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Church records are excellent sources for accurate names, dates, and places of births, marriages, and deaths. Many people who lived in Russia were recorded in church records.
Records of births, marriages, and deaths are commonly called “vital records” because they record critical events in a person’s life. Church records are vital records made by church officials. They are often called parish registers or churchbooks (Metricheskaja kniga, plural - Metricheskie knigi, Метрические книги in Russian). Church books were started in Russia in 1720s. They consisted usually of 3 parts: a) births and christening; b) marriages; c) deaths and burials. Most remarkable was, that in the marriage part, like in the christening part, witnesses were mentioned, two from each side of the family.
Normally two copies were made, one (a transcript) sent annually to a central ecclesiastical or civil office. The transcript is the copy most likely to have survived the civil disruptions of Russia's past. Parish registers consist of forms filled out annually, filed, and then bound into books. Over time they were filed in any order imaginable. There are gaps in the years indicating that some materials were lost or misplaced. Quite often the records of churches in a district for a single year are bound in the same volume.
The form of Orthodox church books was for a long time unstable: it was constituted legally in 1779 and 1837. Other denominations also had church books in that form, which was dictated by the state: for catholics in 1826, for the lutherans in 1832, for jews in 1835, for old believers in 1874, and for baptists in 1879. The October revolution of 1917 has changed church books to civil registration, although in some churches these books were privately continued until the 1920s.
In addition to church books, especially when they are missing, one had the books of those who came to a confession (Ispowednye rospisi, Исповедные росписи in Russian), and books of the marriage investigations (Brachnye Obyski, Брачные Обыски in Russian). These books contain mostly agreements of parents to the marriage of their children, but sometimes also genealogical trees, when there was a question of the relation of bride and groom.
A very special source, to which we do not know analogues in other countries, were synodicals, the prayer list for certain deceased people, who were somehow related to that particular church or monastery. That could be a landlord, a priest, but also some peasants and town citizens. To get your family mentioned by such rememberings, one had to pay some money, of course. Some synodicals are very short, and tell only family name. But lots of them are a list of all deceased ancestors, which were known to the person who ordered the synodical. Synodicals of the 17th century are sometimes a unique source for ancient genealogies. Only one problem is with them, - that there was no stable algorythm of the order in which one put his ancestors. So, synodicals could be used only with a help of some information from other sources.
Parish Names and Lists of Microfilms
LDS microfilms for Russian-Polish regions are indexed according to provincial boundaries as they were in modern Poland pre 1975. Since most of our research covers the time before WW I, a summary of parishes in the regions applicable to that time frame, with direct links to the microfilm numbers, would be a major help to researchers. The following links provide that for you.
Russian Orthodox Church Records
The keeping of metrical books was mandated by a 1722 decree of Peter the Great. A format of three parts, christenings, marriages, deaths, was established in 1724, a printed format in 1806, and in 1838 a format that prevailed until the revolution. The consistory copy was considered official record. A Russian diocese - eparkhia was coterminous with a Russian state - guberniya. The registers of each parish - prikhod in an country- uyezd were commonly filed together for a single year. Confession lists are often interfiled with parish registers. Each Orthodox Christian was to confess and partake of the sacrament at least once a year. The principal time for confession was Lent. Children of both sexes in obligatory fashion were taken to confession, beginning from their seventh year. The form of confession lists was established in 1737: the sequential number of the household, surname, given names of all children at least a year old, sex, ages, whether or not the person attended confession, and if not, why (rarely noted).
Greek Catholic (Uniate) Church Records
Followers of the Byzantine rite, primarily Ukrainians, that returned to union with Rome. In 1839 the Church was formally dissolved in the Russian Empire and its members considered Orthodox. The church persisted only in Galicia and Transcarpathia, then under Austro-Hungarian rule. When these areas were assimilated into the Soviet Union, this religion was outlawed. The descendants of Ukrainians may think their ancestors were Orthodox when they were really Uniate before 1839.
Roman Catholic Church Records
Russia mandated the keeping of Roman Catholic registers in 1826. Three copies made, the third for the deanery - dekanat, the level between the diocese and the parish. There were five dioceses in 1900: Tiraspol (located in Saratov), Zhytomyr (Zhitomir), Mogilev, Vilnius (Vilno), Kaunus (Kovno).
Lutheran (Evangelical) Church Records
In 1832 Russia mandated keeping these records. There were eight diocesan offices, one in St. Petersburg, one in Moscow, and six in the Baltic states. The registers were kept in German, until law of 1891 required that they be kept in Russian.
Included with all of the people who lived in Russian Poland, a significant number were of German ancestry. Most were also of the Evangelical (or Lutheran) faith. These people moved into Russian Poland from the German states and Prussia at least as early as the late 18th century, and somewhat continuously in large numbers until at least the 1870s. By about 1900, many of these people had left this area to move to present-day eastern Poland, Volhynia, or other places. It appears that a significant number never left Poland until at least World War II.
Handwritten records were kept for all births, marriages and deaths that were reported to the Lutheran Church. If an event occurred before the establishment of a Lutheran parish, the record is most likely in a nearby parish that was already established before the time of the event. In some cases, even though the event was for a person of the Evangelical (or Lutheran) faith, the event may be recorded in the Catholic Church records for that area.
Family History Library filming generally ends with about the 1880s records, because the remaining records were not yet 100 years old at the time of filming. Because records after about 1869 are in the more difficult (to us) Russian Cyrillic, the Society for German Genealogy in Eastern Europe will, at this time, limit the translation of Lutheran parish indexes to 1869.
Old Believer Church Records
Dissenters from orthodoxy who refused to accept alterations of religious rituals and prayers. Civilian registration of birth and marriage by police mandated in 1874 for those who were born into old believer families. One copy made. Kept in the provincial administration (gubernskoye pravleniye).
Baptist Church Records
Civil registration mandated in 1879. Two copies, one in the provincial administration and the other in the regional police headquarters (uezdnoye politseiskoye upravleniye).
Included with all of the people who lived in Russian Poland, a significant number were of German ancestry, some of whom were of the Baptist faith. These people moved into Poland from the German states and Prussia at least as early as the late 18th century, and somewhat continuously in large numbers until at least the 1870s. By about 1900, many of these people had left this area to move to present-day eastern Poland, Volhynia, or other places. It appears that a significant number never left Poland until at least World War II.
In 1828 and 1832 Russia mandated keeping these records. Two copies were filed, one in the mosque and the other in either Orenburg or Tavri. The mandate was extended to the Transcaucasus in 1872.