Solving Tough Research Problems—Overcoming Brick WallsEdit This Page

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<br>See also [[United States, How to Find Genealogy Records]]<br>
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[[Image:Brick wall wrecking ball.jpg|right|175px|Brick wall wrecking ball.jpg]]See also [[United States, How to Find Genealogy Records]]<br><br>  
  
[[Image:Brick wall 2494.jpg|thumb|right]]Use this checklist of concepts and research techniques to help you solve a variety of difficult research problems.  
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Use this checklist of concepts and research techniques to help you solve a variety of difficult research problems.  
  
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| bgcolor="#ffff99" valign="middle" align="center" | Persistence, innovation, and thoroughness are rewarded.<br>
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| valign="middle" bgcolor="#ffff99" align="center" | Persistence, innovation, and thoroughness are rewarded.<br>
 
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== '''Attitude and Solving Common Causes of Problems'''  ==
 
== '''Attitude and Solving Common Causes of Problems'''  ==
  
Your attitude about tough family history research problems has a big impact on your chances of success. Whether you think you can, or whether you think you cannot—you are right! Develop a relentless “track-‘em-down” attitude pursuing and analyzing all sources.<ref name="one">Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Genealogical Mindset &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Principles of Scholarship" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).</ref>&nbsp;Never give up on the problem, and never give up searching for new ideas and ways of researching the problem. Hunt down the answers no matter what it takes.  
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Your attitude about tough family history research problems has a big impact on your chances of success. Whether you think you can, or whether you think you cannot—you are right! Develop a relentless “track-‘em-down” attitude pursuing and analyzing all sources.<ref name="one">Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Genealogical Mindset Principles of Scholarship" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).</ref>&nbsp;Never give up on the problem, and never give up searching for new ideas and ways of researching the problem. Hunt down the answers no matter what it takes.  
  
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|+ '''COMMON CAUSES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS'''  
 
|+ '''COMMON CAUSES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS'''  
 
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| valign="middle" | '''Solutions'''
 
| valign="middle" | '''Solutions'''
 
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| valign="middle" | 1. Unproductive attitude.
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| valign="middle" | 1. Unproductive attitude  
 
| valign="middle" | Develop a relentless "track 'em down" attitude.<ref name="one" />
 
| valign="middle" | Develop a relentless "track 'em down" attitude.<ref name="one" />
 
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| valign="middle" | 2. Poor research logs.
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| valign="middle" | 2. Poor research logs  
| valign="middle" | Partially fill out logs BEFORE looking at each source. This includes each search’s goal (person and event you seek to document).<ref>G. David Dilts, "Research Logs: The Most Important Tool for Organizing Your Family History," [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2250993&amp;amp;amp;amp;referer=brief_results ''Genealogical Journal''] 30 (2002): 10-11. [FHL Book 973 D25gj v. 30 2002].</ref>
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| valign="middle" | Partially fill out logs BEFORE looking at each source. This includes each search’s goal (person and event you seek to document).<ref>G. David Dilts, "Research Logs: The Most Important Tool for Organizing Your Family History," [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/2250993referer=brief_results ''Genealogical Journal''] 30 (2002): 10-11. [FHL Book 973 D25gj v. 30 2002].</ref>
 
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| valign="middle" | 3. Inadequate research documentation.
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| valign="middle" | 3. Inadequate research documentation  
| valign="middle" | Document and organize AS YOU GO.<ref>Carol Harless, et. al., [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/82725149&amp;amp;amp;amp;referer=brief_results ''PAF Documentation Guidelines''] (N.p.: Silicon Valley PAF Users Group, 1993), 1 [FHL Book 005.3 H224].</ref>
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| valign="middle" | Document and organize AS YOU GO.<ref>Carol Harless, et. al., [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/82725149referer=brief_results ''PAF Documentation Guidelines''] (N.p.: Silicon Valley PAF Users Group, 1993), 1 [FHL Book 005.3 H224].</ref>
 
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| valign="middle" | 4. Stagnant thinking on the problem.
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| valign="middle" | 4. Stagnant thinking on the problem  
| valign="middle" | Correlate what you have found. Use new forms to pull out new patterns and force your brain to try something different.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Dissecting the Research Problem” (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 17 June 2005).</ref>
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| valign="middle" | Correlate what you have found. Use new forms to pull out new patterns and force your brain to try something different.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Dissecting the Research Problem” (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 17 June 2005).</ref>
 
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| valign="middle" | 5. Failure to put an ancestor in community context.<ref>Mills, “Genealogical Mindset &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Principles of Scholarship.”</ref><br>  
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| valign="middle" | 5. Failure to put an ancestor in community context.<ref>Mills, “Genealogical Mindset Principles of Scholarship.”</ref><br>  
 
| valign="middle" | Trap the answer to the question in a web of associates and neighbors on both sides of the county boundary line.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>
 
| valign="middle" | Trap the answer to the question in a web of associates and neighbors on both sides of the county boundary line.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>
 
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| valign="middle" | 6. Arbitrary research strategies.
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| valign="middle" | 6. Arbitrary research strategies  
 
| valign="middle" | Thoughtfully plan how, who, what, when, and where you will do the research to solve the problem. Be flexible if a new find takes you in a new direction.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>
 
| valign="middle" | Thoughtfully plan how, who, what, when, and where you will do the research to solve the problem. Be flexible if a new find takes you in a new direction.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>
 
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| valign="middle" | 7. Researcher ignorance.<br><br>  
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| valign="middle" | 7. Researcher knowledge deficit<br><br>  
 
| valign="middle" | Keep asking why the records show what they show (or do not show) and what that implies. Continue your genealogical education the rest of your life.<br>
 
| valign="middle" | Keep asking why the records show what they show (or do not show) and what that implies. Continue your genealogical education the rest of your life.<br>
 
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1. '''''Start with the most likely records.''''' Always use sources with the best odds of success first. If those do not solve the problem, turn to less likely ideas. Keep searching even the least promising possibilities.  
 
