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'''[[Image:Shawnee_-_Ten-squat-a-way_(the_open_door)-_The_Prophet.jpg|frame|right|400x370px|<center>Shawnee - ten-squat-a-way the Prophet</center>]]Alternate Names an<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_598" /><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_489" />d Spellings:''' Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee
  
'''Various Spellings:''' Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee
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'''Ancestral Homeland: '''near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)
  
'''Ancestral Homeland: '''near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)
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'''Federal Recognition'''  
  
'''Federal Recognition&nbsp;:'''  
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'''Leaders:''' [http://tecumsehchief.blogspot.com Tecumseh]
  
'''Leaders:''' Tecumseh
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== Tribal Headquarters  ==
 +
 
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Shawnee Tribe <br>P.O. Box 189<br>Miami, OK 74355<br>Phone: 1.918.542.2441<br>Fax: 1.918.542.2922 <br>
 +
 
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*[http://www.shawnee-tribe.com/ The Shawnee Tribe] Official Website
  
 
== History  ==
 
== History  ==
 +
 +
=== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ===
 +
 +
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/shawnee/shawneehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Shawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tennessee/shawneeindianhist.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].
 +
 +
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=631 Shawnee Indians
 +
 +
Flora Harvey Kittle. Shawnee Indians in Kansas,&nbsp;FHL Book 970.1 Al #89
  
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
 
==== Brief Timeline  ====
  
'''1689-1763:''' French and Indian Wars, sided with the French  
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*'''1677:''' Early contact with non-Indians, a French trader La Potherie
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*'''1689-1763:''' French and Indian Wars, sided with the French  
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*'''1754:''' Eskippakithiki, a Shawnee settlement abandoned
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*'''1763:''' Joined the [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]] and other tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion against the British
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*'''1769: '''Shawnee warned Daniel Boone to leave "Kentucky"
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*'''1774:''' Fought Virginians in Lord Dunmore's War. (Lord Dunmore gave veterans of the French and Indian War who fought under him land that belonged to the Shawnee)
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*'''October 6, 1774:''' Point Pleasant, West Virginia- Treaty - ceded land
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*'''1775:''' Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War
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*'''1782:''' The Shawnee joined by the [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]], [[Wyandot Indians|Wyandot]], [[Miami Indians|Miami,]] [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]], [[Chippewa Indians|Chippewa]], and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.
 +
*'''1794:''' General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio
 +
*'''1794:''' land ceded
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*'''1795:''' Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system
 +
*'''1802:''' factory established at Fort Wayne
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*'''1812-1815: '''War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky
 +
*'''October 5, 1813:''' Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed
 +
*'''1815:''' many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Abesentee Shawnee moved]] into Arkansas and in '''1820 '''moved to Texas.
 +
*'''1825:''' a census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)
 +
*'''1828:''' Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas
 +
*'''1831: '''August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.
 +
*'''1832: '''Black Hawk War
 +
*'''1832:''' Wapakoneta Shawnee left Ohio and removed west of the Missouri River, into Kansas
 +
*'''1833:''' Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas
 +
*'''1835: '''Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker
 +
*'''1861-65:''' supported the Union during the Civil War
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*<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267545763149_417" />'''1867:''' Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Absentee Shawnee from]] Texas settled with the [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi]] (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of [[Seneca Indians|Seneca]] and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
 +
*'''1980:''' Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio
  
'''1763:''' joined the Ottawa and other tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion against the British
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=== Migrations: ===
  
'''1774:''' fought Virginians in Lord Dunmore's War. (Lord Dunmore gave veterans of the French and Indian War who fought under him land that belonged to the Shawnee)
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Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas
  
'''October 6, 1774:''' Point Pleasant, West Virginia- Treaty - ceded land
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=== Agencies  ===
  
'''1775:''' Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War
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[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
  
'''1794:''' land ceded
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The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.
  
'''1795:''' Treaty of Fort Greenville
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[[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Kansas)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Kansas
  
'''October 5, 1813:''' Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed
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[[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Missouri)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Missouri
  
'''1832: '''Black Hawk War
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[[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua and Ohio Agency]]
  
'''1861-65:''' supported the Union during the Civil War
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[[Fort Leavenworth Indian Agency (Kansas)|Fort Leavenworth Agency]]
  
==== Migrations:  ====
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[[Kansas Indian Agency (Kansas)|Kansas Agency]]
  
Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas
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[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]]
  
==== Brief History  ====
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[[Neosho Indian Agency (Kansas)|Neosho Agency]]
  
==== Reservations  ====
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[[Quapaw Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Quapaw Agency]]
  
==== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ====
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[[Seneca Indian Agency (New York)|Seneca Agency]]
  
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/shawnee/shawneehist.htm Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico], gave a more complete history of the Shawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tennessee/shawneeindianhist.htm The Indian Tribes of North America].
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[[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]]  
  
Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=631 Shawnee Indians]  
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[[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Iowa)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Iowa
  
== Tribal Headquarters ==
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[[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Oklahoma
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=== Reservations ===
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From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
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Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
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 +
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
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 +
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
  
