Indians of Washington

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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Washington]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Indians_of_Washington]]''
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== Tribes and Bands of Washington  ==
 
== Tribes and Bands of Washington  ==
  
Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some are simply variant spellings for the same tribe.  
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Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. Many of them signed treaties with the United States government and ceded claims to land. A maps of some of these land cessions is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/Tribal_Cedres.pdf available online]. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's ''Handbook of American Indians...''<ref>Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].</ref> and from Swanton's ''The Indian Tribes of North America''<ref>Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].</ref>. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. A map of the current Federally-Recognized Tribes of Washington State is [http://www.goia.wa.gov/tribal_gov/documents/WAStateTribalMap.pdf available online].  
  
'''Tribes:''' Chathlamet, Cathlapotle, Cayuse, Chehalis, Chelan, Chinook, Chilluckittequaw, Clallam, Chimakum, Clackamas, Clallum, Clapsop. Coeur d'Alene, Colum, Colville, Copalis, Cowlitz, Duwamish, Hoh, Humptulip, Kalispel, Klallam, Klickitat, Kwaiailk, Swalhioqua, Lummi, Makah, Methow, Mical, Muckleshoot, Neketemeuk, Nespelem, Nez Perce, Nisqually, Nooksack, Ntlayapamuk, Okanagon, Ozette, Palouse, Pshwanwapam, Puyallup, Queets or Quitso, Quileute, Quinault, Quillayute, Sahehwamish, Salish, Sanpoil, Satsop, Semiahmoo, Senijextee, Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius, Skagit, Sinkiuse-Columbia, Skagit-Suiattle, Skitswish, Skilloot, Skin, Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Spokane, Squaxon or Squakson, Suquamish, Suiattle, Swallah, Swinomish, Taidnapam, Topnish, Tulalip, Twana, Wallawalla, Wanapum, Wasco, Watlala, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wynoochee, Yakima
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'''Tribes:''' Chathlamet, Cathlapotle, [[Cayuse Indians|Cayuse]], [[Chehalis Indians|Chehalis]], Chelan, Chilluckittequaw, Chinook, '''Clackamas''',[[Clallam Indians|Clallam]],[[Clallam Indians|Clallum]], Columbia, [[Coeur d'Alene Indians|Coeur d'Alene]],&nbsp; [[Colville Indians|Colville]], Copalis, [[Cowlitz Indians|Cowlitz]], Duwamish, [[Hoh Indians|Hoh]], Humptulip, [[Kalispel Indians|Kalispel]], Klickitat, Kwaiailk,Kwalhioqua,&nbsp;&nbsp; [[Lummi Indians|Lummi]], [[Makah Indians|Makah]], Methow, Mical, [[Muckleshoot Indians|Muckleshoot]], Neketemeuk, Nespelem, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], [[Nisqualli Indians|Nisqually]], [[Nooksack Indians|Nooksack]], Ntlayapamuk, Okanagon, [[Ozette Indians|Ozette]], Palouse, Pshwanwapam, [[Puyallup Indians|Puyallup]], Queets or Quitso, [[Quileute Indians|Quileute]], [[Quinault Indians|Quinault]], Sahehwamish, [[Salish Indians|Salish]], [[Samish Indians|Samish]], [[Sanpoil Indians|Sanpoil]], Satsop, Semiahmoo, Senijextee, [[Shoalwater Bay Indians|Shoalwater Bay]], Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius, Skagit, Sinkiuse-Columbia, Skilloot, Skin, [[Snohomish Indians|Snohomish]], [[Snoqualmie Indians|Snoqualmie]], [[Spokane Indians|Spokane]], [[Squaxin Island Indians|Squaxin]] or Squakson, [[Suquamish Indians|Suquamish]], [http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ Stillaguam][http://stillaguamish.nonprofitsites.com/ ish], [[Swinomish Indians|Swinomish]], Taidnapam, [[Tulalip Indians|Tulalip]], Twana, [[Upper Skagit Indians|Upper Skagit]], [[Walla Walla Indians|Walla Walla]], Wanapam, Watlala, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wynoochee, [[Yakama Indians|Yakama]]
  