1. '''''Start with the most likely records.''''' Always use sources with the best odds of success first. If those do not solve the problem, turn to less likely ideas. Keep searching even the least promising possibilities.  
  
2. '''''Go from the known to the unknown.''''' Find recent events first. Then work back to earlier events.  
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2. '''''Go from the known to the unknown.''''' Find recent events first, then work back to earlier events.  
  
 
3.&nbsp; '''''Focus on one question at a time.'''''&nbsp; Pick ONE event (for example, John Doe’s birth) and search until you find it. Stick with it. Gather anything you find on the family and associates, but concentrate on the event you selected. Do not change focus until you either find it or exhaust '''all''' possibilities trying.  
 
3.&nbsp; '''''Focus on one question at a time.'''''&nbsp; Pick ONE event (for example, John Doe’s birth) and search until you find it. Stick with it. Gather anything you find on the family and associates, but concentrate on the event you selected. Do not change focus until you either find it or exhaust '''all''' possibilities trying.  
  
4. '''''Look for alternate spellings and nicknames.'''''&nbsp; Some ancestors are listed by nicknames (Polly for Mary, Bob for Robert), by a middle name, or by initials. See [[Guessing a Name Variation]]. Also search for alternate spellings. Clerks misspell names all the time, and indexers have difficulty reading them. Think phonetically. For lists of possible spelling substitutes see pages 331 and 336 of Kory L. Meyerink, ed., ''Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records''. (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998). ({{FHL|719674|item|disp=FHL book 016.9293 P96m}}). Failure to find a some quirky versions of the individual's name is a red flag that you probably are not being imaginative enough during your searches.  
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4. '''''Look for alternate spellings and nicknames.'''''&nbsp; Some ancestors are listed by nicknames (Polly for Mary, Bob for Robert), by a middle name, or by initials. See [[Guessing a Name Variation]]. Also search for alternate spellings. Clerks misspell names all the time, and indexers have difficulty reading them. Think phonetically. For lists of possible spelling substitutes see pages 331 and 336 of Kory L. Meyerink, ed., ''Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records''. (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998). ({{FHL|719674|item|disp=FHL book 016.9293 P96m}}). Failure to find some quirky versions of the individual's name is a red flag that you probably are not being imaginative enough during your searches.  
 
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5. '''''Do not trust indexes''''' ''(that do not answer the main question)''. If he '''should be''' in the index but '''is not''', search the record page-by-page until you find him. Even if you do find him in the index, thumb through the records for places they missed him in the index until you answer the research question.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Land Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 15 June 2005).</ref>
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5. '''''Do not trust indexes''''' ''(that do not answer the main question)''. If he '''should be''' in the index but '''is not''', search the record page-by-page until you find him. Even if you do find him in the index, thumb through the records for places they missed him in the index until you answer the research question.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Land Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology  Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 15 June 2005).</ref>
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6. '''''Do not trust copies selected by someone else.''''' If possible, look at the original with your own eyes.  
 
6. '''''Do not trust copies selected by someone else.''''' If possible, look at the original with your own eyes.  
  
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8. '''''Start with a well-documented family group record.''''' Compile a family group with a [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|source footnote]] for '''''every''''' source that mentions the family. [[Adding a Custom Event to a PAF Family Group Record|Show '''''every''''' event]] for '''''every''''' family member (not just birth, marriage and death events), including census, migration, military service, jury duty, acquisition or sale of land, and wills. This family group record becomes a road map of clues to suggest further places to research.  
 
8. '''''Start with a well-documented family group record.''''' Compile a family group with a [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|source footnote]] for '''''every''''' source that mentions the family. [[Adding a Custom Event to a PAF Family Group Record|Show '''''every''''' event]] for '''''every''''' family member (not just birth, marriage and death events), including census, migration, military service, jury duty, acquisition or sale of land, and wills. This family group record becomes a road map of clues to suggest further places to research.  
  
9. '''''[[Research Logs|Research logs]].'''''&nbsp; Keep good ''research logs'' for each family.<ref>Dilts.</ref> List the objective of each of your searches, for example, list John Doe’s name and the type of event (birth, marriage, or death). List every record you plan to search BEFORE you search it. If you do not find what you seek, write “nil” on the log so you know you have already searched there and do not need to repeat that search. Too many “nils” show you should search elsewhere. If you DO find it, summarize what you found (person and event). Also list letters you write, phone calls, and Internet searches and results on your ''research log.''  
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9. '''''[[Research Logs|Research logs]].'''''&nbsp; Keep good ''research logs'' for each family.<ref>Dilts.</ref> List the objective of each of your searches; for example, list John Doe’s name and the type of event (birth, marriage, or death). List every record you plan to search BEFORE you search it. If you do not find what you seek, write “nil” on the log so you know you have already searched there and do not need to repeat that search. Too many “nils” show you should search elsewhere. If you DO find it, summarize what you found (person and event). Also list letters you write, phone calls, and Internet searches and results on your ''research log.''  
  
