Norway Vital Records

From FamilySearch Wiki

(Difference between revisions)
m (removed link)
(11 intermediate revisions by 7 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{| class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" style="border-right: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; border-top: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; background: rgb(245,250,240) 0% 10%; border-left: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; border-bottom: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial" cellspacing="10" cellpadding="5" width="100%"
+
{| width="100%" cellspacing="10" cellpadding="5" class="FCK__ShowTableBorders" style="border-right: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; border-top: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; background: rgb(245,250,240) 0% 10%; border-left: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; border-bottom: rgb(187,179,159) 1px solid; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial"
 
|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
<big>[[Portal:Norway|Norway]] </big>''<big>Vital Records</big>''  
+
<big>[[Norway|Norway]] </big>''<big>Vital Records</big>''  
  
 
<br>[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wgnorway/ Norway Genweb Project]&nbsp;Through this web site you will find links to Norwegian bygdeboker, census, emigration, farm and parish listings, history, lookup volunteers, and research guidance in finding vital records in Norway.  
 
<br>[http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wgnorway/ Norway Genweb Project]&nbsp;Through this web site you will find links to Norwegian bygdeboker, census, emigration, farm and parish listings, history, lookup volunteers, and research guidance in finding vital records in Norway.  
Line 14: Line 14:
 
All the materials in the DA and the Digital Inn can be found using the menu system. The materials are arranged geographically, chronologically or by type of source. By source type we are primarily thinking about what type of archive the original document belonged to, as well as where the databases could belong thematically. The aim of this organisation of materials is to enable anyone to be able to find their way round the DA whether they are familiar with archives or not. After one has chosen a category a text will appear in the window to the right. This will contain useful information which can be read before searching the databases.  
 
All the materials in the DA and the Digital Inn can be found using the menu system. The materials are arranged geographically, chronologically or by type of source. By source type we are primarily thinking about what type of archive the original document belonged to, as well as where the databases could belong thematically. The aim of this organisation of materials is to enable anyone to be able to find their way round the DA whether they are familiar with archives or not. After one has chosen a category a text will appear in the window to the right. This will contain useful information which can be read before searching the databases.  
  
In addition to the menu system in the database selector, one can also search for databases. This search cannot be combined with the menu system. On the upper blue bar there are shortcuts to the nation-wide censuses. The same databases can also be found by using the database selector.  
+
In addition to the menu system in the database selector, one can also search for databases. This search cannot be combined with the menu system. On the upper blue bar there are shortcuts to the nation-wide censuses. The same databases can also be found by using the database selector. [http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?spraak=e The 100 most recent databases added]
  
 
''Not all the information texts have been fully translated into '''English '''yet but these will follow soon.''  
 
''Not all the information texts have been fully translated into '''English '''yet but these will follow soon.''  
Line 21: Line 21:
  
 
[http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=4 Church Registers]&nbsp;younger than 60 years are generally not available for the general public. However lists of baptisms from 1930 and later must be controlled for information about adoptions before they can be handed out to the public. Information about most adoptions younger than 100 years is not generally available. The Digital Archives cannot show searchable information about living people and have therefore even stricter limits. At present information about baptisms up to 1910 can be made available, confirmations up to 1925 and marriages up to 1930. Lists over deceased can be shown right up to the present day, but sensitive information ( health, religion, economy, adoption etc.) is removed. These limits apply only to the databases in the Digital Archives. Digital images of the church registers have different limits. '''Birth''' and '''baptism''' records are closed for the public from 1930, confirmation records from 1935, '''marriage''' and banns records from 2005, '''death''', '''burial''' and '''stillbirth''' records from 1926, death and burial records without cause of death from 2005, migration records from 2005, joins and leavings of the State Church from 1945 and records about dissenters from 1945.  
 
