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A glossary of genealogical terms.
Nacimentos: A Portuguese word for births.
Nacimientos: A Spanish word for births.
Nago: A term used in Brazilian Catholic Church registers to describe a person who is an African from Daomé. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Naissances: The French term for births.
Name etymology: The study of the origin of names; also a book on the topic.
Name Index to Early Illinois Records: An index to the 1810 to 1865 territorial, state, and federal censuses; county election returns; and other records for Illinois.
Names, Personal, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about given names, surnames, and naming customs.
Naming custom: A pattern used by parents in a culture for determining what names to give their children, such as naming a firstborn son after his father or grandfather.
Napoleonic Wars (1805-1815): A series of wars in which Great Britain and other European countries fought against France, which was under the leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte. In 1803 Napoleon began a plan to invade Great Britain. However, his defeat at the Battle of Trafalgar destroyed his naval fleet and ended his hopes of invading Britain. Napoleon then tried to defeat Britain by commanding all countries under his power to close their markets to British goods. Britain responded by blockading France and its allies. The French were defeated by Russia in 1812 and by Germany at the Battle of Leipzig in 1813. The British defeated Napoleon in 1815 in the Battle of Waterloo.
Nathan Hale Cemetery Collection: Surname Index: A surname index to tombstone transcripts gathered from 1972 to 1981 by the Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA). The index lists the individuals buried in the same plot.
Nathan Hale Cemetery Collection: Surname Index, Series 2: A surname index to tombstone transcripts gathered from 1970 to 1982 by the Maine Old Cemetery Association (MOCA). The index lists all individuals buried in the same plot.
Nation, general: A country.
Nation, Native American: The a tribe or federation of tribes of Native Americans.
National archive: A place where a national government keeps its records that are no longer in regular use.
National archive, Sweden: An archive in Stockholm, Sweden, that collects records relating to Swedish history, culture, and people. The Swedish word for this archive is Riksarkivet.
National Archives: The building in Washington, D.C., where the United States government keeps its records that are no longer in regular use; also the agency charged with maintaining and providing access to those records.
National Archives of Canada: An archive in Ottawa, Ontario, that collects records about Canadian history, culture, and people. The archive's collection includes censuses, military records, immigration lists, land records, and some church records. This archive was formerly called the Public Archives of Canada.
National Archives, Ireland: An archive in Dublin, Ireland, that collects records for all of Ireland, including Church of Ireland parish records, gravestone inscriptions, census returns, probate records, deeds, tithe applotment books, rebellion and outrage papers, convict reference files, and other historical and genealogical sources. The National Archives was formerly known as the Public Record Office of Ireland.
National Canadian War Register Census: A special census taken in Canada in 1940 during World War II. Its purpose was to record the names of men and women 16 years of age and older and list their skills.
National census: A census taken of an entire country instead of a particular region, state, or province.
National Census and Statistics Office, Philippines: A government office in the Philippines that has the major civil records after 1932 and is currently responsible for civil registration.
National court: A court of the United States government (as differentiated from state, city, or county courts). National courts are usually referred to as federal courts in the United States.
National Genealogical Society: A genealogical society in the United States that maintains a lending library, publishes a newsletter and journal, sponsors conferences, and performs other activities that support genealogical research.
National Guard Card File, USA: A card file held by the Delaware Public Archives that contains information about individuals from Delaware who served in the National Guard during World War I.
National Guard, USA: An organization of reserve troops for the United States Army and Air Force. The National Guard is formed from state militias. Members of the National Guard have a dual responsibility to protect their nation and state. The President of the United States can call them to active duty in times of national emergency. The state's governor can call them to active duty in times of state emergency.
National Inventory of Documentary Sources in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A microfiche collection of calendars and finding aids for British archives, libraries, and museums. The National Inventory can help researchers pinpoint the collections that may contain information of interest to them.
National Library of Canada: A library in Ottawa, Ontario, that collects published genealogies, manuscripts, histories, directories, maps, and newspapers from or about Canada.