'''Confederated Tribes:''' Colville, Okanogan, Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, Nez Perce, Palouse  
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'''Confederated Tribes:''' [[Colville Indians|Colville]], [[Okanagan Indians|Okanagan]], Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, [[Nez Perce Indians|Nez Perce]], and &nbsp;Palouse  
  
== Reservations ==
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==== Tribes Recognized by the State of Washington ====
  
Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.
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Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon and Washington, Inc. (also known as Chinook Nation)  
 
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From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
+
 
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Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
 
+
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
+
 
+
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/wa.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Those reservations named in '''bold''' are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
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*'''Chehalis Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Chehalis
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*'''Colville Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]], Tribes: Confederated Tribes
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*'''Hoh Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Hoh
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*Jamestown Reservation
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*'''Kalispel Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Kalispel
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*'''Lower Elwha Reservation''' -- Federal, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Clallam
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*'''Lummi Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribes: Lummi and Nooksack
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*'''Makah Reservation''' -- Federal, under the juisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Makah
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*'''Muckleshoot Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Muckleshoot
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*Nez Perce Reservation -- Part of this reservation historically was in Washington. See [[Indians of Idaho|Indians of Idaho]] for additional information.
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*'''Nisqually Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe Nisqually
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*Nooksack Reservation
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*'''Ozette Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of __________,&nbsp; Tribe:_______
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*'''Port Gamble Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Clallam
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*'''Port Madison Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Suquamish
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*'''Puyallup Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe Puyallup
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*'''Quileute Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Quileute
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*'''Quinault Reservation''' -- Federal. under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Quinault
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*Saulk-Suiattle Reservation--State, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe:
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*'''Shoalwater Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Quinault, Chinook, and Chehalis
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*'''Skokomish Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Skokomish
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*'''Spokane Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Spokane
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*'''Squaxin Island Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Squaxin Island
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*Stillaguamish Reservation, State, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe:_____
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*'''Swinomish Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Swinomish
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*'''Tulalip Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Snohomish
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*Upper Skagit Tribe
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*'''Yakama Reservation''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], Tribe Fourteen Confederated Tribes from the Yakima Nation
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== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
 
== Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs  ==
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.  
  
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
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The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Columbia River Indian Agency (Washington)|Columbia River Agency]]  
 
*[[Columbia River Indian Agency (Washington)|Columbia River Agency]]  
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*[[Cushman Indian Agency (Washington)|Cushman Agency]]  
 
*[[Cushman Indian Agency (Washington)|Cushman Agency]]  
 
*[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]]  
 
*[[Flathead Indian Agency (Montana)|Flathead Agency]]  
*[[Eastern District Indian Agency (Montana)|Eastern District Agency ]]<br>  
+
*[[Eastern District Indian Agency (Montana)|Eastern District Agency ]]<br>
 
*[[Makah Indian Agency (Washington)|Makah Agency]]  
 
*[[Makah Indian Agency (Washington)|Makah Agency]]  
 
*[[Neah Bay Indian Agency (Washington)|Neah Bay Agency]]  
 
*[[Neah Bay Indian Agency (Washington)|Neah Bay Agency]]  
 
*[[Nisqually Indian Agency (Washington)|Nisqually Agency]]  
 
*[[Nisqually Indian Agency (Washington)|Nisqually Agency]]  
*[[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], P.O.Box 120, Office Building Hoquiam, WA, 98550<br>  
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*[[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], P.O.Box 120, Office Building Hoquiam, WA, 98550<br>
*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce]] (Washington East of the Cascades) Agency<br>  
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*[[Nez Perce Indian Agency (Idaho)|Nez Perce]] (Washington East of the Cascades) Agency<br>
 
*[[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], 3006 Colby St., Federal Bldg, Everett, Wa, 98201  
 
*[[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], 3006 Colby St., Federal Bldg, Everett, Wa, 98201  
 
*[[Puyallup Indian Agency (Washington)|Puyallup Agency]]  
 
*[[Puyallup Indian Agency (Washington)|Puyallup Agency]]  
*[[Quinaielt Indian Agency (Washington)|Quinaielt Agency ]]  
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*[[Quinaielt Indian Agency (Washington)|Quinaielt Agency]]  
*Skokomish Agency  
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*[[Skokomish Indian Agency (Washington)|Skokomish Agency]]
 
