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''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[South Carolina|South Carolina]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]]''  
 
''[[United States|United States]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Migration Internal|Migration]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[US Migration Trails and Roads|Trails and Roads]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[South Carolina|South Carolina]]  [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]]''  
  
[[Image:Old South Carolina State Road.png|border|right|380px]]The '''Old South Carolina State Road''' connected the colonial seaport of Charleston with several important internal South Carolina towns as well as the [[Catawba Trail]] and [[Old Cherokee Path]] on South Carolina's northern border near Landrum in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]]. Charleston was the largest European settlement in South Carolina, its capital, on the [[King's Highway|King's Highway]], and the start of several other trails. The [[Catawba Trail]] connected the Old South Carolina State Road to Asheville, [[North Carolina|North Carolina]] and the [[Wilderness Road]] through the Cumberland Gap from [[Virginia]] and [[Tennessee]] into [[Kentucky]]. The [[Old Cherokee Path]] connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages in [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] and [[Georgia]] with several Indian trails, especially the [[Great Indian Warpath]] or [[Great Valley Road]] as it was called in [[Virginia]]. The Old South Carolina State Road was opened to European settlers in 1747. The Old South Carolina State Road began in [[Charleston County, South Carolina]] and ended in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]]. The length of the road was about 180 miles (290 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>  
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[[Image:Old South Carolina State Road.png|border|right|380px]]The '''Old South Carolina State Road''' connected the colonial seaport of Charleston with several important internal South Carolina towns as well as the [[Catawba Trail]] and [[Old Cherokee Path]] on South Carolina's northern border near Landrum in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]]. Charleston was the largest European settlement in South Carolina, its capital, on the [[King's Highway|King's Highway]], and the start of several other trails. The [[Catawba Trail]] connected the Old South Carolina State Road to Asheville, [[North Carolina|North Carolina]] and to the [[Wilderness Road]] through the Cumberland Gap from [[Virginia]] and [[Tennessee]] into [[Kentucky]]. The [[Old Cherokee Path]] connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages in [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] and [[Georgia]] with several Indian trails, especially the [[Great Valley Road]] an important migration route through [[Virginia]] to [[Tennessee]]. The Old South Carolina State Road was opened to European settlers in 1747. The Old South Carolina State Road began in [[Charleston County, South Carolina]] and ended near [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]]. The exact route is uncertain and may have varied over the years. The length of the road was about 180 miles (290 km).<ref name="HBG">''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}). [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.]</ref>  
  
 
=== Historical Background  ===
 
=== Historical Background  ===
  
Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), and German farmers migrating along the [[Great Valley Road]] (sometimes called the Great Wagon Road) through Virginia began settling the counties near the north end of the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] in the 1750s. However, during part of the French and Indian War from 1754 to 1763 they decided to leave the Washington County, Virginia area. Some settlers after the war in Johnson County, Tennessee and Watauga County, North Carolina were pushing beyond the Proclamation line protecting Indians from intruders. Many of the re-settlers in the area became involved in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association Watauga Association] (a semi-automomous government) starting in 1772.<ref>Wikipedia contributors, "Watauga Association," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Watauga_Association (accessed 8 April 2011).</ref> In turn this led to the tentative and short-lived [[State of Franklin|State of Franklin]].  
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From the first contact with Europeans the [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indians]] had settlements called the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] in the northwest part of [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] and part of [[Georgia|Georgia]]. The most prominent was the town of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keowee Keowee]. Several important Indian trails radiated out from these villages. These trails would eventually become migration routes for European settlers. The Cherokee resisted most European settlement near their villages. The Cherokee sided with the British during the American Revolutionary War. By 1777 Patriot forces attacked and drove the Cherokee from South Carolina. Patriot veterans soon began to settle in former Cherokee areas.  
  