National Library of Ireland: An archive and copyright library located in Dublin, Ireland. The National Library is Ireland's main repository of filmed Catholic Church parish registers. Other records include newspapers, city and regional directories, the Householders Index, and Griffith's Primary Valuation.
National Library of Scotland: The main library for Scotland. It is a copyright library that houses manuscript materials relating to Scotland, such as historical documents, family papers, and archives of organizations. A reader's ticket is needed to use the collection.
National Library of Wales: The main library for the country of Wales. It is one of five copyright libraries in Great Britain and is located in Aberystwyth, Wales. It houses church, court, probate, census, tax, and land records as well as newspapers, maps, and many private collections.
National Road: A road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois. Present-day Interstate 40 roughly follows the route of the National Road. The National Road was constructed during the early 1800s when settlers moving west of the Ohio River demanded a better east-west route. In 1811 the federal government began building the road, spending over $7 million on the project. The road was first called the Great National Pike. Later it became known simply as the Cumberland Road or the National Road. The road became less important after the railroads were built.
National Slovak Society of the United States of America: A fraternal organization that provides benefit life insurance for people of Slovak descent and for their families in the United States. It offers aid to orphans, widows, the aged, and the disabled. It also sponsors athletic and cultural programs.
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections: A source that lists many family papers and unpublished collections of manuscript materials found in libraries other than the Family History Library™.Nationwide
Nationwide: A term used to refer to sources that cover an entire country. These sources are not necessarily created by a national government.
Native Americans: The original inhabitants of North and South America. Also called American Indians.
Native language: The first language a person learns to speak. The term can also refer to the language most commonly spoken in a country.
Native peoples: The people or the descendants of people who were living in a land before European or other colonists arrived. In Canada these people are often referred to as First Nations or First Peoples.
Native Races, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize sources about groups of people living in a country or region before settlers or conquerors from another country arrived. Examples of native races include Eskimos, Native Americans, Maoris, and Aborigines.
Natural parents: A person's birth, or biological parents.
Naturalización de Españoles: A Spanish term used in the Philippines to mean naturalization records.
Naturalization: The legal process by which an individual born in one country becomes a citizen of another.
Naturalization and Citizenship, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize sources about (1) the legal process by which an individual born in one country becomes a citizen of another (naturalization) and (2) the allegiance of an individual gives to a government and its laws and customs in return for all rights allowed by the government (citizenship).
Naturalization paper: A document proving that an individual has become a citizen of a country.
Naturalization records: A general term referring to all records used to document the process whereby an individual born in one country is granted citizenship in another country.
Naturalization, PERiodical Source Index: A record type used in the Locality and Research Methodologies sections of the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI) to identify articles that contain information about naturalization records.
Navy: The branch of a nation's armed forces that is trained to fight on the sea.
Nebraska Territory: A territory established in 1854 by the Kansas-Nebraska Act. It comprised all of present-day Nebraska and parts of Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Neglected entry, Scotland: A Scottish civil registration record of a birth, marriage, or death that was registered late. These records cover the years 1820 to 1860.
Negro: A person of African descent. In Latin America, the word negro also refers to a person whose ancestry is pure African. Racial classifications in Latin America, however, were based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Negro fino: A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of African (3/4) and Spanish Caucasian (1/4). Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
Neighbor: An individual who lives near another individual.
New Amsterdam: The chief settlement in New Netherland that was founded by the Dutch West India Company and Dutch settlers. New Amsterdam was founded in 1625 on the lower tip of Manhattan Island. New Netherland later became the state of New York, and New Amsterdam became part of New York City.
New Brunswick, Canada: A province in eastern Canada. Its capital is Fredericton. The territory was originally part of Acadia, which France lost to Great Britain after the Seven Years War (French and Indian War). Before 1784 New Brunswick was part of Nova Scotia.
New England Historic Genealogical Society: A major genealogical society located in Massachusetts that has a large collection of records that concern all parts of the United States.
New England Marriages Prior to 1700: A collection of marriage records gathered by Clarence Torrey. It lists marriages that occurred during the 1600s in colonial New England. Also called the Clarence Torrey collection.
