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'''Alternate Names an<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_598" /><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_489" />d Spellings:''' Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee  
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{{inga}}
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<br> Guide to '''{{PAGENAME}} ancestry, family history and genealogy:''' birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.
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<br> '''[[Image:Shawnee - Ten-squat-a-way (the open door)- The Prophet.jpg|frame|right|400x370px|Shawnee - Ten-squat-a-way (the open door)- The Prophet.jpg]]Alternate Names an<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_598" /><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267544530571_489" />d Spellings:''' Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee  
  
 
'''Ancestral Homeland: '''near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)  
 
'''Ancestral Homeland: '''near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)  
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'''Leaders:''' [http://tecumsehchief.blogspot.com Tecumseh]  
 
'''Leaders:''' [http://tecumsehchief.blogspot.com Tecumseh]  
  
== Tribal Headquarters  ==
+
=== Tribal Headquarters  ===
  
Shawnee Tribe <br>P.O. Box 189<br>Miami, OK 74355<br>Phone: 1.918.542.2441<br>Fax: 1.918.542.2922 <br>
+
Shawnee Tribe <br>P.O. Box 189<br>Miami, OK 74355<br>Phone: 1.918.542.2441<br>Fax: 1.918.542.2922 <br>  
  
 
*[http://www.shawnee-tribe.com/ The Shawnee Tribe] Official Website
 
*[http://www.shawnee-tribe.com/ The Shawnee Tribe] Official Website
  
== History  ==
+
=== History  ===
  
 
=== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ===
 
=== Additional References to the History of the Tribe  ===
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*'''1782:''' The Shawnee joined by the [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]], [[Wyandot Indians|Wyandot]], [[Miami Indians|Miami,]] [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]], [[Chippewa Indians|Chippewa]], and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.  
 
*'''1782:''' The Shawnee joined by the [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]], [[Wyandot Indians|Wyandot]], [[Miami Indians|Miami,]] [[Ottawa Indians|Ottawa]], [[Chippewa Indians|Chippewa]], and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.  
 
*'''1794:''' General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio  
 
*'''1794:''' General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio  
*'''1794:''' land ceded  
+
*'''1794:''' Land ceded  
 
*'''1795:''' Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system  
 
*'''1795:''' Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system  
*'''1802:''' factory established at Fort Wayne  
+
*'''1802:''' A Factory was established at Fort Wayne  
 
*'''1812-1815: '''War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky  
 
*'''1812-1815: '''War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky  
 
*'''October 5, 1813:''' Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed  
 
*'''October 5, 1813:''' Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed  
*'''1815:''' many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Abesentee Shawnee moved]] into Arkansas and in '''1820 '''moved to Texas.  
+
*'''1815:''' Many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Abesentee Shawnee moved]] into Arkansas and in '''1820 '''moved to Texas.  
*'''1825:''' a census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)  
+
*'''1825:''' A census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)  
 
*'''1828:''' Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas  
 
*'''1828:''' Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas  
 
*'''1831: '''August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.  
 
*'''1831: '''August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.  
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*'''1833:''' Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas  
 
*'''1833:''' Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas  
 
*'''1835: '''Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker  
 
*'''1835: '''Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker  
*'''1861-65:''' supported the Union during the Civil War  
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*'''1861-65:''' The Shawnee supported the Union during the Civil War  
 
*<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267545763149_417" />'''1867:''' Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Absentee Shawnee from]] Texas settled with the [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi]] (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of [[Seneca Indians|Seneca]] and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.  
 
*<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1267545763149_417" />'''1867:''' Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. [[Absentee-Shawnee Indians|Absentee Shawnee from]] Texas settled with the [[Potawatomi Indians|Potawatomi]] (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of [[Seneca Indians|Seneca]] and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.  
 
*'''1980:''' Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio
 
*'''1980:''' Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio
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=== Agencies  ===
 
=== Agencies  ===
 
[[Agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Agencies]] and subagencies were created as administrative offices of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] and its predecessors. Their purpose was (and is) to manage Indian affairs with the tribes, to enforce policies, and to assist in maintaining the peace. The names and location of these agencies may have changed, but their purpose remained basically the same. Many of the records of genealogical value were created by these offices.
 