*[[Southern District Agency (Washington)|Southern District Agency]]  
 
*[[Southern District Agency (Washington)|Southern District Agency]]  
 
*[[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], P.O.Box 389, Wellpinit, WA, 99040  
 
*[[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], P.O.Box 389, Wellpinit, WA, 99040  
 
*[[Swinomish Indian Agency (Washington)|Swinomish Agency]]  
 
*[[Swinomish Indian Agency (Washington)|Swinomish Agency]]  
 
*[[Taholah Indian Agency (Washington)|Taholah Agency]]  
 
*[[Taholah Indian Agency (Washington)|Taholah Agency]]  
*[[Tulalip Indian Agency (Washington)|Tulalip Agency]]<br>  
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*[[Tulalip Indian Agency (Washington)|Tulalip Agency]]<br>
 +
*[[Western Washington Indian Agency (Washington)|Western Washington Agency]]
 
*[[Washington East of the Cascades Indian Agency|Washington East of the Cascades Agency]]  
 
*[[Washington East of the Cascades Indian Agency|Washington East of the Cascades Agency]]  
 
*[[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], P.O. Box 632, Toppenish, WA 98948
 
*[[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], P.O. Box 632, Toppenish, WA 98948
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 +
=== Enrollment and Allotment Records  ===
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 +
[[American Indian Enrollment Records|Enrollment Records]]
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United States Office of Indiana Affairs, ''Application for Enrollment and Allotment of Washington Indians, 1911-1919.'' M1343. {{FHL|362386|item|disp=FHL films 1605469(first of 6)}}
  
 
== Indian Schools  ==
 
== Indian Schools  ==
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In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
 
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. ([[American Indian School Records|read more...]])  
  
The following list of Indian Schools in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=247426&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=The+Office+of+Indian+Affairs%2C+1824%2D1%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551o].)</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;titleno=207428&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;disp=Guide+to+records+in+the+National+Archive%20%20&amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;columns=*,0,0 book 970.1 H551g].)</ref>, and others.  
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The following list of Indian Schools in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. {{FHL|247426|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551o}}</ref>, Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. {{FHL|207428|item|disp=FHL book 970.1 H551g}}</ref>, and others.  
  
 
*[[Cushman Indian School (Washington)|Cushman School]]  
 
*[[Cushman Indian School (Washington)|Cushman School]]  
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== Family History Library  ==
 
== Family History Library  ==
  
A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in [[Portal:Washington|Washington]]. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).  
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*A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in [[Washington]]. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the [http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).]
  
An especially useful source is the collection, ''Family Index Cards, 1938-1950'', created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office ([http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=129295&disp=Family+index+cards%2C+1938-1950++ Family History Library films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471]).
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*An especially useful source is the collection, ''Family Index Cards, 1938-1950'', created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office {{FHL|129295|item|disp=FHL films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471}}
  
Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the '''Family History Library Catalog '''under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.  
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*Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the '''Family History Library Catalog '''under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.
  
*Washington Superintendency records (on [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=403591&disp=Records+of+the+Washington+Superintendenc%20%20&columns=*,0,0 26 Family History Library films beginning with 1637277].)
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*Washington Superintendency records {{FHL|403591|item|disp=FHL films 1637277 (first of 26)}}
*Jesuits records 1853-1960 ( on [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&columns=*%2C0%2C0&titleno=501251&disp=The+Pacific+northwest+tribes+missions+co++ 34 films Family History Library beginning with 1671639] .)
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*Jesuits records 1853-1960 {{FHL|501251|item|disp=FHL films 1671639 (first of 34)}}
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== Reservations  ==
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Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one [[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|agency]] of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.
 +
 