The south end of the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] was in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]] at the convergence of several Indian trails and settler roads mostly leading to the lower [[Cherokee Indians|Cherokee Indian]] village of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] across the Savannah River in [[Stephens County, Georgia]]. Tugaloo was built at or became the nexus of several trails along the Savannah River in Georgia and South Carolina. Before the Revolutionary War Cherokees resisted white settlements on their land. During the American Revolutionary War the Cherokee Indians took sides with the British. By 1777 Patriot forces had driven the Indians from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] in South Carolina, and Tugaloo, Georgia, and Patriot veterans began settling the area.  
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[[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]] was founded in 1670 by English and African immigrants from the Caribbean island of [[Barbados|Barbados]]. It became the largest city and capital of the South Carolina colony. Many trails and roads radiated out from Charleston. In 1747 the Old South Carolina State Road was opened and settlers began pouring north along it into the interior. In 1753 the British colony of South Carolina built [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Prince_George_(South_Carolina) Fort Prince George] across the river to the east of the Cherokee town of Keowee. It is likely that a branch of the Old State Road went to Fort Prince George.  
  
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.  
 
As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.  
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:*[[Dorchester County, South Carolina|Dorchester]] 1696 by New Englanders from Massachusetts  
 
:*[[Dorchester County, South Carolina|Dorchester]] 1696 by New Englanders from Massachusetts  
 
:*[[Orangeburg County, South Carolina|Orangeburg]] 1731 by Reformed Swiss, German Lutherans, and French Huguenots  
 
:*[[Orangeburg County, South Carolina|Orangeburg]] 1731 by Reformed Swiss, German Lutherans, and French Huguenots  
:*[[Calhoun County, South Carolina|Calhoun]]  
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:*[[Calhoun County, South Carolina|Calhoun]] 1730s by Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), Germans, and French Huguenots
:*[[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington]]  
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:*[[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington]] 1730s by Germans, and French Huguenots
:*[[Newberry County, South Carolina|Newberry]]  
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:*[[Newberry County, South Carolina|Newberry]] 1750s by Germans, English, and Scots-Irish
:*[[Laurens County, South Carolina|Laurens]]  
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:*[[Laurens County, South Carolina|Laurens]] 1753 by Scots-Irish
:*[[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]] 1755 by Scots-Irish  
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:*[[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg]] 1755 by Scots-Irish  
:*[[Greenville County, South Carolina]] 1777 by Scots-Irish, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Greenville County, South Carolina|Greenville]] 1777 by Scots-Irish, and Revolutionary War Veterans
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:*[[Pickens County, South Carolina|Pickens]] 1753 by English, and Scots-Irish
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:*[[Oconee County, South Carolina|Oconee]] 1784 by Germans, and Revolutionary War Veterans
  
'''Connecting trails.''' The Old South Carolina State Road linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.  
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:*[[Polk County, North Carolina]] about 1767 by Scots-Irish
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:*[[Stephens County, Georgia]] about 1777 by Revolutionary War Veterans
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There are three possible routes the Old South Carolina State Road may have taken to exit the state.<ref>Adam Prince, ''1920 State Trunk Routes - An Overview'', http://www.gribblenation.com/scroads/state/1920.html (accessed 10 April 2011).</ref> Over the years the route may have shifted:
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:*from Newberry to Union to Spartanburg to Landrum in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]] on the route that would become the old [http://www.milebymile.com/main/United_States/North_Carolina/byway/Pacolet_River_Byway.html Appalachian Highway] or [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_176 U.S. Route 176] to [[Polk County, North Carolina|Polk County, NC]].
 +
:*from Laurens to Greenville to Travelers Rest in [[Greenville County, South Carolina]] north along what became [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_25 U.S. Route 25] to [[Polk County, North Carolina|Polk County, NC]].
 +
:*from Greenville west to Clemson and Seneca (earlier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Prince_George_(South_Carolina) Fort Prince George] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keowee_(Cherokee_town) Keowee]) in [[Oconee County, South Carolina]] probably overlapping the [[Old Cherokee Path]] west to Toccoa, [[Georgia]] (earlier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo]) via what became [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_123 U.S. Route 123].
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'''Connecting trails.''' The Old South Carolina State Road linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.<ref>''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.], and William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the early Colonial Period" (1923). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref>
  