 
10. '''''[[Document AS YOU GO!|Document and organize AS YOU GO]].'''''<ref>Harless.</ref> &nbsp;When you search a document but it has no information about your ancestor, his kin, or his neighbors, write "nil" in the results field. If you DO find something, do the following before you look for any more documents (or lay your head on your pillow):  
 
10. '''''[[Document AS YOU GO!|Document and organize AS YOU GO]].'''''<ref>Harless.</ref> &nbsp;When you search a document but it has no information about your ancestor, his kin, or his neighbors, write "nil" in the results field. If you DO find something, do the following before you look for any more documents (or lay your head on your pillow):  
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; c. Write your own document filing number on the back of each photocopy.  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; c. Write your own document filing number on the back of each photocopy.  
  
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; d. Log the new document number, and summarize the events/people you found on all appropriate logs.  
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; d. Log the new document number and summarize the events/people you found on all appropriate logs.  
  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; e. Transfer new family data from the source to appropriate family group records.  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; e. Transfer new family data from the source to appropriate family group records.  
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; f. Enter new [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|source footnotes]] for every piece of data on a source, even if that event already has a note.  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; f. Enter new [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|source footnotes]] for every piece of data on a source, even if that event already has a note.  
  
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; g. Add a preliminary assessment of the of the data and its reliability to the end of each source footnote.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>  
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&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; g. Add a preliminary assessment of the data and its reliability to the end of each source footnote.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>  
  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; h. Print the updated family group record.  
 
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; h. Print the updated family group record.  
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12. '''''Look for John Doe's death documents.'''''&nbsp; Look for obituaries, church burials, church bell tolling lists, funeral sermon eulogies, funeral home records, funeral cards, tombstones, sexton’s records, insurance, pensions, Social Security, death certificates, family Bibles, wills, estate papers, and land sales papers.  
 
12. '''''Look for John Doe's death documents.'''''&nbsp; Look for obituaries, church burials, church bell tolling lists, funeral sermon eulogies, funeral home records, funeral cards, tombstones, sexton’s records, insurance, pensions, Social Security, death certificates, family Bibles, wills, estate papers, and land sales papers.  
  
13. '''''Local histories, biographies, and genealogies.'''''&nbsp; Town and county histories often have biographical information about citizens. Look in the[https://www.familysearch.org/#form=catalog Family History Library Catalog ]Use Place Search from the drop down put in STATE, or COUNTY&nbsp;–then use key word in drop down put in&nbsp; HISTORY for counties, or STATE, COUNTY, TOWN&nbsp;– HISTORY for town histories. Repeat for the topic BIOGRAPHY and again for GENEALOGY.  
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13. '''''Local histories, biographies, and genealogies.'''''&nbsp; Town and county histories often have biographical information about citizens. Look in the [https://www.familysearch.org/#form=catalog FamilySearch Catalog]. Use Place Search from the drop down put in STATE, or COUNTY&nbsp;–then use key word in drop down put in&nbsp; HISTORY for counties, or STATE, COUNTY, TOWN&nbsp;– HISTORY for town histories. Repeat for the topic BIOGRAPHY and again for GENEALOGY.  
  
 
== '''C. More Advanced Research Strategies'''  ==
 
== '''C. More Advanced Research Strategies'''  ==
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14. '''''Draw a time line''''' showing EVERY documented event in John Doe’s life. Include schooling, wars, censuses, births-marriages-deaths of relatives, emigration, everything! Then work to fill in the blanks.  
 
14. '''''Draw a time line''''' showing EVERY documented event in John Doe’s life. Include schooling, wars, censuses, births-marriages-deaths of relatives, emigration, everything! Then work to fill in the blanks.  
  
15. '''''Organize, review, and evaluate the evidence.'''''&nbsp; Summarize the problem. Rearrange relevant sources in a different logical order. Review old sources for overlooked clues. Separate what you assume from what you know. Sort and weigh the evidence. Analyze information for relevance, directness of the evidence, believability of the source, likelihood of the event, transcription errors, accuracy of data, and consistency with other facts. Write a formal research report to clarify your thinking. Write why you searched where you did, what you found or did not find, what that means, construct a [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|well-documented]] family group record, and list what should be searched next, why, how long that will take, and the likelihood of success.  
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15. '''''Organize, review, and evaluate the evidence.'''''&nbsp; Summarize the problem. Rearrange relevant sources in a different logical order. Review old sources for overlooked clues. Separate what you assume from what you know. Sort and weigh the evidence. Analyze information for relevance, directness of the evidence, believability of the source, likelihood of the event, transcription errors, accuracy of data, and consistency with other facts. Write a formal research report to clarify your thinking. Write why you searched where you did, what you found or did not find, and what that means; construct a [[Cite Your Sources (Source Footnotes)|well-documented]] family group record; and list what should be searched next, why, how long that will take, and the likelihood of success.  
  