 +
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
 +
 
 +
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
 +
 
 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
 +
 
 +
For a current reservation map -[http://nationalatlas.gov/printable/printableViewer.htm?imgF=images/preview/fedlands/WA.gif&imgW=588&imgH=450 Washington - Indian Reservations ]- The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.  
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 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/wa.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.</ref>, and other sources. Other reservations have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.<br>
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 +
*[[Chehalis Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Chehalis Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Chehalis
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*Columbia Reservation--Established: April 19, 1879. Allotted Land 25,172 acres Tribe: Moses's Band (Sinkiuse)
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*[[Colville Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Colville Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Colville Indian Agency (Washington)|Colville Agency]], Tribes: Confederated Tribes
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*[[Hoh Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Hoh''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Hoh
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*Jamestown Reservation
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*[[Kalispel Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Kalispel Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Kalispel
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*[[Lower Elwha Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Lower Elwha Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the&nbsp;jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Clallam
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*[[Lummi Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Lummi Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribes: Lummi and Nooksack
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*[[Makah Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Makah Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the juisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Makah
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*[[Muckleshoot Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Muckleshoot Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Muckleshoot
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*[[Nez Perce Indian Reservation (Idaho)|Nez Perce Reservation]] -- Part of this reservation historically was in Washington. See [[Indians of Idaho|Indians of Idaho]] for additional information.
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*[[Nisqually Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Nisqually Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe Nisqually
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*Nooksack Reservation
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*'''[[Ozette Indian Reservation (Washington)|Ozette Reservation]]''' -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]],&nbsp; Tribe: Ozette&nbsp;
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*[[Port Gamble Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Port Gamble Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Clallam
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*[[Port Madison Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Port Madison Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Suquamish
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*[[Puyallup Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Puyallup Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe Puyallup
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*[[Quileute Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Quileute Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Quileute
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*[[Quinault Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Quinault Reservation''']] -- Federal. under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Quinault
 +
*Sauk-Suiattle Reservation -- State, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe:
 +
*[[Shoalwater Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Shoalwater Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribes: Quinault, Chinook, and Chehalis
 +
*[[Skokomish Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Skokomish Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Skokomish
 +
*[[Spokane Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Spokane Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Spokane Indian Agency (Washington)|Spokane Agency]], Tribe: Spokane
 +
*[[Squaxin Island Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Squaxin Island Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Olympic Peninsula Indian Agency (Washington)|Olympic Peninsula Agency]], Tribe: Squaxin Island
 +
*Stillaguamish Reservation --&nbsp;State, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe:_____
 +
*[[Swinomish Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Swinomish Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Swinomish
 +
*[[Tulalip Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Tulalip Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Puget Sound Indian Agency (Washington)|Puget Sound Agency]], Tribe: Snohomish
 +
*[[Yakama Indian Reservation (Washington)|'''Yakama Reservation''']] -- Federal, under the jurisdiction of [[Yakima Indian Agency (Washington)|Yakima Agency]], Tribe Fourteen Confederated Tribes from the Yakima Nation
  
 
== See Also:  ==
 
== See Also:  ==
Line 111: Line 127:
 
[[Washington Military Records|Washington-Military]] for a list of forts  
 
[[Washington Military Records|Washington-Military]] for a list of forts  
  
== Web Sites ==
+
== OnLine Links ==
  
National Archives: [http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/]  
+
*[http://www.archives.gov/pacific-alaska/seattle/ National Archives]
  
Bureau of Indian Affairs: [http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html]  
+
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Bureau of Indian Affairs]
  
Washington State Tribal Directory: [http://www.goia.wa.gov/Tribal-Directory/TribalDirectory.pdf http://www.goia.wa.gov/Tribal-Directory/TribalDirectory.pdf]  
+
*[http://www.goia.wa.gov/Tribal-Directory/TribalDirectory.pdf Washington State Tribal Directory]
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />  
+
<references />
  
==== Bibliography ====
+
==== Bibliography ====
  
 
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.  
 
*"Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.  
Line 130: Line 146:
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches''. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
 
*''Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880''. National Archives Microcopy T1105.  
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
+
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/handbook_american_indians.htm Available online].  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
 
*Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.  
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/wa.pdf Available online.]  
+
*National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/WA.pdf Available online.]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*''Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/washington/index.htm Available online].
 +
 +
{{American Indian}} {{Washington|Washington}}
  
 
[[Category:Washington]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Washington]] [[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 16:55, 27 November 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png Washington Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians_of_Washington

Contents

Tribes and Bands of Washington

Many tribes and bands of Indians have historically resided in the Pacific Northwest. Many of them signed treaties with the United States government and ceded claims to land. A maps of some of these land cessions is available online. The following list of American Indians who have lived in Washington has been compiled from Hodge's Handbook of American Indians...[1] and from Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America[2]. Some may simply be variant spellings for the same tribe. A map of the current Federally-Recognized Tribes of Washington State is available online.

