 Rosebud Census and 1886 - 1842 Supplemental Vital records M 59(Family History Library1st film 0573847 )
These records are listed in the Locality Search of the Family History Library Catalog under NATIVE RACES and other subjects such as CENSUS, VITAL RECORDS, and LAND AND PROPERTY. You will also find records listed in the subject section of the Family History Library Catalog under the names of the tribe, such as SIOUX INDIANS.
The original BIA records are at the National Archives—Central Plains Region at Kansas City, MO (see Archives and Libraries Section above for address).
South Dakota_Church Records for a list of missions
South Dakota_Military Records for a list of forts
- ↑ Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- ↑ Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- ↑ Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- ↑ Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
- American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
- Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.