Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)

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The Leech Lake Reservation was established by Treaty of Feb. 22, 1855 (X, 1165); Executive orders, Nov. 4, 1873, and May 26,1874 and an act of Jan. 14, 1889 (XXV, 642). Leech Lake Reservation was '''probably established after 1862''' and not in 1855. The '''treaty of February 22, 1855''' probably recognized this band of Chippewa's district. The Leech Lake Chippewa's are descended primarily from the military and police totem of the Algonquin's. They are also known as the Pillagers. Northern Minnesota was vacant of white settlements until after the 1887 '''Dawes Act''' and 1889 '''Nelson Act'''.  
 
The Leech Lake Reservation was established by Treaty of Feb. 22, 1855 (X, 1165); Executive orders, Nov. 4, 1873, and May 26,1874 and an act of Jan. 14, 1889 (XXV, 642). Leech Lake Reservation was '''probably established after 1862''' and not in 1855. The '''treaty of February 22, 1855''' probably recognized this band of Chippewa's district. The Leech Lake Chippewa's are descended primarily from the military and police totem of the Algonquin's. They are also known as the Pillagers. Northern Minnesota was vacant of white settlements until after the 1887 '''Dawes Act''' and 1889 '''Nelson Act'''.  
  
In 1889, the United States passed the '''Nelson Act''' which was passed to specifically eradicate the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations except Red Lake and a tiny part of the White Earth Reservation. It led to serious problems among the Minnesota Chippewa's, especially the Leech Lake Chippewa's. In the mid 1890's, the Chippewa's were planning some sort of secret military uprising. The United States found out and had the Leech Lake leader assassinated. However, '''chief Bugonaygishig''' took over and the short 1898 rebellion followed.  
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In 1889, the United States passed the '''Nelson Act '''which was passed to specifically eradicate the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations except Red Lake and a tiny part of the White Earth Reservation. It led to serious problems among the Minnesota Chippewa's, especially the Leech Lake Chippewa's. In the mid 1890's, the Chippewa's were planning some sort of secret military uprising. The United States found out and had the Leech Lake leader assassinated. However, '''chief Bugonaygishig''' took over and the short 1898 rebellion followed.  
  
 
After the short war the United States returned the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations and actually established the '''Chippewa National Forest''' which makes up almost the entire land area of the Leech Lake Reservation. '''Leech Lake Reservation is, thus, off limits or Protected'''  
 
After the short war the United States returned the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations and actually established the '''Chippewa National Forest''' which makes up almost the entire land area of the Leech Lake Reservation. '''Leech Lake Reservation is, thus, off limits or Protected'''  
  
Throughout the large Reservation are as many as 20 communities. At least 11 have official names. The remaining communities are located from just north of Cass Lake, south to near Walker, Minnesota. They are categorized as being parts of townships rather than a distinct community. However, nearly all have at least one area of a cluster of housing units which number from 10 to over 50. Leaders of the Reservation have to eventually follow their own rules and deal with each of these communities as a distinct community, instead of white counties having control over them.<br>
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Throughout the large Reservation are as many as 20 communities. At least 11 have official names. The remaining communities are located from just north of Cass Lake, south to near Walker, Minnesota. They are categorized as being parts of townships rather than a distinct community. However, nearly all have at least one area of a cluster of housing units which number from 10 to over 50. Leaders of the Reservation have to eventually follow their own rules and deal with each of these communities as a distinct community, instead of white counties having control over them.
  
 
They must issue a name for each of the communities and manage to financially support each one so they can accept jurisdiction over their communities borders or city limits. Sooner or later, these scattered Chippewa communities are going to have to come to the attention of the leaders of Leech Lake Reservation.  
 
They must issue a name for each of the communities and manage to financially support each one so they can accept jurisdiction over their communities borders or city limits. Sooner or later, these scattered Chippewa communities are going to have to come to the attention of the leaders of Leech Lake Reservation.  

Revision as of 01:55, 23 February 2013

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Indians of Minnesota Gotoarrow.png Leech Lake Indian Reservation (Minnesota)


The Leech Lake Reservation is a federally-recognized reservation in Minnesota.

Established -- 22 February 1855
Agency (BIA) --
Principal tribes -- Cass Lake, Pillager, and Lake Winnibigoshish Bands of Chippewa
Population --

Contents

History

The Leech Lake Reservation was established by Treaty of Feb. 22, 1855 (X, 1165); Executive orders, Nov. 4, 1873, and May 26,1874 and an act of Jan. 14, 1889 (XXV, 642). Leech Lake Reservation was probably established after 1862 and not in 1855. The treaty of February 22, 1855 probably recognized this band of Chippewa's district. The Leech Lake Chippewa's are descended primarily from the military and police totem of the Algonquin's. They are also known as the Pillagers. Northern Minnesota was vacant of white settlements until after the 1887 Dawes Act and 1889 Nelson Act.