New France, North America: The territory claimed and colonized by France during the 1600s and 1700s. New France reached its largest area during the 1700s, when it consisted of three colonies: Acadia, Canada, and Louisiana. The term New France is often applied only to the colony of Canada, where 75 percent of the settlers lived. In 1762 France lost Acadia, Canada, and part of Louisiana to Great Britain after the Seven Years War (French and Indian Wars), but the French influence has remained strong.
New Mexico Territory, USA: A territory created in 1850 that included most of present-day New Mexico and Arizona and parts of Colorado and Nevada.
New Netherland: A colony that consisted of territory claimed as a result of exploration done by Henry Hudson. It consisted of much of present-day New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Connecticut. It was settled by immigrants from the Netherlands and Sweden and sponsored by the Dutch West India Company. The chief settlement in New Netherland was New Amsterdam. New Netherland became New York in 1664 when the Dutch governor, Peter Stuyvesant, surrendered to an English fleet.
New Register House, Scotland: An archive in Edinburgh, Scotland, where duplicate copies of civil registration records are kept for all of Scotland. The archive is open to the public, but researchers can have access only to the specific records they request.
New Spain: The territory in the New World north of Panama that Spain claimed during its colonial period.
New Sweden, North America: A Swedish colony founded in 1638 in what is now the state of Delaware. The colony was located along the Delaware River from the mouth of Delaware Bay to what is now Trenton, New Jersey. It was the only Swedish colony founded in America, and its population never reached 200 people. The Dutch took over New Sweden in 1655 with a threat of force.
Newberry Library, Illinois: A library in Chicago, Illinois, that has a valuable collection of Filipino records from the Spanish period.
Newfoundland, Canada: A province in eastern Canada. Its capital is St. John's. Newfoundland became a separate province in 1949 and is Canada's newest province. During the 1600s both the British and French established colonies in the area. France gave the area to Great Britain in 1713 as part of the Treaty of Utrecht. In 1763 France gave Labrador, a large peninsula in northeastern Canada, to Great Britain as part of the Treaty of Paris. Labrador is now a part of Newfoundland and Québec.
Newsletter: A small publication that contains information of interest to a specific group of people.
Newspaper and Information Index, Nebraska: An index to many Nebraska newspapers.
Newspaper notices: Lists of births, marriages, deaths, or other events published in a newspaper.
Newspaper, general: A publication, usually printed daily or weekly, that contains articles describing world, national, or local events and other topics.
Newspapers, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize publications, usually printed daily or weekly, that contain articles describing world, national, or local events and other topics.
Nickname: A familiar form of a person's name or a descriptive name given to an individual in addition to his or her given name.
Ninth Federal District Court: A term used in the Illinois Research Outline to refer to the ninth district of the United States Immigration and Naturalization Services. This district, which includes Illinois and parts of surrounding states, has naturalization records from federal district, circuit, and other courts.
No me toques: A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
No te entiende: A term used in Catholic Church registers to describe a person from Spanish-speaking Latin America whose ancestry is a mix of Indian, African, and Caucasian. Racial classifications were often based on physical appearance or social status; therefore, they were not always accurate.
No-man's-land, land: Land that is not claimed or settled by any state or territory. The panhandle of Oklahoma was no-man's-land for a period of time. The United States acquired this land from Texas in 1850 and opened it for settlement in 1890.
No-man's-land, military: A contested piece of land between two or more warring parties that none successfully occupies.
Nobility, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize records related to records and other works about a country's noble class (a class of people in a country who have special political and social status).
Nobility, general: A class of people in a country who have special political and social status. The nobility have the right to use coats of arms. The status of nobility is granted by the Crown or inherited. In Spain some titles were sold as a means of raising funds for the Crown. The eldest son may inherit the father's title and younger sons may or may not have lower titles. Younger sons are entitled to use the father's coat of arms with a cadency, a mark showing birth order. Most countries except England have abolished the official use of noble titles. The United States Constitution forbids the government from granting titles of nobility. It also forbids a government official from accepting a title of nobility from another country without the special consent of Congress.
Noble surname: The last name or last names used by a noble family. Noble families often have several surnames. One of these names usually refers to the estate owned by the family.
