Indians of Virginia

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To learn how to get started with American Indian research, find research facilities, and American Indian websites [[American Indian Genealogy|click here]].<br>
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Virginia]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Virginia|Indians of Virginia]]''
  
== Tribes and Bands of Virginia  ==
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=== Tribes and Bands of Virginia  ===
  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Virginia has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/virginia/index.htm Available online].</ref>.  
 
The following list of American Indians who have lived in Virginia has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/virginia/index.htm Available online].</ref>.  
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*Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe<br>
 
*Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe<br>
  
*See also [[Melungeons|Melungeons]], not a tribe, but probably part American Indian<br>
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*See also [[Melungeons|Melungeons]], not a tribe, but probably part American Indian
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===== Tribes Recognized by the State of Virginia  =====
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Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Chickahominy Tribe, Eastern Chickahominy, Mattiponi Indian Nation, Manacan Indian Nation, Nansemond Indian Tribal Association, Nottoway of Virginia, Pamunkey Nation, Patawomeck Indians of Virginia, United Rappahannock Indian Tribe, and Upper Mataponi Indian Tribe
  
 
See Virginia Council on Indians list of [http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes.cfm state recognized tribes].  
 
See Virginia Council on Indians list of [http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes.cfm state recognized tribes].  
  
== Reservations  ==
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=== Records  ===
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==== Indian Schools  ====
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The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
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In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
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The following list of Indian Schools in Virginia has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
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*[[Hampton Institute (Virginia)|Hampton Institute]]
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<br>
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=== Reservations  ===
  
 
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
 
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.  
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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
 
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/va.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=433280&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Omni+gazetteer+of+the+United+States+of+A%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 973 E5])</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/va.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.  
  
 
*Mattapony Reservation: State, Tribe: Mattapony  
 
*Mattapony Reservation: State, Tribe: Mattapony  
 
*Pamunkey Reservation: State, Tribe: Pamunkey
 
*Pamunkey Reservation: State, Tribe: Pamunkey
  
== Indian Schools ==
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=== Other Repositories ===
 
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The Office of Indian Affairs (now the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]]) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
+
 
+
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])
+
 
+
The following list of Indian Schools in Virginia has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.
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*[[Hampton Institute (Virginia)|Hampton Institute]]
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== Other Repositories  ==
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*John Hopkins University
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*American Indians in Virginia are sometimes listed in the court order books.
  
*John Hopkins University
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See Also
  
== See Also  ==
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*[[Virginia Military Records|Virginia-Military records]] for a list of forts
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*[[Virginia History|Virginia-History]] for a calendar of events
  
[[Virginia Military Records|Virginia-Military records]] for a list of forts
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===== Family History Library =====
  
[[Virginia History|Virginia-History]] for a calendar of events
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Family History Library catalog [https://familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titlehitlist&columns=*%2C0%2C0&keyword=Virginia+Native+Races&prekeyword=Virginia+Native+Races Virginia Native Races] for over 50 titles of interest
  
== Important Websites  ==
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=== Important Websites  ===
  
[http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes.cfm Virginia Council on Indians] listing of state recognized tribes.  
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*[http://indians.vipnet.org/tribes.cfm Virginia Council on Indians] listing of state recognized tribes.
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*Dozens of articles about the history of American Indians in Virginia can be found by using the [[Periodical Source Index (PERSI)|PERiodical Source Index (PERSI)]].
  
== References  ==
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=== References  ===
  
 
<references />
 
<references />
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*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/va.pdf Available online.]  
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*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/VA.pdf Available online.]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/virginia/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/virginia/index.htm Available online].
  
{{Virginia|Virginia}}  
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{{American Indian}} {{Virginia|Virginia}}  
  
[[Category:Virginia]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Melungeons]]
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[[Category:Virginia|American Indians]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Melungeons]]

Revision as of 01:10, 15 August 2013

United States Gotoarrow.png Virginia Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Virginia

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Virginia

The following list of American Indians who have lived in Virginia has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2].

  • Cherokee
  • Chickahominy Indian Tribe
  • Manahoac
  • Meherrin
  • Monacan
  • Nahyssan
  • Nansemond Indian Tribe
  • Nottaway
  • Occaneech
  • Powhatan
  • Saponi
  • Shawnee
  • Tutelo
  • United Rappahannock Tribe
  • Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe
  • See also Melungeons, not a tribe, but probably part American Indian
Tribes Recognized by the State of Virginia

Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe, Chickahominy Tribe, Eastern Chickahominy, Mattiponi Indian Nation, Manacan Indian Nation, Nansemond Indian Tribal Association, Nottoway of Virginia, Pamunkey Nation, Patawomeck Indians of Virginia, United Rappahannock Indian Tribe, and Upper Mataponi Indian Tribe

See Virginia Council on Indians list of state recognized tribes.

Records

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Virginia has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.


Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[5], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[6], and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

  • Mattapony Reservation: State, Tribe: Mattapony
  • Pamunkey Reservation: State, Tribe: Pamunkey

Other Repositories

  • John Hopkins University
  • American Indians in Virginia are sometimes listed in the court order books.

See Also

Family History Library

Family History Library catalog Virginia Native Races for over 50 titles of interest

Important Websites

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  5. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  6. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States. Pp. 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.