  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
 
The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's ''Office of Indian Affairs...''<ref>Hill, Edward E. ''The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches'', Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library {{FHL|247426|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551o}}.)</ref>, Hill's ''Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians''<ref>Hill, Edward E. (comp.). ''Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians''. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL {{FHL|207428|title-id|disp=book 970.1 H551g}}.)</ref>, and others.  
  
[[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Kansas)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Kansas  
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[[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Kansas)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Kansas, [[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Missouri)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Missouri, [[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua and Ohio Agency]], [[Fort Leavenworth Indian Agency (Kansas)|Fort Leavenworth Agency]], [[Kansas Indian Agency (Kansas)|Kansas Agency]], [[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]], [[Neosho Indian Agency (Kansas)|Neosho Agency]], [[Quapaw Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Quapaw Agency]], [[Seneca Indian Agency (New York)|Seneca Agency]], [[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]] ,[[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Iowa)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Iowa , [[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Oklahoma
  
[[Delaware and Shawnee Indian Agency (Missouri)|Shawnee Agency ]]- Missouri
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=== Reservations  ===
  
[[Piqua Indian Agency (Ohio)|Piqua and Ohio Agency]]
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From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
  
[[Fort Leavenworth Indian Agency (Kansas)|Fort Leavenworth Agency]]
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Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
  
[[Kansas Indian Agency (Kansas)|Kansas Agency]]
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The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
  
[[Union Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Union Agency]]
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The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
  
[[Neosho Indian Agency (Kansas)|Neosho Agency]]  
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[[Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Reservation]]  
  
[[Quapaw Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Quapaw Agency]]  
+
[[Absentee Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Absentee Shawnee Reservation]]  
  
[[Seneca Indian Agency (New York)|Seneca Agency]]
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==== Superintendencies  ====
  
[[Wichita Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Wichita Agency]]  
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Records for Superintendencies exist in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.
  
[[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Iowa)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Iowa
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[[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]]  
  
[[Sac and Fox Indian Agency (Oklahoma)|Sac and Fox Agency ]]- Oklahoma
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[[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]  
  
=== Reservations  ===
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[[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]
  
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
+
[[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]
  
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
+
=== Records  ===
  
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.  
+
The '''majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies'''. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:<br>
  
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the ''National Atlas of the United States of America''<ref>National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations [http://www.nationalatlas.gov/printable/images/pdf/fedlands/il.pdf Available online.]</ref>, the ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''<ref>Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. ''Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America''. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book {{FHL|433280|title-id|disp=973 E5}})</ref>, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
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*[[American Indian Allotment Records|Allotment records]]
 
+
*[[American Indian Annuity Rolls|Annuity rolls]]
[[Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Shawnee Reservation]]  
+
*[[American Indian Census Rolls|Census records]]
 
+
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Correspondence]]
[[Absentee Shawnee Indian Reservation (Oklahoma)|Absentee Shawnee Reservation]]  
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*[[American Indian Health Records|Health records]]
 
+
*[[American Indian Correspondence and Reports|Reports]]  
=== Records ===
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*[[American Indian School Records|School census and records]]  
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*[[American Indian Vital Records Supplements in Census Rolls|Vital records]]
  
'''Correspondence and Census'''
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==== Correspondence and Census ====
  
{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1"
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{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
 
! scope="col" | Tribe  
 
! scope="col" | Tribe  
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M 234 RG 75 Roll 962  
 
M 234 RG 75 Roll 962  
  
Roll Number
+
Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
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Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
Line 128: Line 131:
 
M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
 
M595 RG 75 Roll 693  
  
Roll Number
+
Roll Number  
  
 
! scope="col" |  
 
! scope="col" |  
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Film  
 
Film  
  
Number
+
Number  
  
 
|-
 
|-
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|-
 
|-
 
| Shawnee, Kansas-Indian Territory  
 
| Shawnee, Kansas-Indian Territory  
| Union Agency,&nbsp; 1875-80  
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| Union Agency, 1875-80  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Washington D.C.  
 