Noncapital criminal case: A case involving a violation of law for which the accused cannot receive the death penalty.
Noncommercial computer network: A computer network that can be used free of charge.
Nonconformist church, Great Britain: A church other than the state church. In England all churches other than the Church of England are nonconformist churches. In Scotland the state church is the Presbyterian Church, and all others are nonconformist. The term nonconformist has its origins in the Acts of Conformity, which was passed in England in 1662. This act required everyone to conform to the dogma and rites of the Church of England. People who did not conform were called nonconformists.
Nonfederal census: A census taken by a group other than the United States government, for example, a state census or church census.
Nonpopulation census schedule: A type of census used to collect information not obtained in population schedules. Nonpopulation schedules include mortality, manufacturing or industrial, slave, veterans, social statistics, and agricultural schedules. The earliest nonpopulation schedule is found in the 1810 census, for which few records exist. The 1850 to 1880 censuses also have nonpopulation census schedules.
Nordbib, France and Belgium: A computer database of genealogical and historical sources for the area of northern France and southern Belgium. This database was created by an organization called the Genealogical and Historical Sources of the Provinces of Nord (Sources Généaloguques et Historiques des Provinces du Nord).
Nordic Seven-Year War (1563-1570): A war in which Frederick II of Denmark tried to win control of the Baltic Sea from Sweden. This attempt failed. Also called the Seven Years War of the North.
Norske Kirke, Norway: The Norwegian name for the Evangelical Lutheran Church. It became the state church in 1536. As such, it is an arm of the national government. The government appoints church officials and pays their salaries. The monarch is required to be a member of this church. All other Norwegians have complete religious freedom. Also called Statskirke.
North Carolina Revolutionary Warrants: Land warrants given by North Carolina to veterans of the Revolutionary War. The land was known as the Congressional Reservation and is now part of Tennessee.
North West Company: A company of fur traders and trappers founded in 1783. The company operated mainly in the Canadian Northwest, competing with the Hudson's Bay Company until the Hudson's Bay Company purchased the North West Company in 1821.
Northern District, New York: A division of the state of New York over which a federal circuit or district court has jurisdiction. The Northern District has four divisions: the Albany Division, which covers Albany County and the surrounding counties; the Binghamton Division, which covers Broome County and surrounding counties; the Syracuse Division, which covers Onondaga County and surrounding counties; and the Utica Division, which covers Oneida County.
Northern Ireland: A country that formed in 1922 after the Irish Civil War. Northern Ireland is part of the British Commonwealth.
Northern Neck: The area between the Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers. The King of England gave it to Lord Fairfax, who issued grants of small tracts to individuals.
Northern Peninsula: The upper part of Michigan, above Lake Michigan.
Northwest Ordinance of 1785: The law that established the rectangular survey system as the standard for determining the legal description of land.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787: A law passed by the United States Congress to establish the Northwest Territory its form of government. The Northwest Territory became a model for future territories. Under the terms of the ordinance, Congress appointed a governor, a secretary, and three judges to govern the territory. When the territory's population reached 5,000 adult males, the territory could choose a legislature and send a delegate to Congress. This delegate could introduce bills and participate in debate but could not vote. A territory could apply for statehood when its total population grew to 60,000. The ordinance also prohibited slavery, assured residents the right to a trial by jury, guaranteed freedom of religion, encouraged education, and acknowledged a need to treat Native Americans fairly.
Northwest Territory: A territory covering Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. It existed from 1787 to 1800. Officially it was called the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio.
Norwegian: Pertaining to something or someone from Norway; also the language of the Norwegian people.
Notaire: A French term for notary, a government official who prepares acts and contracts and certifies authentic copies of them.
Notarial Records, Family History Library Catalog™: A subject heading used in the Family History Library Catalog to categorize information about records made by or authorized by a notary public.
Notarial Records, general: A system of record keeping in areas under French or Spanish influence. Notaries prepared contracts and made copies of them. Notarial records include marriage contracts, deeds, wills, and many other kinds of agreements among private individuals.
Notarios: A Spanish term for notary records. The term protocolos may also be used.