 
16. '''''Use forms to create new brain connections and raise questions.''''' Create in-out lists to help track each piece of family land. Compare changes in census answers over the years. Ask questions beyond the detail that is obvious. Suggested forms: Holes to fill in a person's life, Source citations that need completing, Facts that need better evidence, Facts that seem questionable, Ancestral associates and their roles.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>  
 
16. '''''Use forms to create new brain connections and raise questions.''''' Create in-out lists to help track each piece of family land. Compare changes in census answers over the years. Ask questions beyond the detail that is obvious. Suggested forms: Holes to fill in a person's life, Source citations that need completing, Facts that need better evidence, Facts that seem questionable, Ancestral associates and their roles.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref>  
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=== Expand the number of sources used.  ===
 
=== Expand the number of sources used.  ===
  
17. '''''Be thorough.''''' Be prepared to search ALL the records of your ancestor, ALL his kin and associates, during ALL periods of their lives, in ALL the jurisdictions where they lived, and ALL possible repositories. For example, use all types of census schedules including local copies where they exist. Analyze all the tax records, land and property records, mortgages, each and every variety of estate probate papers. Study surrounding entries looking for neighbors and associates. Find every document available.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref> Think about and watch for associated papers created at the same time as the ones you have already found.  
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17. '''''Be thorough.''''' Be prepared to search ALL the records of your ancestor, ALL his kin and associates, during ALL periods of their lives, in ALL the jurisdictions where they lived, and ALL possible repositories. For example, use all types of census schedules including local copies where they exist. Analyze all the tax records, land and property records, mortgages, and each and every variety of estate probate papers. Study surrounding entries looking for neighbors and associates. Find every document available.<ref>Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”</ref> Think about and watch for associated papers created at the same time as the ones you have already found.  
  
 
18. '''''Substitute record types.'''''&nbsp; Stay focused on one question, but change the record type you search to find the answer. See [[United States Record Selection Table]] to identify alternative record types you could use to find answers to your genealogical question.  
 
18. '''''Substitute record types.'''''&nbsp; Stay focused on one question, but change the record type you search to find the answer. See [[United States Record Selection Table]] to identify alternative record types you could use to find answers to your genealogical question.  
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19. '''''Use Wiki articles as a checklist.''''' State and national articles describe record types useful for those places. Search EVERY record type. NOTE: All of the information from the original research outlines has been imported and is being updated by the genealogical community.  
 
19. '''''Use Wiki articles as a checklist.''''' State and national articles describe record types useful for those places. Search EVERY record type. NOTE: All of the information from the original research outlines has been imported and is being updated by the genealogical community.  
  
20. '''''Switch jurisdictions.'''''&nbsp; If the answer you want isn’t found in county records, then search at the town, state, and national levels for similar records. Write or search catalogs for larger or smaller jurisdictions of the organization.  
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20. '''''Switch jurisdictions.'''''&nbsp; If the answer you want isn’t found in county records, then search at the town, state, and national levels for similar records. Write for or search catalogs for larger or smaller jurisdictions of the organization.  
  
 
21. '''''Area searches.''''' Look in neighboring counties or towns. Conduct an area search of surrounding towns and counties within 5, 10, or 25 miles of the place where they lived. Gradually expand distances searched.  
 
21. '''''Area searches.''''' Look in neighboring counties or towns. Conduct an area search of surrounding towns and counties within 5, 10, or 25 miles of the place where they lived. Gradually expand distances searched.  
  
22. '''''Try an exhaustive preliminary survey.''''' Look in the [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/list ''International Genealogical Index''], [https://www.familysearch.org/#form=trees ''Ancestral File''][https://www.familysearch.org/#form=trees , ''Pedigree Resource File'',] and[[Family History Library Internet Favorites|''Search Family History Web Sites'']]. Thoroughly search for John Doe’s family in ''every'' source in [[United States Genealogy|United States Genealogy]] and [[United States Biography|United States Biography]] and in Wiki article for John Doe’s state. Look up the family name in the appropriate “Regional Indexes” cited on pages 440-41 in the first edition of Arlene Eakle and Johni Cerny’s [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&fed=false&collectionId=&catSearchType=call_number&searchCriteria=973+D27ts&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= ''The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy''] (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1984). [FHL book 973 D27ts].  
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22. '''''Try an exhaustive preliminary survey.''''' Look in the [https://familysearch.org/search/collection/list ''International Genealogical Index''], [https://www.familysearch.org/#form=trees ''Ancestral File''][https://www.familysearch.org/#form=trees <u>, </u>''Pedigree Resource File'',] and [[Family History Library Internet Favorites|''Search Family History Web Sites'']]. Thoroughly search for John Doe’s family in ''every'' source in [[United States Compiled Genealogies]] and [[United States Biography|United States Biography]] and in Wiki article for John Doe’s state. Look up the family name in the appropriate “Regional Indexes” cited on pages 440-41 in the first edition of Arlene Eakle and Johni Cerny’s [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&fed=false&collectionId=&catSearchType=call_number&searchCriteria=973+D27ts&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= ''The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy''] (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1984). [FHL book 973 D27ts].  
  
23. '''''Search more libraries and archives.''''' Research the local county and state historical and genealogical societies, state library, law library, and archives, government documents library, and National Archives.  
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23. '''''Search more libraries and archives.''''' Research the local county and state historical and genealogical societies, state library, law library, archives, government documents library, and National Archives.  
  
 
=== '''Search records of kin, neighbors, and associates.'''  ===
 
=== '''Search records of kin, neighbors, and associates.'''  ===
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24. '''''Find John Doe's children.'''''&nbsp;Thoroughly research the children to find clues about the parents.  
 
24. '''''Find John Doe's children.'''''&nbsp;Thoroughly research the children to find clues about the parents.  
  