[http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=4 Church Registers]&nbsp;younger than 60 years are generally not available for the general public. However lists of baptisms from 1930 and later must be controlled for information about adoptions before they can be handed out to the public. Information about most adoptions younger than 100 years is not generally available. The Digital Archives cannot show searchable information about living people and have therefore even stricter limits. At present information about baptisms up to 1910 can be made available, confirmations up to 1925 and marriages up to 1930. Lists over deceased can be shown right up to the present day, but sensitive information ( health, religion, economy, adoption etc.) is removed. These limits apply only to the databases in the Digital Archives. Digital images of the church registers have different limits. '''Birth''' and '''baptism''' records are closed for the public from 1930, confirmation records from 1935, '''marriage''' and banns records from 2005, '''death''', '''burial''' and '''stillbirth''' records from 1926, death and burial records without cause of death from 2005, migration records from 2005, joins and leavings of the State Church from 1945 and records about dissenters from 1945.  
 +
 +
==== Civil Registration  ====
 +
 +
Civil registration refers to vital records made by the government. No civil registration occurred in Norway until 1876. Beginning that year a law required that all birth, death, and marriage information be sent to the Central Bureau of Statistics [Statistisk Sentralbyrå]. This information is used for statistical purposes only and is generally not available to the public
 +
 +
In 1915 the Registers of Vital Statistics [Folkeregistre] were started on a community level. They were based on information submitted by the parish offices and include information about all persons in a community and the dates in which they moved into or out of the area. They also contain information regarding taxes, voter registration, and other official business.
 +
 +
Register information is generally not available to the public, but occasionally specific inquiries may be answered. The Folkeregistre (People's Registrar) in the local community should be contacted first. If the information you need cannot be obtained there, you may contact the archive that houses the information for the community for help.
 +
 +
For many years the Registers of Vital Statistics were funded by the district government, and the information was submitted voluntarily. However, since 1946 registration has been mandatory in all districts.
  
 
==== Clerical Archives  ====
 
==== Clerical Archives  ====
Line 40: Line 50:
 
As opposed to a full census, the [http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=1 male census] contains only information about the male section of the population. A male census was often related to a military purpose, often recording all able bodied men who would be available in case of war.  
 
As opposed to a full census, the [http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=1 male census] contains only information about the male section of the population. A male census was often related to a military purpose, often recording all able bodied men who would be available in case of war.  
  
Tax rolls, listing all those liable to tax, both male and female, were occasionally reckoned to be among the male census. If we accept the term “male census” this would seem to be a contradiction. The tax rolls, e.g. the 2 mark tax from 1519, the Poll tax from 1645 and the Extra tax for the period 1762-1772, are therefore placed under tax-lists.<br>
+
Tax rolls, listing all those liable to tax, both male and female, were occasionally reckoned to be among the male census. If we accept the term “male census” this would seem to be a contradiction. The tax rolls, e.g. the 2 mark tax from 1519, the Poll tax from 1645 and the Extra tax for the period 1762-1772, are therefore placed under tax-lists.<br>  
  
 
==== Skifte ([http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=6 Probate Registers])  ====
 
==== Skifte ([http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=vismeny&fylkenr=&knr=&aar=&dagens=&katnr=6 Probate Registers])  ====
Line 48: Line 58:
 
Christian Vs lov slo fast at offentleg skifte ikkje skulle vera påbode ved alle dødsfall. Berre når den avdøde hadde umyndige, fråverande eller utanlandske arvingar, eller dersom det ikkje var arvingar etter avdøde i det heile tatt, måtte det haldast offentleg skifte. Gjenlevande ektefelle fekk ofte løyve til å sitta i uskifta bu, og skifte vart dermed utsatt til denne skulle gifta seg på ny eller døydde. Ut på 1700-talet kom det lovføresegner som gjorde at også dei fattigaste i samfunnet slapp offentleg skifte.  
 
Christian Vs lov slo fast at offentleg skifte ikkje skulle vera påbode ved alle dødsfall. Berre når den avdøde hadde umyndige, fråverande eller utanlandske arvingar, eller dersom det ikkje var arvingar etter avdøde i det heile tatt, måtte det haldast offentleg skifte. Gjenlevande ektefelle fekk ofte løyve til å sitta i uskifta bu, og skifte vart dermed utsatt til denne skulle gifta seg på ny eller døydde. Ut på 1700-talet kom det lovføresegner som gjorde at også dei fattigaste i samfunnet slapp offentleg skifte.  
  
Geistlege og militære hadde eigne skiftejurisdiksjonar. Dette priviligiet forsvann for dei geistlege i 1809 og for dei militære i 1824.
+
Geistlege og militære hadde eigne skiftejurisdiksjonar. Dette priviligiet forsvann for dei geistlege i 1809 og for dei militære i 1824.  
  