In 1889, the United States passed the Nelson Act which was passed to specifically eradicate the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations except Red Lake and a tiny part of the White Earth Reservation. It led to serious problems among the Minnesota Chippewa's, especially the Leech Lake Chippewa's. In the mid 1890's, the Chippewa's were planning some sort of secret military uprising. The United States found out and had the Leech Lake leader assassinated. However, chief Bugonaygishig took over and the short 1898 rebellion followed.

After the short war the United States returned the Minnesota Chippewa Reservations and actually established the Chippewa National Forest which makes up almost the entire land area of the Leech Lake Reservation. Leech Lake Reservation is, thus, off limits or Protected

Throughout the large Reservation are as many as 20 communities. At least 11 have official names. The remaining communities are located from just north of Cass Lake, south to near Walker, Minnesota. They are categorized as being parts of townships rather than a distinct community. However, nearly all have at least one area of a cluster of housing units which number from 10 to over 50. Leaders of the Reservation have to eventually follow their own rules and deal with each of these communities as a distinct community, instead of white counties having control over them.

They must issue a name for each of the communities and manage to financially support each one so they can accept jurisdiction over their communities borders or city limits. Sooner or later, these scattered Chippewa communities are going to have to come to the attention of the leaders of Leech Lake Reservation.

Throughout the Leech Lake Reservation are over 140 resorts which are owned by non Indians. And there are also many cottages owned by non Indians. The revenue generated by these resorts and cottages is mainly going to the whites. Reservation leaders must fight to receive most of the resort and cottage revenue. Most of the whites who live on Leech Lake Reservation probably are resort and cottage owners[1].

Records

Land Records: Allotted land: 37,683 acres. Most of the land is not suited for agriculture. The forest the Reservation now has is a regrowth. In the 1890s, the United States nearly used the entire forest of the Reservation for construction and other purposes. The Reservation originally covered 677,099 acres. Nearly all remaining land is within Chippewa National Forest. Over 212,000 acres is waterways. Compared with Red Lake Reservation, Leech Lake Reservation is probably a bit the worse off but overall the Leech Lake Reservation is quite similar to Red Lake Reservation.  [2]

References

  1. "Minnesota Indian Reservations," Handbook of Indians North of Mexico, by Frederick Webb Hodge Available online.
  2. Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906.

Bibliography

  • Confederation of American Indians. Indian Reservations: A State and Federal Handbook. Jefferson, North Caroline: McFarland & Co., c1986. WorldCat 14098308; FHL book 970.1 In2.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #30, 1906. This publication lists the 22 states which had reservations in 1908. Available online.
  • Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties. Washington, DC: United States Government Printing Office, 1902. 7 volumes. WorldCat 74490963; FHL book 970.1 K142iAvailable online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Atlas of American Indian Affairs. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press, 1991 WorldCat 257331735; FHL book 970.1 P95aa
  • Prucha, Francis Paul, ed. Documents of United States Indian Policy. 3rd Edition. Lincoln, Nebraska: Univeresity of Nebraska Press, 2000. WorldCat 50416280; FHL book 970.1 P95d.
  • Prucha, Francis Paul. Guide to the Military Posts of the United States, 1789-1895. Madison, Wisconsin: State Historical Society of Wisconsin, c1964. WorldCat 522839; FHL book 973 M2pf.
  • Schmeckebier, Laurance F. The Office of Indian Affairs: Its History, Activities, and Organization. Service Monographs of the United States Government; no. 48. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1927. Reprint. New York: AMS Press, 1972.  WorldCat 257893; FHL book 973 B4b v. 48.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
Volume 1 -- Not yet published
Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
Volume 16 -- Not yet published
Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
Volume 18 -- Not yet published
Volume 19 -- Not yet published
Volume 20 -- Not yet published
  • Tiller, Veronica E. Velarde. American Indian Reservations and Trust Areas. [Washington, DC]: Economic Development Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1996. WorldCat 35209517; FHL book 970.1 T463a.
  • United States Department of Commerce, Frederick B. Dent, Secretary. Federal and State Reservations and Trust Areas. 1974. FHL book 970.1 Un3fe/1974.
  • United States Department of the Interior. Executive Orders Relating to Indian Reservations. Washington: [United States] Government Printing Office, 1912 (v. 1), 1922 (v. 2). Vol. 1 – May 14, 1855 to July 1, 1912. Vol. 2 – July 1, 1912 to July 1, 1922. FHL film 1440543 Items 8-9.
  • United States Federal and State Indian Reservations, Map. Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Atlas of the North American Indian. New York: Facts on File, 2009. 3rd ed. WorldCat 244771132; FHL book 970.1 W146a 2009.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; FHL book 970.1 W146e 2006.