25. '''''Research neighbors and relatives.'''''&nbsp; People move in groups. The neighbor often came from the same place as your ancestor. Plat your ancestor's land, and run the deeds of each neighbor. Find out who the witnesses on documents are.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Other Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 16 June 2005).</ref> [[Research a Family in Community Context|Study a family in community context]]. Study people in the area with the same surname, and with different surnames in the same house. Identify census neighbors at least 12 before/after. Near a county/state line, study families over the line. Comb the area for same first names, origins, or jobs.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Censuses: Analysis, Interpretation &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Correlation” (lecture presented in Course 4 Advanced Method-ology &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).</ref>  
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25. '''''Research neighbors and relatives.''''' People move in groups. The neighbor often came from the same place as your ancestor. Plat your ancestor's land and run the deeds of each neighbor. Find out who the witnesses on documents are.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land Other Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 16 June 2005).</ref> [[Research a Family in Community Context|Study a family in community context]]. Study people in the area with the same surname and with different surnames in the same house. Identify census neighbors at least 12 before/after. Near a county/state line, study families over the line. Comb the area for same first names, origins, or jobs.<ref>Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Censuses: Analysis, Interpretation Correlation” (lecture presented in Course 4 Advanced Method-ology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).</ref>  
  
=== '''Use methodical logic, deduction, inference, and inspiration to shed new light on the problem.'''  ===
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=== '''Use logic, deduction, inference, and inspiration.'''  ===
  
26. '''''Create a master research plan.''''' Identify a problem. Set a research goal. Figure out which records are likely to contain answers, and which repositories to use. Track &gt;em down. Write up and share the results.  
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26. '''''Create a master research plan.''''' Identify a problem. Set a research goal. Figure out which records are likely to contain answers and which repositories to use. Track 'em down. Write up and share the results.  
  
27. '''''Correlate and integrate records of neighbors.''''' Even "landless" ancestors may be traced by creatively using data about neighbors and correlating it with facts about the problem ancestor. Identify census and land office neighbors. Organize and sort what you know and look for similarities and dissimilarities. Keep asking what your correlated sources imply about subtle relationships, or further records and clues.<ref>Mills, “Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land &amp;amp;amp;amp;amp; Other Records.”</ref>  
+
27. '''''Correlate and integrate records of neighbors.''''' Even "landless" ancestors may be traced by creatively using data about neighbors and correlating it with facts about the problem ancestor. Identify census and land office neighbors. Organize and sort what you know and look for similarities and dissimilarities. Keep asking what your correlated sources imply about subtle relationships or further records and clues.<ref>Mills, “Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land Other Records.”</ref>  
  
 
28. '''''Study migration patterns.'''''&nbsp; Rivers and mountains channeled migration trails into predictable patterns. When you know where a family settled, you can often infer where they came from. First settlers often named their new town after the place they left behind.  
 
28. '''''Study migration patterns.'''''&nbsp; Rivers and mountains channeled migration trails into predictable patterns. When you know where a family settled, you can often infer where they came from. First settlers often named their new town after the place they left behind.  
  
29. '''''Try to disprove uncertain connections.'''''&nbsp; Use a process of elimination to find ancestors. If a person died too early, lived too long, or lived in the wrong place, he isn’t yours. Drop people from the list by finding their death records (or by finding them in records after your person died). Always attempt to disprove what you think is the last remaining link too. Test new information by comparing it with what you already know.  
+
29. '''''Try to disprove uncertain connections.'''''&nbsp; Use a process of elimination to find ancestors. If a person died too early, lived too long, or lived in the wrong place, he isn’t yours. Drop people from the list by finding their death records (or by finding them in records after your person died). Always attempt to disprove what you think is the last remaining link, too. Test new information by comparing it with what you already know.  
  
 
30. '''''Listen to your feelings.'''''&nbsp; Use inspiration and intuition wisely as a guide to your research.  
 
30. '''''Listen to your feelings.'''''&nbsp; Use inspiration and intuition wisely as a guide to your research.  
Line 142: Line 142:
 
== '''D. Continuing Education and Follow Up'''  ==
 
== '''D. Continuing Education and Follow Up'''  ==
  
Some really tough problems are solved as a result of learning more, or by good follow up.  
+
Some really tough problems are solved as a result of learning more or by good follow up.  
  
31. '''''Get an education.'''''&nbsp; '''Read''' how-to genealogy books for John Doe’s state and nation. Study histories of&nbsp; John Doe’s town, county, and state. Subscribe to periodicals of local genealogical societies where John Doe lived. Subscribe to Internet e-mail lists&nbsp; for the area where John Doe settled, his ethnic group, or religion.&nbsp; Read case studies in magazines like[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog-search-api%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F39597 ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly''] to learn how to solve tough problems and give you hope. '''Take classes''', attend lectures, join in computer “chat” sessions, and go to [[Upcoming Conferences|genealogical conferences]] about the area where the family settled, their ethnic group and religion, and about genealogical research methods. '''Travel''' to the places where John Doe’s family lived to see cemeteries, neighbors, old folks, archives, libraries, churches, genealogical and historical societies, and learn about the local way of life.  
+
31. '''''Get an education.'''''&nbsp; '''Read''' how-to genealogy books for John Doe’s state and nation. Study histories of John Doe’s town, county, and state. Subscribe to periodicals of local genealogical societies where John Doe lived. Subscribe to Internet e-mail lists for the area where John Doe settled, his ethnic group, or religion.&nbsp; Read case studies in magazines like[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog-search-api%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F39597 ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly''] to learn how to solve tough problems and give you hope. '''Take classes''', attend lectures, join in computer “chat” sessions, and go to [[Upcoming Conferences|genealogical conferences]] about the area where the family settled, their ethnic group and religion, and about genealogical research methods. '''Travel''' to the places where John Doe’s family lived to see cemeteries, neighbors, old folks, archives, libraries, churches, genealogical and historical societies, and learn about the local way of life.  
  