 
The migration pathways connected at the ''south'' end in Charleston included:  
 
The migration pathways connected at the ''south'' end in Charleston included:  
  
 
:*the Atlantic Ocean 1670  
 
:*the Atlantic Ocean 1670  
:*[[King's Highway]] about 1704
 
 
:*[[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]] about 1716  
 
:*[[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]] about 1716  
 
:*[[Camden-Charleston Path|Camden-Charleston Path]] 1732  
 
:*[[Camden-Charleston Path|Camden-Charleston Path]] 1732  
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:*[[King's Highway]] built 1732-1735 in SC<ref>"South Carolina Counties and Parishes - 1740" in ''The Royal Colony of South Carolina'' at http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_counties_parishes_1740.html (accessed 22 April 2011).</ref> connecting seaport towns from [[Boston, Massachusetts]] to [[Charleston, South Carolina]] and eventually [[Savannah, Georgia]]
 
:*[[Charleston-Savannah Trail]] late 1730s  
 
:*[[Charleston-Savannah Trail]] late 1730s  
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:*[[Secondary Coast Road]] late 1730s or early 1740s
 
:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747  
 
:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747  
:*[[Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]] about 1765  
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:*[[Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail|Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]] about 1765
:*[[Secondary Coast Road]]
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The migration pathways connected at the ''north'' end in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]] included:  
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The migration pathways connected at the ''north'' end near [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina]] included:  
  
:*[[Catawba Trail]] pre-historic  
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:*[[Catawba Trail]] a pre-historic path from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to [[Kentucky]] via the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cumberland_Gap Cumberland Gap]
:*[[Old Cherokee Path]] pre-historic  
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:*[[Old Cherokee Path]] a pre-historic trail from the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to [[Washington County, Virginia]] on the [[Great Valley Road]] (also known as the [[Great Indian Warpath]])
 
:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747
 
:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747
  
''Between'' those two ends the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] also crossed several other important migration routes:  
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The possible fork that went to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo], [[Stephens County, Georgia]] would have connected to the following trails in that area:  
  
:*[[Occaneechi Path]] pre-historic in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]]  
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:*Savannah River
:*[[Fall Line Road]] about 1735 (overlapped the Occaneechi Path) in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]]  
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:*[[Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath]] was a pre-historic path that went toward [[Birmingham, Alabama]]
:*[[Great Valley Road|Great Valley Road (south fork)]] 1740s (overlapped the Occaneechi Path) in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]]  
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:*[[Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail]] was a pre-historic trail headed for the Florida panhandle and probably [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mission_San_Luis_de_Apalachee Mission San Luis de Apalachee]
:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] pre-historic in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]]  
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:*[[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]] was a pre-historic trail from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] originally to [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Savannah_Town,_South_Carolina Savannah Town, South Carolina] and later [[Augusta, Georgia]]
:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783 in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]]
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:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747
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:*[[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]] after 1765 followed the northeast side of the Savannah River down to old [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Charlotte_(South_Carolina) Fort Charlotte] in northwest [[McCormick County, South Carolina]]
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:*[[Unicoi Trail|Unicoi Turnpike]] opened to a few European traders 1690, but the wagon road was not opened to settlers until 1819 from near [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo Tugaloo] headed northwest to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Overhill_Cherokee Overhill Cherokee villages] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knoxville,_Tennessee Knoxville] in [[Tennessee]]<ref>Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).</ref>
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''Between'' those ends the [[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] also crossed several other important migration routes:
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:*[[Occaneechi Path]] a pre-historic trail with a junction in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]] connecting the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to [[Petersburg, Virginia]]
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:*[[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]] a pre-historic trail with a junction in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]] connecting the [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/pickens-county/images/sheriff-01.pdf Lower Cherokee Villages] to the Catawba Indians ([[Charlotte, North Carolina]])
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:*[[Fall Line Road]] about 1735 (overlapped the Occaneechi Path) with a junction in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]] connecting [[Fredericksburg, Virginia]] to [[Montgomery County, Alabama|Montgomery, Alabama]]  
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:*[[Great Valley Road|Great Valley Road (south fork)]] 1740s (overlapped the Occaneechi Path) with a junction in [[Lexington County, South Carolina|Lexington County]] and connected [[Philadelphia, Pennsylvania]] to [[Augusta, Georgia]]
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:*[[Old_South_Carolina_State_Road|Old South Carolina State Road]] 1747
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:*[[Upper Road]] about 1783 with a junction in [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg County]] (overlapping the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path) connecting [[Fredericksburg, Virginia]] to [[Macon, Georgia]]
  