Shawnee Tribe <br>P.O. Box 189<br>Miami, OK 74355<br>Phone: 918.542.2441<br>Fax: 918.542.2922 <br>
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[[Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Reservation]]
  
== Records  ==
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[[Absentee Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Absentee Shawnee Reservation]]
  
'''Agency Records'''
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=== Records ===
  
 
'''Correspondence and Census'''  
 
'''Correspondence and Census'''  
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M 234 RG 75 Roll 962  
 
M 234 RG 75 Roll 962  
  
Roll Number
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Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
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Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
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M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
 
M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
  
Roll Number
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Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
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Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
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| -  
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| -  
| -
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| FHL Films: 581865-581871
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Shawnee, Ohio  
 
| Shawnee, Ohio  
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| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 410-16  
 
| Rolls 410-16  
| 581405-410
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| FHL Films:581405-581410
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Shawnee, Eastern  
 
| Shawnee, Eastern  
Line 161: Line 208:
 
| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 487-89  
 
| Rolls 487-89  
| 581498-99
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| FHL Films:581498-581499
 
|-
 
|-
 
| Shawnee, Absentee  
 
| Shawnee, Absentee  
| Whichita Agency, 1859-67  
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| Wichita Agency, 1859-67  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 927-30  
 
| Rolls 927-30  
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|-
 
|-
 
| Shawnee, Absentee  
 
| Shawnee, Absentee  
| Sac and Fox Agency,&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;ca. 1869-80  
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| Sac and Fox Agency, ca. 1869-80  
 
| Chicago  
 
| Chicago  
 
| -  
 
| -  
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| -  
 
| -  
 
| Rolls 490-96  
 
| Rolls 490-96  
| 581865-581871
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| FHL Films:581865-581871
 
|}
 
|}
  
'''Removal/Census'''  
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'''Removal / Census'''  
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 +
1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859.&nbsp; At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854.
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<br>
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*1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]
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'''Church Records'''
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 +
Martha Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c
  
*1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, 1871 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]
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<br>
  
'''Treaties'''
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<br>
  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0016.htm 1786] January 31, on the Miami &nbsp;
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'''Treaties''' The year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville &nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1803]&nbsp;June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delawares&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4,&nbsp;at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at&nbsp;Brownstown, with the Chippewa&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0105.htm 1814] July 22, at Greenville, with the Wyandot&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0117.htm 1815] September 8, at Spring Wells, with the Wyandot&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0145.htm 1817] September 29,with the Wyandot&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1818] September 17, at St. Mary's, with the Wyandot&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0262.htm 1825] November 7, at&nbsp;St. Louis, &nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0327.htm 1831] July 20, at&nbsp;Lewistown, with the Seneca&nbsp;
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*'''1831:''' [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0331.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0331.htm]
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*'''1832: '''with the Seneca [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm]
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*'''1832:''' [http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm]
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*1854:&nbsp;[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0618.htm 1854] May 10, at Washington&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1050.htm 1865] September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the&nbsp;Cherokee and other Tribes&nbsp;in the Indian Territory&nbsp;
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0960.htm 1867] February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc., &nbsp;
+
  
<br>
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0016.htm 1786] January 31, on the Miami
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1803]June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0105.htm 1814] July 22, at Greenville, with the Wyandot
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0117.htm 1815] September 8, at Spring Wells, with the Wyandot
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0145.htm 1817] September 29, with the Wyandot
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0162.htm 1818] September 17, at St. Mary's, with the Wyandot
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0262.htm 1825] November 7, at St. Louis,
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0327.htm 1831] July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0331.htm 1831] August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm 1832]December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm 1832] October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0618.htm 1854] May 10, at Washington
 +
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1050.htm 1865] September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0960.htm 1867] February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,
  
 
'''Vital Records'''  
 
'''Vital Records'''  
  
*Quapaw Agency, M595, birth and deaths 1924-1932, FHL Film: 581408  
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*Quapaw Agency, M595, birth and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 581408 }}
*Shawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1910-1934, FHL Film: 581870
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*Shawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1910-1934, {{FHL|Film: 581870}}
  
 
== Important Web Sites  ==
 
== Important Web Sites  ==
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== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
==== Bibliography  ====
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*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view 317923332]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1122745&disp=Reference+encyclopedia+of+the+American+I%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 R259e].  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view 317923332]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 37475188]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=831087&disp=The+Gale+encyclopedia+of+Native+American%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 G131g].
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 37475188]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=970.1 G131g}}.
  
 
:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
 
:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
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*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
 
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
*:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
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*:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>  
*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
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*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>  
*:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.4].  
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*:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
*:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.5].  
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*:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
*:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results 247493742]; Family History Library book [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.6].  
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*:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results 247493742]; Family History Library book {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
*:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
*:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>  
*:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.8].  
+
*:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
*:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.9].  
+
*:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
*:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.10].  
+
*:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
*:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.11].  
+
*:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
*:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.12].  
+
*:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
*:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
*:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>  
 
*:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
 
*:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
*:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=248632&disp=Handbook+of+North+American+Indians%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 H191h v.15].  
+
*:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
 
*:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
*:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
*:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>  
 
*:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
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*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; Family History Library book&nbsp;[http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/fhlcatalog/supermainframeset.asp?display=titledetails&titleno=1465222&disp=Encyclopedia+of+Native+American+tribes%20%20&columns=*,0,0 970.1 W146e 2006].
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=970.1 W146e 2006}}.
  
[[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:Indian_Tribes_of_North_America]]
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[[Category:Georgia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Kentucky_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Ohio_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Oklahoma_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:West_Virginia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Virginia_Indian_Tribes]]

Latest revision as of 15:04, 14 March 2013

Shawnee - ten-squat-a-way the Prophet
Alternate Names and Spellings:
Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee

Ancestral Homeland: near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)

Federal Recognition

Leaders: Tecumseh

Contents

Tribal Headquarters

Shawnee Tribe
P.O. Box 189
Miami, OK 74355
Phone: 1.918.542.2441
Fax: 1.918.542.2922

History

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Shawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=631 Shawnee Indians

Flora Harvey Kittle. Shawnee Indians in Kansas, FHL Book 970.1 Al #89

Brief Timeline

  • 1677: Early contact with non-Indians, a French trader La Potherie
  • 1689-1763: French and Indian Wars, sided with the French
  • 1754: Eskippakithiki, a Shawnee settlement abandoned
  • 1763: Joined the Ottawa and other tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion against the British
  • 1769: Shawnee warned Daniel Boone to leave "Kentucky"
  • 1774: Fought Virginians in Lord Dunmore's War. (Lord Dunmore gave veterans of the French and Indian War who fought under him land that belonged to the Shawnee)
  • October 6, 1774: Point Pleasant, West Virginia- Treaty - ceded land
  • 1775: Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War
  • 1782: The Shawnee joined by the Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.
  • 1794: General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio
  • 1794: land ceded
  • 1795: Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system
  • 1802: factory established at Fort Wayne
  • 1812-1815: War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky
  • October 5, 1813: Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed
  • 1815: many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and Abesentee Shawnee moved into Arkansas and in 1820 moved to Texas.
  • 1825: a census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)
  • 1828: Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas
  • 1831: August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.
  • 1832: Black Hawk War
  • 1832: Wapakoneta Shawnee left Ohio and removed west of the Missouri River, into Kansas
  • 1833: Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas
  • 1835: Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker
  • 1861-65: supported the Union during the Civil War
  • 1867: Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. Absentee Shawnee from Texas settled with the Potawatomi (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of Seneca and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
  • 1980: Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio

Migrations:

Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas

Agencies

Agencies and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[1], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[2], and others.

Shawnee Agency - Kansas

Shawnee Agency - Missouri

Piqua and Ohio Agency

Fort Leavenworth Agency

Kansas Agency

Union Agency

Neosho Agency

Quapaw Agency

Seneca Agency

Wichita Agency

Sac and Fox Agency - Iowa

Sac and Fox Agency - Oklahoma

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.

Shawnee Reservation

Absentee Shawnee Reservation

Records

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M 234 RG 75 Roll 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Roll 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Shawnee, Indian Territory Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Fort Wayne - - - FHL Films: 581865-581871
Shawnee, Ohio Piqua and Ohio Agencies, 1831-43 Washington D.C. Rolls 600-03 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Fort Leavenworth Agency,1824-51 Washington D.C. Rolls 299-303 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Kansas Agency, 18521-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 363-70 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Shawnee Agency, 1855-76 Washington D.C. Rolls 808-23 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas-Indian Territory Union Agency,  1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 864-77 - - -
Shawnee, Eastern Neosho Agency, 1867-71 Washington D.C. Rolls 534-37 - - -
Shawnee, Eastern Quapaw Agency 1885-1939 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 410-16 FHL Films:581405-581410
Shawnee, Eastern Seneca Agency, 1901-7, 1910-21 Washington D.C. - - Rolls 487-89 FHL Films:581498-581499
Shawnee, Absentee Wichita Agency, 1859-67 Washington D.C. Rolls 927-30 - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Sac and Fox Agency, ca. 1869-80 Chicago - - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 490-96 FHL Films:581865-581871

Removal / Census

1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859.  At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854.


Church Records

Martha Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c



Treaties The year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.

  • 1786 January 31, on the Miami
  • 1795 August 3, at Greenville
  • 1803June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware
  • 1805 July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot
  • 1808 November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa
  • 1814 July 22, at Greenville, with the Wyandot
  • 1815 September 8, at Spring Wells, with the Wyandot
  • 1817 September 29, with the Wyandot
  • 1818 September 17, at St. Mary's, with the Wyandot
  • 1825 November 7, at St. Louis,
  • 1831 July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca
  • 1831 August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta
  • 1832December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca
  • 1832 October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee
  • 1854 May 10, at Washington
  • 1865 September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory
  • 1867 February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,

Vital Records

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  2. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)

Bibliography

  • Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; Family History Library book 970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; Family History Library book 970.1 G131g.
Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
Volume 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
Volume 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
Volume 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; Family History Library book 970.1 W146e 2006.

 

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  • This page was last modified on 14 March 2013, at 15:04.
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