32. '''''Get help.'''''&nbsp; Do genealogical good deeds in hopes that others will someday help you. Write to and join local genealogical and historical societies for help. Place queries in their newsletters.&nbsp; Write to small-town newspaper editors and place a query in their newspapers. Place queries at genealogical web sites on the Internet and repeat from time to time until you get results. If the surname is unusual, telephone people with the same name.&nbsp; Nationwide telephone directories are available on the Internet. Leave a message in a Zip-Lock bag flag by a grave just before Memorial Day. [[Hiring a Professional Researcher|Hire a professional genealogist]]. Pray for help. Submit ancestors for ordinances.  
+
32. '''''Get help.'''''&nbsp; Do genealogical good deeds in hopes that others will someday help you. Write to and join local genealogical and historical societies for help. Place queries in their newsletters.&nbsp; Write to small-town newspaper editors and place a query in their newspapers. Place queries at genealogical web sites on the Internet and repeat from time to time until you get results. If the surname is unusual, telephone people with the same name. Nationwide telephone directories are available on the Internet. Leave a message in a Zip-Lock bag flag by a grave just before Memorial Day. [[Hiring a Professional Researcher|Hire a professional genealogist]]. Pray for help. Submit ancestors for ordinances.  
  
33. '''''[[Sharing: a good way to FIND ancestors|Share]].'''''&nbsp; Give in order to receive. Contribute to the [https://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/Family_History_Library#Donations Family History Library’s] , to Family Tree Makers’s ''[http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/wftonline/ World Family Tree Pedigrees]'', to the [http://www.everton.com/b/magazine.html ''Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine'']’s Computer Roots Cellar, to Keith&nbsp;A.&nbsp; Johnson’s ''[http://members.ozemail.com.au/~grdxxx/ Genealogical Research Directory],'' and to family group sheet exchanges advertised in ''Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine''. Send a copy of John Doe’s family history (include your address) to each county library and to each state and county genealogical society where John Doe lived. Publish an article on the family in their local genealogical periodical. Register your address in directories of members of genealogical Internet web sites and submit your genealogy to their libraries. [[Create a genealogy web page|Put your genealogy on a web page]] and register your site with major search engines and lists. Other researchers will start to contact you and share added details.  
+
33. '''''[[Sharing: a good way to FIND ancestors|Share]].'''''&nbsp; Give in order to receive. Contribute to the [[Family_History_Library#Donations|Family History Library’s Wiki]], to Family Tree Makers’s ''[http://familytreemaker.genealogy.com/wftonline/ World Family Tree Pedigrees]'', to the [http://www.everton.com/b/magazine.html ''Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine'']’s Computer Roots Cellar, to Keith&nbsp;A. Johnson’s ''[http://members.ozemail.com.au/~grdxxx/ Genealogical Research Directory],'' and to family group sheet exchanges advertised in ''Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine''. Send a copy of John Doe’s family history (include your address) to each county library and to each state and county genealogical society where John Doe lived. Publish an article on the family in their local genealogical periodical. Register your address in directories of members of genealogical Internet web sites and submit your genealogy to their libraries. [[Create a genealogy web page|Put your genealogy on a web page]] and register your site with major search engines and lists. Other researchers will start to contact you and share added details.
  
 
== Sources  ==
 
== Sources  ==
Line 160: Line 160:
 
*Jones, Thomas W. [http://broadcast.lds.org/elearning/fhd/community/cbig/player.html Inferential Genealogy]. (120 minute video online) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
 
*Jones, Thomas W. [http://broadcast.lds.org/elearning/fhd/community/cbig/player.html Inferential Genealogy]. (120 minute video online) [http://www.familysearch.org/eng/library/education/frameset_education.asp?PAGE=education_research_series_online.asp%3FActiveTab=2 FamilySearch Research Classes Online], 2010.
  
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[[Category:Beginners]] [[Category:Research_Analysis]] [[Category:FamilySearch_Research_Classes_Online]]
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{{H-langs|en=Solving Tough Research Problems-Overcoming Brick Walls|es=Cómo resolver problemas difíciles de investigación: Rompa los obstáculos}} {{-}}  
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[[Category:Beginners]] [[Category:Research_Analysis]] [[Category:FamilySearch_Research_Classes_Online]] [[Category:New_to_Genealogy]] </div>

Latest revision as of 01:15, 27 February 2015

Brick wall wrecking ball.jpg
See also United States, How to Find Genealogy Records

Use this checklist of concepts and research techniques to help you solve a variety of difficult research problems.

Persistence, innovation, and thoroughness are rewarded.

Most genealogists sooner or later face challenging research puzzles. Use this article as a source of ideas to help solve those challenges.

Contents

Attitude and Solving Common Causes of Problems

Your attitude about tough family history research problems has a big impact on your chances of success. Whether you think you can, or whether you think you cannot—you are right! Develop a relentless “track-‘em-down” attitude pursuing and analyzing all sources.[1] Never give up on the problem, and never give up searching for new ideas and ways of researching the problem. Hunt down the answers no matter what it takes.