'''Modern parallels.''' The modern roads that roughly match the old Old South Carolina State Road start in Toccoa, Georgia. From Toccoa, take US-123 east to Easley, South Carolina, then east on US-124 to Greenville. Go north on US-25 to SC-11. Turn east on SC-11 to Gowensville. Take SC-14 north to Landrum, then northwest on US-176/Asheville Highway to Tryon, North Carolina. Turn north and then east onto NC-108 to Rutherfordton. Take US-64 north to Lenoir, then go north on US-321 to Boone. Take US-421 to Mountain City, then turn northeast onto NC-91 to Damascus, Tennessee. From Damascus take US-58 northwest to I-81, the Interstate version of the Great Valley Road.  
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'''Modern parallels.''' The modern roads that roughly match the old Old South Carolina State Road start in Charleston, South Carolina. Take Interstate 26 west (that is north) to Goose Creek. From Goose Creek follow [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Route_176 U.S. Route 176] northwest to Henderson, North Carolina.
  
 
=== Settlers and Records  ===
 
=== Settlers and Records  ===
  
The Great Valley Road was the trail leading to the north end of the Old South Carolina State Road. A few colonists settled in Washington County Virginia in the early 1750s but decided to leave for safety reasons during the French and Indian War. The Lower Cherokee Villages on the South Carolina and Georgia part of the Old South Carolina State Road inhibited most European settlements until the American Revolutionary War. Settlers prior to 1777 were most likely using trails other than the Old South Carolina State Road to reach their new homes.  
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The '''Old South Carolina State Road''' from Charleston to Orangeburg was part of earlier routes and already well-traveled by the time the State Road opened in 1747. Settlers who came via Charleston may have arrived by sea, or by the [[King's Highway|King's Highway]]. Some later settlers may have joined the State Road at its junction with the [[Fall Line Road|Fall Line Road]] near Columbia. Especially the Ulster-Irish in the old [[Ninety-Six District, South Carolina|Ninety-Six District]] used the State Road to reach early settlements in what became [[Newberry County, South Carolina|Newberry]], [[Laurens County, South Carolina|Laurens]], [[Union County, South Carolina|Union]], [[Spartanburg County, South Carolina|Spartanburg]], and [[Greenville County, South Carolina|Greenville]] counties east of the Cherokee Villages. Once the Cherokee left what became [[Pickens County, South Carolina|Pickens]] and [[Oconee County, South Carolina|Oconee]] counties during the Revolutionary War, in 1777 veterans of that war began settling on Cherokee land and probably used part of the Old South Carolina State Road to help get there.  
  
No complete list of settlers who used the '''Old South Carolina State Road''' is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1777 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old South Carolina State Road.  
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No complete list of settlers who used the '''Old South Carolina State Road''' is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1747 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old South Carolina State Road.  
  
 
For partial lists of early settlers who '''''may&nbsp;''''' have used the Old South Carolina State Road, see histories like:  
 
For partial lists of early settlers who '''''may&nbsp;''''' have used the Old South Carolina State Road, see histories like:  
  
'''''in Washington County, VA:'''''  
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'''''in Newberry County, SC:'''''  
  
*Lewis Preston Summers, ''History of Southwest Virginia, 1746-1786, Washington County, 1777-1870'' (1903; reprint, Baltimore: Regional Pub. Co., 1971) ({{FHL|353261|item|disp=FHL Book 975.5 H2sLp 1971; Film 162046}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/212906700 WorldCat entry].
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*George Leland Summer, ''Newberry County, South Carolina: Historical and Genealogical'' ([Newberry, South Carolina&nbsp;: s.n.], 1950) ({{FHL|200837|item|disp=FHL Book 975.739 H2sg}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523452 WorldCat entry].
  