| Rolls 864-77  
 
| Rolls 864-77  
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| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| Shawnee,&nbsp;Eastern  
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| Shawnee,Eastern  
 
| Quapaw Agency 1885-1939  
 
| Quapaw Agency 1885-1939  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
 
| Washington D.C. and Fort Worth  
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|}
 
|}
  
'''Removal / Census'''
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==== Removal / Census ====
  
1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859.&nbsp; At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854.  
+
*1842 Census of 887 Shawnee Indians listed by age and gender naming 247 heads of household is in NARA M234, Roll 301, frames 1154-1161. <ref> The Journal of American Indian Family Research Vol. 11 No. 1 1991 FHL 9701. J825j </ref> vol. 12 no. 1
 +
*1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859. At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854. <br>
 +
*1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]:List of 770 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation. 9 June 1871. ''The Journal of American Indian Family Research ''Vol. 4 No. 2 pg 101 - 110. FHL 970.3 J825j
  
<br>
+
==== Church Records  ====
  
*1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, [http://www.accessgenealogy.com www.accessgenealogy.com]
+
*Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c
  
'''Church Records'''
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==== Enrollment Records ====
  
Martha Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c
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==== Treaties  ====
  
<br>
+
Year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty. fckLRfckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0016.htm 1786] January 31, on the Miami
  
<br>
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville fckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1803]June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware  
 
+
'''Treaties''' The year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty.
+
 
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0016.htm 1786] January 31, on the Miami
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0039.htm 1795] August 3, at Greenville  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/del0064.htm 1803]June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware  
+
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/wya0077.htm 1805] July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/chi0099.htm 1808] November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa  
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*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0327.htm 1831] July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0327.htm 1831] July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0331.htm 1831] August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta  
 
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0331.htm 1831] August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta  
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm 1832]December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0383.htm 1832]December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca fckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm 1832] October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee fckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0618.htm 1854] May 10, at Washington fckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1050.htm 1865] September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory fckLR*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0960.htm 1867] February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0370.htm 1832] October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sha0618.htm 1854] May 10, at Washington  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/che1050.htm 1865] September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory  
+
*[http://digital.library.okstate.edu/kappler/Vol2/treaties/sen0960.htm 1867] February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,
+
  
'''Vital Records'''
+
==== Vital Records ====
  
*Quapaw Agency, M595, birth and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 581408 }}  
+
*Quapaw Agency, M595, birth and deaths 1924-1932, {{FHL|Film: 581408 }} *Shawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1910-1934, {{FHL|Film:581870}}
*Shawnee Agency, M595, births and deaths 1910-1934, {{FHL|Film: 581870}}
+
  
== Important Web Sites  ==
+
=== Important Web Sites  ===
  
 
*[http://www.shawnee-tribe.com/ The Shawnee Tribe] Official Website  
 
*[http://www.shawnee-tribe.com/ The Shawnee Tribe] Official Website  
Line 282: Line 276:
 
*[http://www.ntjrc.org/ccfolder/shawnee_const.htm Constitution] of the United Tribe of Shawnee Indians
 
*[http://www.ntjrc.org/ccfolder/shawnee_const.htm Constitution] of the United Tribe of Shawnee Indians
  
== References  ==
+
=== References  ===
  
<references />
+
<references />  
  
 
==== Bibliography  ====
 
==== Bibliography  ====
  
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.  
+
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/075.html Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75], Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
 +
 
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
 
*Hodge, Frederick Webb. ''Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico''. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/tribes/ Available online].  
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view 317923332]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=970.1 R259e}}.  
+
*Klein, Barry T., ed. ''Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian''. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat&amp;nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/317923332?referer=list_view 317923332]; Family History Library book{{FHL|1122745|title-id|disp=970.1 R259e}}.  
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 37475188]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=970.1 G131g}}.
+
*Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat&amp;nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=no:037475188 37475188]; Family History Library book&amp;{{FHL|831087|title-id|disp=970.1 G131g}}.:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean&nbsp;:Volume 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America&nbsp;:Volume 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau&nbsp;:Volume 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands.
 