<br>[http://digitalarkivet.uib.no/cgi-win/WebMeta.exe?slag=visnyefilar The 100 most recent databases]
+
|}
  
*16.6.2008 Baptisms in Lier parish 1701-1726
+
'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
*11.6.2008 Confirmations in Nøtterøy parish 1791-1813
+
*11.6.2008 Confirmations in Nøtterøy parish 1739-1790
+
*11.6.2008 Baptisms in Nøtterøy parish 1738-1790
+
*9.6.2008 Freeholders in Gudbrandsalen bailiff: census and landed property 1615
+
*9.6.2008 Freeholders in Hedmark and Østerdalen bailiff: census and landed property 1615
+
*9.6.2008 Landed property for Gjerpen deanery 1618
+
*9.6.2008 Landed property for Gudbrandsdalen 1623-1624
+
*9.6.2008 Landed property for Hedmark and Østerdalen 1625
+
*9.6.2008 Electoral register 1925 for Tinn
+
*6.6.2008 Index over the Crown's title deeds 1587-1651
+
*5.6.2008 Buried dissenters in Trondheim Domkirke 1894-1908
+
*5.6.2008 Married dissenters in Trondheim Domkirke 1892-1911
+
*3.6.2008 Marriages in Eid parish 1816-1830
+
*5.6.2008 Marriages in Trondheim Domkirke 1891-1911
+
*10.6.2008 The 1891 Census for 1126 Hetland
+
*2.6.2008 Stillbirths in Overhalla parish 1865-1880
+
*2.6.2008 Burials in Overhalla parish 1865-1880
+
*2.6.2008 Marriages in Overhalla parish 1866-1880
+
*2.6.2008 Confirmations in Overhalla parish 1864-1880
+
*3.6.2008 1875 Census for 1254 Hamre
+
*30.5.2008 Vaccinations in Overhalla parish 1858-1867
+
*30.5.2008 Vaccinations in Overhalla parish 1824-1857
+
*6.6.2008 Out-migrants from Overhalla parish 1829-1858
+
*6.6.2008 In-migrants to Overhalla parish 1829-1858
+
*30.5.2008 Baptisms in Eiker parish 1860-1868
+
*22.5.2008 Baptisms in Hidra local parish in Sokndal parish 1740-1815
+
*22.5.2008 Probate protocol no 3 for Oppdal 1731-1735
+
*22.5.2008 Probate protocol no 2 for Oppdal 1689-1696
+
*22.5.2008 Probate protocol no 1 for Oppdal 1689-1696
+
*22.5.2008 Burials in Hidra local parish in Sokndal parish 1729-1830
+
*20.5.2008 Out-migrants from Overhalla parish 1867-1880
+
*20.5.2008 In-migrants to Overhalla parish 1867-1880
+
*20.5.2008 Out-migrants from Overhalla parish 1858-1867
+
*20.5.2008 In-migrants to Overhalla parish 1858-1867
+
*20.5.2008 Marriages in Hallaren local parish in Sør-Frøya parish 1898-1915
+
*20.5.2008 Confirmations in Sletta local parish in Nord-Frøya parish 1891-1908
+
*20.5.2008 Confirmations in Hallaren local parish in Sør-Frøya parish 1898-1915
+
*20.5.2008 Burials in Hallaren local parish in Sør-Frøya parish 1898-1915
+
*20.5.2008 Baptisms in Sletta local parish in Nord-Frøya parish 1891-1908
+
*20.5.2008 Baptisms in Hallaren local parish in Sør-Frøya parish 1898-1910
+
*21.5.2008 Stillbirths in Sletta local parish in Nord-Frøya parish 1891-1908
+
*20.5.2008 Stillbirths in Hallaren local parish in Sør-Frøya parish 1898-1915
+
*20.5.2008 Baptisms in Eiker parish 1827-1832
+
*19.5.2008 Marriages in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*19.5.2008 Marriages in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1840-1868
+
*19.5.2008 Burials in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*19.5.2008 Burials in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1839-1868
+
*19.5.2008 Baptisms in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*19.5.2008 Baptisms in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1840-1868
+
*16.5.2008 Stillbirths in Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 Out-migrants from Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 In-migrants to Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 Burials in Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 Marriages in Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 Confirmations in Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*16.5.2008 Baptisms in Vega parish 1870-1885
+
*15.5.2008 Overkriminalrettens dom i saka mot losane som førde inn den britiske fregatten Tartar
+
*15.5.2008 Vedlegg til kommisjonssaka 1808-1809 mot losane som førde inn den britiske fregatten Tartar
+
*15.5.2008 Kommisjonsprotokoll 1808-1809 i saka mot losane som førde inn den britiske fregatten Tartar
+
*19.5.2008 Baptisms in Eiker parish 1814-1827
+
*9.5.2008 Marriages in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*9.5.2008 Marriages in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1821-1841
+
*9.5.2008 Burials in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*9.5.2008 Burials in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1821-1841
+
*9.5.2008 Baptisms in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1869-1879
+
*9.5.2008 Baptisms in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1821-1841
+
*9.5.2008 Stillbirths in Høylandet local parish in Grong parish 1821-1878
+
*8.5.2008 Baptisms in Hemne parish 1717-1794
+
*8.5.2008 In-migrants to Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Baptisms in Orkdal parish 1776-1799
+
*8.5.2008 Vaccinations in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Out-migrants from eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Stillbirths in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Confirmations in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*9.5.2008 Burials in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Marriages in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*8.5.2008 Baptisms in Eid parish 1831-1843
+
*7.5.2008 Confirmations in Leinstrand local parish in Melhus parish 1887-1906
+
*9.5.2008 Marriages in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1838-1868
+
*9.5.2008 Burials in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1837-1868
+
*9.5.2008 Baptisms in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1839-1868
+
*9.5.2008 Marriages in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1822-1841
+
*9.5.2008 Burials in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1821-1840
+
*9.5.2008 Baptisms in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1821-1841
+
*9.5.2008 Stillbirths in Harran local parish in Grong parish 1821-1879
+
*5.5.2008 Burials in Bragernes parish 1869-1875
+
*5.5.2008 Stillbirths in Fjell parish 1878-1910
+
*30.4.2008 Marriages in Røyken parish 1740-1768
+
*22.4.2008 Marriages in Gran parish 1788-1815
+
*22.4.2008 Marriages in Hemne parish 1717-1840
+
*22.4.2008 Burials in Hemne parish 1751-1794
+
*22.4.2008 Burials in Leinstrand local parish in Melhus parish 1887-1906
+
*22.4.2008 Marriages in Orkdal parish 1870-1880
+
*5.5.2008 Marriages in Trones local parish in Grong parish 1835-1879
+
*5.5.2008 Burials in Trones local parish in Grong parish 1830-1879
+
*5.5.2008 Baptisms in Trones local parish in Grong parish 1832-1879
+
*21.4.2008 Marriages in Røyrvik local parish in Grong parish 1828-1830
+
*21.4.2008 Outmigants from Røyrvik local parish in Grong parish 1828-1831
+
*21.4.2008 Confirmations in Røyrvik local parish in Grong parish 1830-1832
+
  