'''''in Oconee County, SC:'''''  
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'''''in Union County, SC:'''''
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*Mannie Lee Mabry, ed., ''Union County Heritage'' (Union, South Carolina&nbsp;: Union County Heritage Committee, c1981) ({{FHL|80030|item|disp=FHL Book 975.741 H2u}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/10302337 WorldCat entry].
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'''''in Spartanburg County, SC:'''''
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*J.B.O. Landrum, ''History of Spartanburg County: Embracing an Account of Many Important Events and Biographical Sketches of Statesmen, Divines and Other Public Men and the Names of Many Others Worthy of Record in the History of Their County'', 2 vols. (1900, reprint; Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, c1991) ({{FHL|571827|item|disp=FHL Book 975.729 H2L 1991}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/213779035 WorldCat entry].
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'''''in Greenville County, SC:'''''
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*James M. Richardson, ''History of Greenville County, South Carolina: Narrative and Biographical'' (1930, reprint; Greenville, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1993) ({{FHL|661239|item|disp=FHL Book 975.727 D3r 1993}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/29666586 WorldCat entry].
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'''''in Oconee and Pickens counties, SC:'''''  
  
 
*Frederick Van Clayton, ''Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800'' (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) ({{FHL|397544|item|disp=FHL Book 975.72 W2c}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18802872 WorldCat entry]. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."
 
*Frederick Van Clayton, ''Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800'' (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) ({{FHL|397544|item|disp=FHL Book 975.72 W2c}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/18802872 WorldCat entry]. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."
  
'''''in Stephens County, GA:'''''  
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'''''in Polk County, North Carolina:'''''
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 +
*D. William Bennett, ''Polk County, North Carolina, History'' (Tyron, NC: Polk Co. Hist. Assoc., ©1983.) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/11114930 WorldCat entry].
 +
 
 +
'''''in Stephens County, Georgia:'''''  
  
 
*Katheryn Curtis Trogdon, ''History of Stephens County, Georgia'' (Toccoa, Ga.: Toccoa Womans Club, [c1973]). ({{FHL|160782|item|disp=FHL Book 975.813 H2t}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/623349 WorldCat entry].
 
*Katheryn Curtis Trogdon, ''History of Stephens County, Georgia'' (Toccoa, Ga.: Toccoa Womans Club, [c1973]). ({{FHL|160782|item|disp=FHL Book 975.813 H2t}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/623349 WorldCat entry].
Line 76: Line 115:
 
=== External Links  ===
 
=== External Links  ===
  
*[http://gaz.jrshelby.com/cherokee-lower.htm Cherokee Lower Towns] has maps of town locations, a link to a Revolutionary War battle database, sources, and list of Revolutionary War battles involving Cherokees.
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*Adam Prince, ''[http://www.gribblenation.com/scroads/state/1920.html 1920 State Trunk Routes - An Overview]'' describes Trunk Route 2 as the "Old State Road." The route included Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville, but where it exited South Carolina is "unclear." Various possibilities described include routes via Landrum, Travelers Rest, and Seneca.
*[http://files.usgwarchives.org/ga/history/earlytrails.txt Georgia History Early Trails] describes westward migration on and route of the Lower Cherokee Traders' Path and other routes through Georgia.  
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*Wikipedia contributors, "Tugaloo," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tugaloo (accessed 5 April 2011).
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*Wikipedia contributors, "Great Wagon Road," ''Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia'', http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Wagon_Road (accessed 7 April 2011).
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=== Sources  ===
 
=== Sources  ===
  
{{reflist}} {{North Carolina}}{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}  
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{{reflist}} {{Georgia|Georgia}}{{North Carolina|North Carolina}}{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}  
 