COMMON CAUSES OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS
Causes of Problems Solutions
1. Unproductive attitude Develop a relentless "track 'em down" attitude.[1]
2. Poor research logs Partially fill out logs BEFORE looking at each source. This includes each search’s goal (person and event you seek to document).[2]
3. Inadequate research documentation Document and organize AS YOU GO.[3]
4. Stagnant thinking on the problem Correlate what you have found. Use new forms to pull out new patterns and force your brain to try something different.[4]
5. Failure to put an ancestor in community context.[5]
Trap the answer to the question in a web of associates and neighbors on both sides of the county boundary line.[6]
6. Arbitrary research strategies Thoughtfully plan how, who, what, when, and where you will do the research to solve the problem. Be flexible if a new find takes you in a new direction.[7]
7. Researcher knowledge deficit

Keep asking why the records show what they show (or do not show) and what that implies. Continue your genealogical education the rest of your life.

A. Preliminaries

Use these attitudes (mindsets) in all situations and at all times from the beginning of your research.

1. Start with the most likely records. Always use sources with the best odds of success first. If those do not solve the problem, turn to less likely ideas. Keep searching even the least promising possibilities.

2. Go from the known to the unknown. Find recent events first, then work back to earlier events.

3.  Focus on one question at a time.  Pick ONE event (for example, John Doe’s birth) and search until you find it. Stick with it. Gather anything you find on the family and associates, but concentrate on the event you selected. Do not change focus until you either find it or exhaust all possibilities trying.

4. Look for alternate spellings and nicknames.  Some ancestors are listed by nicknames (Polly for Mary, Bob for Robert), by a middle name, or by initials. See Guessing a Name Variation. Also search for alternate spellings. Clerks misspell names all the time, and indexers have difficulty reading them. Think phonetically. For lists of possible spelling substitutes see pages 331 and 336 of Kory L. Meyerink, ed., Printed Sources: A Guide to Published Genealogical Records. (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1998). (FHL book 016.9293 P96m). Failure to find some quirky versions of the individual's name is a red flag that you probably are not being imaginative enough during your searches.

5. Do not trust indexes (that do not answer the main question). If he should be in the index but is not, search the record page-by-page until you find him. Even if you do find him in the index, thumb through the records for places they missed him in the index until you answer the research question.[8]

6. Do not trust copies selected by someone else. If possible, look at the original with your own eyes.

7. Make friends with the librarians and archivists. Being nice to the staff at a library or archives often pays big dividends. CAUTION: It is not always to your advantage to be considered a genealogist.

B. Fundamentals

These are the basics. Use these strategies on every genealogical problem, especially really tough ones.

8. Start with a well-documented family group record. Compile a family group with a source footnote for every source that mentions the family. Show every event for every family member (not just birth, marriage and death events), including census, migration, military service, jury duty, acquisition or sale of land, and wills. This family group record becomes a road map of clues to suggest further places to research.

9. Research logs.  Keep good research logs for each family.[9] List the objective of each of your searches; for example, list John Doe’s name and the type of event (birth, marriage, or death). List every record you plan to search BEFORE you search it. If you do not find what you seek, write “nil” on the log so you know you have already searched there and do not need to repeat that search. Too many “nils” show you should search elsewhere. If you DO find it, summarize what you found (person and event). Also list letters you write, phone calls, and Internet searches and results on your research log.

10. Document and organize AS YOU GO.[10]  When you search a document but it has no information about your ancestor, his kin, or his neighbors, write "nil" in the results field. If you DO find something, do the following before you look for any more documents (or lay your head on your pillow):

     a. Photocopy the new source document.

     b. Identify the source (footnote information) on the front of the photocopy.

     c. Write your own document filing number on the back of each photocopy.

     d. Log the new document number and summarize the events/people you found on all appropriate logs.

     e. Transfer new family data from the source to appropriate family group records.

     f. Enter new source footnotes for every piece of data on a source, even if that event already has a note.

     g. Add a preliminary assessment of the data and its reliability to the end of each source footnote.[11]

     h. Print the updated family group record.

     i. File the new family group and photocopy.

11. Search worldwide indexes for John Doe's family name.  For a list of worldwide database indexes use the links at the end of the Wiki article "Major Databases for United States Research."

12. Look for John Doe's death documents.  Look for obituaries, church burials, church bell tolling lists, funeral sermon eulogies, funeral home records, funeral cards, tombstones, sexton’s records, insurance, pensions, Social Security, death certificates, family Bibles, wills, estate papers, and land sales papers.

13. Local histories, biographies, and genealogies.  Town and county histories often have biographical information about citizens. Look in the FamilySearch Catalog. Use Place Search from the drop down put in STATE, or COUNTY –then use key word in drop down put in  HISTORY for counties, or STATE, COUNTY, TOWN – HISTORY for town histories. Repeat for the topic BIOGRAPHY and again for GENEALOGY.

C. More Advanced Research Strategies

These methods may not be needed for every problem, but often help solve tougher research questions.

Force your brain to think about the problem in new ways.

14. Draw a time line showing EVERY documented event in John Doe’s life. Include schooling, wars, censuses, births-marriages-deaths of relatives, emigration, everything! Then work to fill in the blanks.