|}
+
*[[Norway Baptisms (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Norway Baptisms&nbsp;(FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Norway Burials (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Norway Burials (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Norway Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Norway Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
<!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors --><!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors -->
+
[[Category:Norway]]
<!-- Tidy found serious XHTML errors -->
+

Revision as of 14:33, 2 December 2012

Norway Vital Records


Norway Genweb Project Through this web site you will find links to Norwegian bygdeboker, census, emigration, farm and parish listings, history, lookup volunteers, and research guidance in finding vital records in Norway.

Contents

Digitalarkivet Online Web Site

Finding your way around the Digital Archives  (Digitalarkivet)
Most of the materials in the Digital Archives (DA) are based on original sources (protocols and documents) in the National and Regional State Archives of Norway. In addition you will also find some source material from local and regional government as well as some from private and foreign archives. The common factor with all this information in the DA is that, in most cases, it is based on original archival materials. 

The information is stored in two ways; as searchable databases, or on web pages with word for word transcriptions or digital images. By using the database selector both types of materials can be found.

All the materials in the DA and the Digital Inn can be found using the menu system. The materials are arranged geographically, chronologically or by type of source. By source type we are primarily thinking about what type of archive the original document belonged to, as well as where the databases could belong thematically. The aim of this organisation of materials is to enable anyone to be able to find their way round the DA whether they are familiar with archives or not. After one has chosen a category a text will appear in the window to the right. This will contain useful information which can be read before searching the databases.

In addition to the menu system in the database selector, one can also search for databases. This search cannot be combined with the menu system. On the upper blue bar there are shortcuts to the nation-wide censuses. The same databases can also be found by using the database selector. The 100 most recent databases added

Not all the information texts have been fully translated into English yet but these will follow soon.