+
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .  
:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean  
+
*:Volume 1 -- Not yet published .
:Volume 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America  
+
*:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]&lt;br&gt; fckLR*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371].
:Volume 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau  
+
*:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914]Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
:Volume 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
+
*:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
 
+
*:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742referer=brief_results 247493742]; Family History Library book {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
*Sturtevant, William C. ''Handbook of North American Indians''. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .Volume 1 -- Not yet published  
+
*:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]  
*:Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/234303751&referer=brief_results WorldCat 234303751]<br>
+
*:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/255572371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 255572371]<br>
+
*:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
*:Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/19331914&referer=brief_results WorldCat 19331914];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.4}}.  
+
*:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
*:Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/299653808&referer=brief_results WorldCat 299653808]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.5}}.  
+
*:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416]Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
*:Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493742&referer=brief_results 247493742]; Family History Library book {{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.6}}.  
+
*:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
*:Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/247493311&referer=brief_results WorldCat 247493311]<br>
+
*:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]  
*:Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/13240086&referer=brief_results WorldCat 13240086]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.8}}.  
+
*:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
*:Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/26140053&referer=brief_results WorldCat 26140053]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.9}}.  
+
*:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; Family History Library book{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
*:Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/301504096&referer=brief_results WorldCat 301504096]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.10}}.  
+
*:Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256516416&referer=brief_results WorldCat 256516416];&nbsp;Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.11}}.  
+
*:Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39401371&referer=brief_results WorldCat 39401371]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.12}}.  
+
*:Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/48209643&referer=brief_results WorldCat 48209643]<br>
+
*:Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/254277176&referer=brief_results WorldCat 254277176]  
+
*:Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/256517503&referer=brief_results WorldCat 356517503]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|248632|title-id|disp=970.1 H191h v.15}}.  
+
 
*:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 16 -- Not yet published  
*:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]<br>
+
*:Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/43957746&amp;referer=brief_results WorldCat 43957746]  
 
*:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 18 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
 
*:Volume 19 -- Not yet published  
*:Volume 20 -- Not yet published
+
*:Volume 20 -- Not yet published.
 
+
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
 
*Swanton John R. ''The Indian Tribes of North America''. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 [http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/indianlocation.htm Available online].  
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; Family History Library book&nbsp;{{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=970.1 W146e 2006}}.
+
*Waldman, Carl. ''Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes''. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/14718193?referer=list_view WorldCat 14718193]; Family History Library book{{FHL|1465222|title-id|disp=970.1 W146e 2006}}.
 +
 
 +
<references />
  
[[Category:Georgia Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Kentucky Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Ohio Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Oklahoma Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee Indian Tribes]] [[Category:West Virginia Indian Tribes]] [[Category:Virginia Indian Tribes]]
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[[Category:Georgia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Kentucky_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Ohio_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Oklahoma_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Tennessee_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:West_Virginia_Indian_Tribes]] [[Category:Virginia_Indian_Tribes]]

Latest revision as of 15:20, 8 February 2016

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indians Gotoarrow.png Georgia Gotoarrow.png Indians of Georgia Gotoarrow.png Shawnee Indians


Guide to Shawnee Indians ancestry, family history and genealogy: birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, parish registers, and other agency records.


Shawnee - Ten-squat-a-way (the open door)- The Prophet.jpg
Alternate Names and Spellings:
Shawnee, Shawanoe, Shawanoese, Shawanee, Shawonee

Ancestral Homeland: near Cumberland River, Ohio and Tennessee River (Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia and Ohio)

Federal Recognition

Leaders: Tecumseh

Contents

Tribal Headquarters

Shawnee Tribe
P.O. Box 189
Miami, OK 74355
Phone: 1.918.542.2441
Fax: 1.918.542.2922

History

Additional References to the History of the Tribe

Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Shawnee tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.

