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Grundherrschaft and Gutsherrschaft in Germany
Through the centuries most of our ancestors lived in rural areas and came under the auspices of a Grund- or Gutsherr (landowner). Most cultivable land was owned by them – less by small farmers, although it was possible for a Grundherr to lease land to more or less independent farmers. A Grundherr can be lord over a small area, does not have to be a nobleman and can also be a monastery. A manorial system was complex and embraced all aspects of life. A Gutsherr, also a manor lord, owned land and managed it through workers. The farmers of the surrounding area were his subordinates and their affairs were regulated by him or his administrator.
There were three forms of manorial systems:
2. Interest or annuity based
3. Manorial or patrimonial based
This system consisted of a manor and a couple of dependent farms. The manor lord owned acreage, meadows, gardens, woods, lakes, rivers, canals, vineyards and mills. The manor lord lived either at the manor house or had his administrator (Villikus) conduct the business. This man was responsible to collect contributions from the farmers, also called Grundholden. He had the power to hold court. Even if some farmers were independent, somehow they became part of the multifaceted enterprise of the manor.
• The interest or annuity based system
This system very much functioned as villication did, only there did not exist the right to ownership. The manor lord leased the land and collected interest or annuities. This form of manorial system was prevalent in areas of clearing or colonization.
• The manorial or patrimonial system
East of the Elbe River in Brandenburg, Mecklenburg, Pomerania, East/West Prussia, Silesia (Ober-/Niederlausitz) the Gutsherrschaft was prominent. A Gut consisted of a castle like manor house to which was attached a large farming area and smaller farming units (Vorwerk). A Gutsherr was interested in expansion by re-cultivating waste lands and annexing or buying farmlands. In this wise an entire village could become part of the Gutsherrschaft and economic growth be ensured. The entire area was cultivated by farm hands, subordinate farmers and squatters (Gärtner, Häusler). The members of a Gut were part of a more or less crushing personal dependence. Dependents had to observe Erbuntertänigkeit (subservience which was inheritable) Schollenpflicht (tied to the area) and Gesindedienstzwang (had to provide services by waiting in the wings). Gutsherrschaft was spreading because authoritative laws were transferred to the Gutsherrr of noble descent. He exercised police powers and patrimonial jurisprudence.
With all these regulations, obligations, stipulations etc. there are numerous records re. land transactions, regulative and obligatory actions involving our ancestors who dwelled in rural Germany. See the following examples:
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Landregister (land register)
Farmers did not always own their land. In times of German Feudalism a farmer was merely a tenant. For the privilege of cultivating the land, he had to pay taxes, give produce and do socage for his manor lord. The amount of tax, produce and socage was dependent on the acreage of the farm and the circumstances the individual farmer found himself in. Was he the owner of horses or other draft animals? This would determine taxes and other abilities to cope. The measurements for land parcels were called Hufe (Hube) and Ruten. 1 Hufe equaled 12 Ruten. Monetary payments were due twice a year, at Walpurgis and Michaelis (time of sowing and harvesting).
The manorial officials, the Richter and/or Schöffen, were obliged to register all possessions and owners of a village. They would account for acreage, name of owner and to whom this person paid the property tax. (Note: In early times a family name is just beginning to appear in rural areas. People are identified through their fathers, i.e. Hannus Jenden son. If the connotation "son" is not appearing, the father name will appear before or after the given name of the son. Therefore, Albrecht Kareske is identical with Karis Albrecht. Many names appear with added names, such as Schultis or Lehmann).
One such land register stems from the year 1381 of the Sorau Herrschaft. It is available in book form titled Das Landregister der Herrschaft Sorau von 1381, published by Johannes Schultze in 1936. It is available through www.familysearch.org Family History Library Salt Lake City, Utah, call number 943.2 B4vh v. 8