Church Registers

Church Registers younger than 60 years are generally not available for the general public. However lists of baptisms from 1930 and later must be controlled for information about adoptions before they can be handed out to the public. Information about most adoptions younger than 100 years is not generally available. The Digital Archives cannot show searchable information about living people and have therefore even stricter limits. At present information about baptisms up to 1910 can be made available, confirmations up to 1925 and marriages up to 1930. Lists over deceased can be shown right up to the present day, but sensitive information ( health, religion, economy, adoption etc.) is removed. These limits apply only to the databases in the Digital Archives. Digital images of the church registers have different limits. Birth and baptism records are closed for the public from 1930, confirmation records from 1935, marriage and banns records from 2005, death, burial and stillbirth records from 1926, death and burial records without cause of death from 2005, migration records from 2005, joins and leavings of the State Church from 1945 and records about dissenters from 1945.

Civil Registration

Civil registration refers to vital records made by the government. No civil registration occurred in Norway until 1876. Beginning that year a law required that all birth, death, and marriage information be sent to the Central Bureau of Statistics [Statistisk Sentralbyrå]. This information is used for statistical purposes only and is generally not available to the public

In 1915 the Registers of Vital Statistics [Folkeregistre] were started on a community level. They were based on information submitted by the parish offices and include information about all persons in a community and the dates in which they moved into or out of the area. They also contain information regarding taxes, voter registration, and other official business.

Register information is generally not available to the public, but occasionally specific inquiries may be answered. The Folkeregistre (People's Registrar) in the local community should be contacted first. If the information you need cannot be obtained there, you may contact the archive that houses the information for the community for help.

For many years the Registers of Vital Statistics were funded by the district government, and the information was submitted voluntarily. However, since 1946 registration has been mandatory in all districts.

Clerical Archives

The category Clerical archives include all types of source materials penned by clerics with the exception of church registers which are listed in their own category. (Includes some marriage records) 

Censuses

A census is a list of all the inhabitants in a council area or parish at a given time. Thus only those who were present in the house or on the farm at that point of time were to be recorded.

There are two types of census; the nominative counts which gives us detailed information, and the numerical counts which only give us the number of residents arranged by district, age, occupation or other categories. The first nation-wide nominative census was in 1801. Later nominative counts were carried out in 1865, 1875, 1891 and 1900. After 1900 there has been a census every 10 years until 2000.

In addition to these there have been some nominative censuses in certain parishes at other times. There have, for example, been several counts during the 1780’s in parts of eastern Norway . For the period 1815-1855 a total of 198 lists of names, of varying quality, have been recorded. An overview of this census material can be found in Anna Tranberg: Folk og Fant, Norsk lokalhistorisk institutt 1986.

The Law of Statistics from 1907 restricts all access to state censuses for 100 years whereas the local council census has limited access for 60 years. The Digital Archives follow the 100 year rule for all the census materials, state and local council.

Male census

As opposed to a full census, the male census contains only information about the male section of the population. A male census was often related to a military purpose, often recording all able bodied men who would be available in case of war.

Tax rolls, listing all those liable to tax, both male and female, were occasionally reckoned to be among the male census. If we accept the term “male census” this would seem to be a contradiction. The tax rolls, e.g. the 2 mark tax from 1519, the Poll tax from 1645 and the Extra tax for the period 1762-1772, are therefore placed under tax-lists.

Skifte (Probate Registers)

Dei gamle norske lovane hadde i arvebolkane grundige føresegner om korleis arv skulle skiftast, men sjølve arveskiftet var ei privatsak, og vedkom ikkje nokon offentleg instans. Offentleg arveskifte (ofte berre kalla skifte) vart innført i Noreg kring midten av 1600-talet, og ved reskript av 31. mai 1690 vart det endeleg slått fast at arveskiftet på landet skulle styrast av Sorenskrivaren. I byane høyrde skifteforvaltninga under byfogden og magistraten, medan byskrivaren førte protokollen og skreiv breva. 

Christian Vs lov slo fast at offentleg skifte ikkje skulle vera påbode ved alle dødsfall. Berre når den avdøde hadde umyndige, fråverande eller utanlandske arvingar, eller dersom det ikkje var arvingar etter avdøde i det heile tatt, måtte det haldast offentleg skifte. Gjenlevande ektefelle fekk ofte løyve til å sitta i uskifta bu, og skifte vart dermed utsatt til denne skulle gifta seg på ny eller døydde. Ut på 1700-talet kom det lovføresegner som gjorde at også dei fattigaste i samfunnet slapp offentleg skifte.

Geistlege og militære hadde eigne skiftejurisdiksjonar. Dette priviligiet forsvann for dei geistlege i 1809 og for dei militære i 1824.

Wiki articles describing online collections are found at: