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Residence laws in the Kingdom of Hannover
With the constant population growth in the Kingdom of Hannover, the government released some laws to regulate residence rights. The following was determined March 31, 1830:
The right to live at a certain place is obtained
1. by birth or through marriage (females)
2. by administrative permission
3. by working for the state as a public servant
4. by extended residency
To obtain the rights of residence by birth or through marriage.
If parents are residents of a place, their legitimate children also have the right of residence there. Such rights exist also for children who were taken in or were adopted. Illegitimate children have the same residence rights as their mothers do. If the mother dies, the child has the right to remain at the residence, if he or she has not already chosen a different place to live.
Children whose parents cannot be found and children whose mothers bore and left them at a certain place or whose mothers died at giving birth to them have the right to remain at their place of birth.
Wives who share the residence with their husbands from the day of marriage maintain the right of residence also after their husbands’ death. If they decide to remarry and move elsewhere their still dependent children will go with her, if their guardian agrees. Should their mothers marry and remain in foreign territories and the children cannot obtain the rights of residence, they are allowed to return to their place of birth.
To obtain the rights of residence by administrative permission
1. in cities and small towns by obtaining citizenship or administrative approval
2. in villages by obtaining property, such as a house or by approval of the community and administrative compliance or
3. by administrative compliance without community approval
An applicant obtains administrative approval against the will of the community, if he can show excellent references about his character from his former place of residence. Such a person receives permission to settle if he has the means to establish himself in his profession, becomes a member of a guild and has a place of residence. If a person is a day laborer or a farm hand and has proof of extended work, he can receive the right of residence if he is fit for work, can prove that he has employment, has found a residence and has enough means to support himself and his family.A place of residence for unmarried servants should not be granted by the authorities.
The authorities are furthermore authorized to deny permits for residence if applicants have a bad reputation, have a criminal record or are being investigated.
All doubts and complaints should be directed to the Landdrostei (highest administration) for further investigation. The decision of a community to deny the right of residence to a stranger is nullified and can be a punishable offence if it turns out to be an unjust case.
Public servants obtain the rights of residence for themselves and their families where they work. They can, however, decide which place of residence they prefer if they did not work more than two years at a place where they had obtained residence rights first.
Retired military personal have the right to choose any place of residence within the Kingdom of Hanover.
If someone did not obtain permission of residence as described above, however, has resided for five years in a community and has made known this to be his chosen place of residence, he has obtained therefore the right of residence. Persons who live with their relatives (even if this arrangement has lasted for five years or more) are excluded from the privilege. Foreigners cannot obtain permanent residence anywhere in the kingdom, only by expressed permission of the authorities.
Residents who take in non-residents and do not notify the authorities within 2 weeks become subject to hefty fines. The right to permanent residence can only be obtained if intention for permanent residency is evident. Students, pupils, journeymen, apprentices, and servants cannot obtain permanent residency. People who are hired by the community, such as shepherds, foresters etc. who have an established household and whose services last longer than a few months have the right of permanent residency.
Christian H. Ebhardt. Gesetze, Verordnungen und Ausschreiben für das Königreich Hannover Vol. 7
Citizenship records of Eldagsen from the 17th and 18th century
These records are based on various record types found in the city archive Eldagsen. The citizens are listed by name and profession. The lists were organized by streets, starting with the city center. More information about the citizenship records can be retrieved at this link. (Bürgerverzichnisse der Stadt Eldagsen)
Listing of burghers in Göttingen
The city of Göttingen listed their citizens since 1328. In their city archive one can find entries in 6 volumes ranging from 1328 to 1639 (vol. I), 1641 to 1842 (vol. II), 1843 to 1852 (vol. III), 1852-1861 (vol. IV), 1861 to 1879 (vol. V). An alphabetical list exists for entries until 1918 and can be looked at as vol. VI.
The publication of these volumes has taken a lot of time and preparation since considerable gaps and missing information had to be filled in with information from other documents to make the source valuable to genealogists, historians and scientific research. Information with name, profession, origin, the amount of money to be paid was given which differed from time to time. Non-locals, especially of another nation had to pay exuberant amounts to become citizens. The reasoning was to keep them away and if they were accepted they had to take an oath that they would not be part of tumults or similar activities. If they wanted to marry the daughter of a local burgher, they had to pay elevated fees. Sources such as tax registers (Schossregister and Kämmereisachen) and later, property records, the so called Wilkorebücher rendered clues especially when a widow remarried. Other helpful information came from settling wine accounts.
The authors of the volumes were also adamant to find out widows’ maiden names. Of importance was the name of guarantors since one can conclude from their profession, what the profession of the applicant might have been and what possible relationships existed.
If an ancestor is listed in the Göttinger citizenship books his name can be determined by browsing through the online list provided by this forum. For further information on a name contact the forum member who posted the list/s.
The Family History Library has the names of Götting burghers for the years 1328-1710. The call number for these books is 943.59/G1 p49g v. 1 and 2.
Source: Die Göttinger Bürgeraufnahmen by Heinz Kelterborn. 1980