<div></div>  
 
<div></div>  
[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:North_Carolina]] [[Category:Polk_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:Greenville_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Spartanburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Laurens_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Newberry_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Lexington_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Calhoun_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Orangeburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Dorchester_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Charleston_County,_South_Carolina]]
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[[Category:Migration_Routes]] [[Category:US_Migration_Trails_and_Roads]] [[Category:North_Carolina]] [[Category:Polk_County,_North_Carolina]] [[Category:Georgia]] [[Category:Stephens_County,_Georgia]] [[Category:South_Carolina]] [[Category:Oconee_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Greenville_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Spartanburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Laurens_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Newberry_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Lexington_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Calhoun_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Orangeburg_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Dorchester_County,_South_Carolina]] [[Category:Charleston_County,_South_Carolina]]

Latest revision as of 15:47, 4 May 2011

United States  Gotoarrow.png  Migration  Gotoarrow.png  Trails and Roads  Gotoarrow.png  South Carolina  Gotoarrow.png  Old South Carolina State Road

Old South Carolina State Road.png
The Old South Carolina State Road connected the colonial seaport of Charleston with several important internal South Carolina towns as well as the Catawba Trail and Old Cherokee Path on South Carolina's northern border near Landrum in Spartanburg County. Charleston was the largest European settlement in South Carolina, its capital, on the King's Highway, and the start of several other trails. The Catawba Trail connected the Old South Carolina State Road to Asheville, North Carolina and to the Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap from Virginia and Tennessee into Kentucky. The Old Cherokee Path connected the Lower Cherokee Indian villages in South Carolina and Georgia with several Indian trails, especially the Great Valley Road an important migration route through Virginia to Tennessee. The Old South Carolina State Road was opened to European settlers in 1747. The Old South Carolina State Road began in Charleston County, South Carolina and ended near Spartanburg County, South Carolina. The exact route is uncertain and may have varied over the years. The length of the road was about 180 miles (290 km).[1]

Contents

Historical Background

From the first contact with Europeans the Cherokee Indians had settlements called the Lower Cherokee Villages in the northwest part of South Carolina and part of Georgia. The most prominent was the town of Keowee. Several important Indian trails radiated out from these villages. These trails would eventually become migration routes for European settlers. The Cherokee resisted most European settlement near their villages. The Cherokee sided with the British during the American Revolutionary War. By 1777 Patriot forces attacked and drove the Cherokee from South Carolina. Patriot veterans soon began to settle in former Cherokee areas.

Charleston was founded in 1670 by English and African immigrants from the Caribbean island of Barbados. It became the largest city and capital of the South Carolina colony. Many trails and roads radiated out from Charleston. In 1747 the Old South Carolina State Road was opened and settlers began pouring north along it into the interior. In 1753 the British colony of South Carolina built Fort Prince George across the river to the east of the Cherokee town of Keowee. It is likely that a branch of the Old State Road went to Fort Prince George.

As roads developed in America settlers were attracted to nearby communities because the roads provided access to markets. They could sell their products at distant markets, and buy products made far away. If an ancestor settled near a road, you may be able to trace back to a place of origin on a connecting highway.

Route

The first European colonists settled in counties along this trail (south to north) as follows:[2]

  • Charleston 1670 by English and African Barbadians
  • Dorchester 1696 by New Englanders from Massachusetts
  • Orangeburg 1731 by Reformed Swiss, German Lutherans, and French Huguenots
  • Calhoun 1730s by Scots-Irish (that is Ulster-Irish), Germans, and French Huguenots
  • Lexington 1730s by Germans, and French Huguenots
  • Newberry 1750s by Germans, English, and Scots-Irish
  • Laurens 1753 by Scots-Irish
  • Spartanburg 1755 by Scots-Irish
  • Greenville 1777 by Scots-Irish, and Revolutionary War Veterans
  • Pickens 1753 by English, and Scots-Irish
  • Oconee 1784 by Germans, and Revolutionary War Veterans

There are three possible routes the Old South Carolina State Road may have taken to exit the state.[3] Over the years the route may have shifted:

Connecting trails. The Old South Carolina State Road linked to other trails at each end. Other trails also crossed it in the middle.[4]

The migration pathways connected at the south end in Charleston included:

The migration pathways connected at the north end near Spartanburg County, South Carolina included:

The possible fork that went to Tugaloo, Stephens County, Georgia would have connected to the following trails in that area:

Between those ends the Old South Carolina State Road also crossed several other important migration routes:

Modern parallels. The modern roads that roughly match the old Old South Carolina State Road start in Charleston, South Carolina. Take Interstate 26 west (that is north) to Goose Creek. From Goose Creek follow U.S. Route 176 northwest to Henderson, North Carolina.

Settlers and Records

The Old South Carolina State Road from Charleston to Orangeburg was part of earlier routes and already well-traveled by the time the State Road opened in 1747. Settlers who came via Charleston may have arrived by sea, or by the King's Highway. Some later settlers may have joined the State Road at its junction with the Fall Line Road near Columbia. Especially the Ulster-Irish in the old Ninety-Six District used the State Road to reach early settlements in what became Newberry, Laurens, Union, Spartanburg, and Greenville counties east of the Cherokee Villages. Once the Cherokee left what became Pickens and Oconee counties during the Revolutionary War, in 1777 veterans of that war began settling on Cherokee land and probably used part of the Old South Carolina State Road to help get there.

No complete list of settlers who used the Old South Carolina State Road is known to exist. Nevertheless, local and county histories along that trail may reveal pioneer settlers who arrived after 1747 and therefore who were the most likely candidates to have traveled the Old South Carolina State Road.

For partial lists of early settlers who may  have used the Old South Carolina State Road, see histories like:

in Newberry County, SC:

in Union County, SC:

in Spartanburg County, SC:

  • J.B.O. Landrum, History of Spartanburg County: Embracing an Account of Many Important Events and Biographical Sketches of Statesmen, Divines and Other Public Men and the Names of Many Others Worthy of Record in the History of Their County, 2 vols. (1900, reprint; Bowie, Maryland: Heritage Books, c1991) (FHL Book 975.729 H2L 1991) WorldCat entry.

in Greenville County, SC:

  • James M. Richardson, History of Greenville County, South Carolina: Narrative and Biographical (1930, reprint; Greenville, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, 1993) (FHL Book 975.727 D3r 1993) WorldCat entry.

in Oconee and Pickens counties, SC:

  • Frederick Van Clayton, Settlement of Pendleton District, 1777-1800 (Easley, S.C.: Southern Historical Press, c1988) (FHL Book 975.72 W2c) WorldCat entry. The old Pendleton District embraced the present counties of Anderson, Oconee, and Pickens. Includes plats and their owners taken from the "State Record of Plat Books."

in Polk County, North Carolina:

  • D. William Bennett, Polk County, North Carolina, History (Tyron, NC: Polk Co. Hist. Assoc., ©1983.) WorldCat entry.

in Stephens County, Georgia:

External Links

  • Adam Prince, 1920 State Trunk Routes - An Overview describes Trunk Route 2 as the "Old State Road." The route included Charleston, Columbia, and Greenville, but where it exited South Carolina is "unclear." Various possibilities described include routes via Landrum, Travelers Rest, and Seneca.

Sources

  1. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 852. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002). WorldCat entry.
  2. South Carolina - The Counties, http://www.carolana.com/SC/Counties/sc_counties_alphabetical_order.html (accessed 8 April 2011).
  3. Adam Prince, 1920 State Trunk Routes - An Overview, http://www.gribblenation.com/scroads/state/1920.html (accessed 10 April 2011).
  4. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002) WorldCat entry., and William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the early Colonial Period" (1923). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.
  5. "South Carolina Counties and Parishes - 1740" in The Royal Colony of South Carolina at http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_counties_parishes_1740.html (accessed 22 April 2011).
  6. Lowell Kirk, "The Unicoi Turnpike" at http://www.telliquah.com/unicoi.htm (accessed 3 May 2011).

 

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