Ohio History Central article on the [http://www.ohiohistorycentral.org/entry.php?rec=631 Shawnee Indians

Flora Harvey Kittle. Shawnee Indians in Kansas, FHL Book 970.1 Al #89

Brief Timeline

  • 1677: Early contact with non-Indians, a French trader La Potherie
  • 1689-1763: French and Indian Wars, sided with the French
  • 1754: Eskippakithiki, a Shawnee settlement abandoned
  • 1763: Joined the Ottawa and other tribes in Pontiac's Rebellion against the British
  • 1769: Shawnee warned Daniel Boone to leave "Kentucky"
  • 1774: Fought Virginians in Lord Dunmore's War. (Lord Dunmore gave veterans of the French and Indian War who fought under him land that belonged to the Shawnee)
  • October 6, 1774: Point Pleasant, West Virginia- Treaty - ceded land
  • 1775: Sided with the British during the Revolutionary War
  • 1782: The Shawnee joined by the Delaware, Wyandot, Miami, Ottawa, Chippewa, and Mingo in a Confederacy to remove settlers from Kentucky and Ohio.
  • 1794: General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnee at Fallen Timbers, Ohio
  • 1794: Land ceded
  • 1795: Treaty of Fort Greenville; proposed factory system
  • 1802: A Factory was established at Fort Wayne
  • 1812-1815: War of 1812, at the end of the War, the colonial government of Virginia gave bonuses to soldiers in the form of military tracts, in Kentucky
  • October 5, 1813: Battle of the Thames, Tecumseh killed
  • 1815: Many Shawnee residing near Cape Girardeau and on the Merrimack River near St. Louis. Delaware and Abesentee Shawnee moved into Arkansas and in 1820 moved to Texas.
  • 1825: A census of Indians in the United States total of Shawnee 2,293 (not including Shawnee living in Texas)
  • 1828: Fish or Jackson band of Shawneee Indians move to Kansas
  • 1831: August 8, Treaty at Wapaghkonnetta and Hog creek in Ohio. Land ceded and removed to land west of Missouri.
  • 1832: Black Hawk War
  • 1832: Wapakoneta Shawnee left Ohio and removed west of the Missouri River, into Kansas
  • 1833: Hog Creek Shawnee removed to Kansas
  • 1835: Newspaper printed by Jotham Meeker
  • 1861-65: The Shawnee supported the Union during the Civil War
  • 1867: Shawnee located on three reservation in Indian Territory. Absentee Shawnee from Texas settled with the Potawatomi (Pottawatomie County); Kansas Shawnee to the Cherokee reservation in 1870 they were incorporated with the Cherokee Nation; Mixed band of Seneca and Shawnee settled in Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
  • 1980: Shawnee Nation United Remnant Band is recognized by the state of Ohio

Migrations:

Ohio, Indiana, Kansas, Oklahoma, Arkansas and Texas

Agencies

The following list of agencies that have operated or now exist in Illinois has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs...[1], Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians[2], and others.

Shawnee Agency - Kansas, Shawnee Agency - Missouri, Piqua and Ohio Agency, Fort Leavenworth Agency, Kansas Agency, Union Agency, Neosho Agency, Quapaw Agency, Seneca Agency, Wichita Agency ,Sac and Fox Agency - Iowa , Sac and Fox Agency - Oklahoma

Reservations

From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.

Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.

The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.

The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America[3], the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America[4], and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.

Shawnee Reservation

Absentee Shawnee Reservation

Superintendencies

Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.

Michigan Superintendency

St. Louis Superintendency

Central Superintendency

Southern Superintendency

Records

The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:

Correspondence and Census

Tribe Agency Location of Original Records

Pre-1880 Correspondence

M 234 RG 75 Roll 962

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Post-1885 Census

M595 RG 75 Roll 693

Roll Number

FHL

Film

Number

Shawnee, Indian Territory Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Fort Wayne - - - FHL Films: 581865-581871
Shawnee, Ohio Piqua and Ohio Agencies, 1831-43 Washington D.C. Rolls 600-03 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Fort Leavenworth Agency,1824-51 Washington D.C. Rolls 299-303 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Kansas Agency, 18521-55 Washington D.C. Rolls 363-70 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas Shawnee Agency, 1855-76 Washington D.C. Rolls 808-23 - - -
Shawnee, Kansas-Indian Territory Union Agency, 1875-80 Washington D.C. Rolls 864-77 - - -
Shawnee, Eastern Neosho Agency, 1867-71 Washington D.C. Rolls 534-37 - - -
Shawnee,Eastern Quapaw Agency 1885-1939 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 410-16 FHL Films:581405-581410
Shawnee, Eastern Seneca Agency, 1901-7, 1910-21 Washington D.C. - - Rolls 487-89 FHL Films:581498-581499
Shawnee, Absentee Wichita Agency, 1859-67 Washington D.C. Rolls 927-30 - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Sac and Fox Agency, ca. 1869-80 Chicago - - - -
Shawnee, Absentee Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952 Washington D.C. and Fort Worth - - Rolls 490-96 FHL Films:581865-581871

Removal / Census

  • 1842 Census of 887 Shawnee Indians listed by age and gender naming 247 heads of household is in NARA M234, Roll 301, frames 1154-1161. [5] vol. 12 no. 1
  • 1857 Shawnee Census (M1813, roll 1) The census was take as part of the Kansas Territorial Censuses, 1855-1859. At the end of roll 1 of the 1857 census is a census of Shawnee Indians in Kansas Territory, taken in conjunction with the treaty made with the tribe on May 10, 1854.
  • 1871 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation, Indian Territory before June 10, www.accessgenealogy.com:List of 770 Shawnee Tribe who moved to Cherokee Nation. 9 June 1871. The Journal of American Indian Family Research Vol. 4 No. 2 pg 101 - 110. FHL 970.3 J825j

Church Records

  • Belle Caldwell. Annals of Shawnee Methodist Mission. Topeka, KS. Kansas Historical Society, 1939. FHL Book 970.3 Sh28c

Enrollment Records

Treaties

Year link (date of the treaty) will connect to an online copy of the treaty. fckLRfckLR*1786 January 31, on the Miami

  • 1795 August 3, at Greenville fckLR*1803June 7, at Fort Wayne with the Delaware
  • 1805 July 4, at Fort Industry, with the Wyandot
  • 1808 November 25, at Brownstown, with the Chippewa
  • 1814 July 22, at Greenville, with the Wyandot
  • 1815 September 8, at Spring Wells, with the Wyandot
  • 1817 September 29, with the Wyandot
  • 1818 September 17, at St. Mary's, with the Wyandot
  • 1825 November 7, at St. Louis,
  • 1831 July 20, at Lewistown, with the Seneca
  • 1831 August 8, at Wapaghkonnetta
  • 1832December 29, at Seneca Agency with the Seneca fckLR*1832 October 26, at Castor Hill, with Shawnee fckLR*1854 May 10, at Washington fckLR*1865 September 13, at Fort Smith - unratified- with the Cherokee and other Tribes in the Indian Territory fckLR*1867 February 23, at Washington, with Seneca, Mixed Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Etc.,

Vital Records

Important Web Sites

References

  1. Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
  2. Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
  3. National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
  4. Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
  5. The Journal of American Indian Family Research Vol. 11 No. 1 1991 FHL 9701. J825j

Bibliography

  • Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
  • Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat&nbsp;317923332; Family History Library book970.1 R259e.
  • Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat&nbsp;37475188; Family History Library book&970.1 G131g.:Volume 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean :Volume 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America :Volume 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau :Volume 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands.
  • Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
    Volume 1 -- Not yet published .
    Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751<br> fckLR*:Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371.
    Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.4.
    Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.5.
    Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; Family History Library book 970.1 H191h v.6.
    Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
    Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.8.
    Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.9.
    Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.10.
    Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.11.
    Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.12.
    Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
    Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
    Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; Family History Library book970.1 H191h v.15.
    Volume 16 -- Not yet published
    Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
    Volume 18 -- Not yet published
    Volume 19 -- Not yet published
    Volume 20 -- Not yet published.
  • Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
  • Waldman, Carl. Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. New York, New York: Facts on File, 2006. 3rd ed. WorldCat 14718193; Family History Library book970.1 W146e 2006.



 

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