Tribes: Chathlamet, Cathlapotle, Cayuse, Chehalis, Chelan, Chilluckittequaw, Chinook, Clackamas,Clallam,Clallum, Columbia, Coeur d'AleneColville, Copalis, Cowlitz, Duwamish, Hoh, Humptulip, Kalispel, Klickitat, Kwaiailk,Kwalhioqua,   Lummi, Makah, Methow, Mical, Muckleshoot, Neketemeuk, Nespelem, Nez Perce, Nisqually, Nooksack, Ntlayapamuk, Okanagon, Ozette, Palouse, Pshwanwapam, Puyallup, Queets or Quitso, Quileute, Quinault, Sahehwamish, Salish, Samish, Sanpoil, Satsop, Semiahmoo, Senijextee, Shoalwater Bay, Sinkaietk, Sinkakaius, Skagit, Sinkiuse-Columbia, Skilloot, Skin, Snohomish, Snoqualmie, Spokane, Squaxin or Squakson, Suquamish, Stillaguamish, Swinomish, Taidnapam, Tulalip, Twana, Upper Skagit, Walla Walla, Wanapam, Watlala, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wynoochee, Yakama

Confederated Tribes: Colville, Okanagan, Lakees, San Poil, Methow, Nespelem, Entiat, Wenatchee, Moses, Nez Perce, and  Palouse

Tribes Recognized by the State of Washington

Chinook Indian Tribe of Oregon and Washington, Inc. (also known as Chinook Nation)

Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[3], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[4], and others.

Enrollment and Allotment Records

Enrollment Records

United States Office of Indiana Affairs, Application for Enrollment and Allotment of Washington Indians, 1911-1919. M1343. FHL films 1605469(first of 6)

Indian Schools

The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.

In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)

The following list of Indian Schools in Washington has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[5], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[6], and others.

Indian Health Facilities

Family History Library

  • A wealth of genealogical information is available for the various Indian tribes in Washington. Besides published histories, the Family History Library has microfilm copies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) records of births, marriages, deaths, censuses, schools, land allotments, heirships, and family records. They are available from about 1887 to 1952 from agencies such as the Colville, Puyallup, Taholah, Tulalip, and Yakama. The original documents are at the National Archives—Pacific Northwest Region (Seattle).
  • An especially useful source is the collection, Family Index Cards, 1938-1950, created by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Portland Area Office FHL films 1028470 item 4 to 1028471
  • Records of American Indians are also listed in the Subject section of the Family History Library Catalog under the names of the agency or tribe. Some of these tribes are the Nez Perce, Yakama, and Chinook.

Reservations

Many of the reservations in Washington are small, with one agency of the Bureau of Indian Affairs having responsibilities for the tribes residing on several reservations. Most of the records kept by the federal government about the tribes will be found in the appropriate agency.

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

For a current reservation map -Washington - Indian Reservations - The National Atlas of the United States of America. Federal Lands and Indian Reservations. by the U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Geological Survey.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[7], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[8], and other sources. Other reservations have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.

See Also:

Washington-Church for a list of Missions

Washington-History for a calendar of events

Washington-Military for a list of forts

OnLine Links

References

  1. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  2. Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  3. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  4. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g
  5. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. FHL book 970.1 H551o
  6. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. FHL book 970.1 H551g
  7. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  8. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.

Bibliography

  • "Accompanying Pamphlet for Microcopy 1011", National Archives Microfilm Publications, Appendix.
  • American Indians: A Select Catalog of National Archives Microfilm Publications. Washington DC: National Archives Trust Fund Board, National Archives and Records Administration, 1998.
  • Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981.
  • Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Publishing Company, Inc., 1974.
  • Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
  • Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.
  • National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  • Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Services. Available online
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.