15. Organize, review, and evaluate the evidence.  Summarize the problem. Rearrange relevant sources in a different logical order. Review old sources for overlooked clues. Separate what you assume from what you know. Sort and weigh the evidence. Analyze information for relevance, directness of the evidence, believability of the source, likelihood of the event, transcription errors, accuracy of data, and consistency with other facts. Write a formal research report to clarify your thinking. Write why you searched where you did, what you found or did not find, and what that means; construct a well-documented family group record; and list what should be searched next, why, how long that will take, and the likelihood of success.

16. Use forms to create new brain connections and raise questions. Create in-out lists to help track each piece of family land. Compare changes in census answers over the years. Ask questions beyond the detail that is obvious. Suggested forms: Holes to fill in a person's life, Source citations that need completing, Facts that need better evidence, Facts that seem questionable, Ancestral associates and their roles.[12]

Expand the number of sources used.

17. Be thorough. Be prepared to search ALL the records of your ancestor, ALL his kin and associates, during ALL periods of their lives, in ALL the jurisdictions where they lived, and ALL possible repositories. For example, use all types of census schedules including local copies where they exist. Analyze all the tax records, land and property records, mortgages, and each and every variety of estate probate papers. Study surrounding entries looking for neighbors and associates. Find every document available.[13] Think about and watch for associated papers created at the same time as the ones you have already found.

18. Substitute record types.  Stay focused on one question, but change the record type you search to find the answer. See United States Record Selection Table to identify alternative record types you could use to find answers to your genealogical question.

19. Use Wiki articles as a checklist. State and national articles describe record types useful for those places. Search EVERY record type. NOTE: All of the information from the original research outlines has been imported and is being updated by the genealogical community.

20. Switch jurisdictions.  If the answer you want isn’t found in county records, then search at the town, state, and national levels for similar records. Write for or search catalogs for larger or smaller jurisdictions of the organization.

21. Area searches. Look in neighboring counties or towns. Conduct an area search of surrounding towns and counties within 5, 10, or 25 miles of the place where they lived. Gradually expand distances searched.

22. Try an exhaustive preliminary survey. Look in the International Genealogical Index, Ancestral File, Pedigree Resource File, and Search Family History Web Sites. Thoroughly search for John Doe’s family in every source in United States Compiled Genealogies and United States Biography and in Wiki article for John Doe’s state. Look up the family name in the appropriate “Regional Indexes” cited on pages 440-41 in the first edition of Arlene Eakle and Johni Cerny’s The Source: A Guidebook of American Genealogy (Salt Lake City: Ancestry, 1984). [FHL book 973 D27ts].

23. Search more libraries and archives. Research the local county and state historical and genealogical societies, state library, law library, archives, government documents library, and National Archives.

Search records of kin, neighbors, and associates.

24. Find John Doe's children. Thoroughly research the children to find clues about the parents.

25. Research neighbors and relatives. People move in groups. The neighbor often came from the same place as your ancestor. Plat your ancestor's land and run the deeds of each neighbor. Find out who the witnesses on documents are.[14] Study a family in community context. Study people in the area with the same surname and with different surnames in the same house. Identify census neighbors at least 12 before/after. Near a county/state line, study families over the line. Comb the area for same first names, origins, or jobs.[15]

Use logic, deduction, inference, and inspiration.

26. Create a master research plan. Identify a problem. Set a research goal. Figure out which records are likely to contain answers and which repositories to use. Track 'em down. Write up and share the results.

27. Correlate and integrate records of neighbors. Even "landless" ancestors may be traced by creatively using data about neighbors and correlating it with facts about the problem ancestor. Identify census and land office neighbors. Organize and sort what you know and look for similarities and dissimilarities. Keep asking what your correlated sources imply about subtle relationships or further records and clues.[16]

28. Study migration patterns.  Rivers and mountains channeled migration trails into predictable patterns. When you know where a family settled, you can often infer where they came from. First settlers often named their new town after the place they left behind.

29. Try to disprove uncertain connections.  Use a process of elimination to find ancestors. If a person died too early, lived too long, or lived in the wrong place, he isn’t yours. Drop people from the list by finding their death records (or by finding them in records after your person died). Always attempt to disprove what you think is the last remaining link, too. Test new information by comparing it with what you already know.

30. Listen to your feelings.  Use inspiration and intuition wisely as a guide to your research.

D. Continuing Education and Follow Up

Some really tough problems are solved as a result of learning more or by good follow up.

31. Get an education.  Read how-to genealogy books for John Doe’s state and nation. Study histories of John Doe’s town, county, and state. Subscribe to periodicals of local genealogical societies where John Doe lived. Subscribe to Internet e-mail lists for the area where John Doe settled, his ethnic group, or religion.  Read case studies in magazines likeNational Genealogical Society Quarterly to learn how to solve tough problems and give you hope. Take classes, attend lectures, join in computer “chat” sessions, and go to genealogical conferences about the area where the family settled, their ethnic group and religion, and about genealogical research methods. Travel to the places where John Doe’s family lived to see cemeteries, neighbors, old folks, archives, libraries, churches, genealogical and historical societies, and learn about the local way of life.

32. Get help.  Do genealogical good deeds in hopes that others will someday help you. Write to and join local genealogical and historical societies for help. Place queries in their newsletters.  Write to small-town newspaper editors and place a query in their newspapers. Place queries at genealogical web sites on the Internet and repeat from time to time until you get results. If the surname is unusual, telephone people with the same name. Nationwide telephone directories are available on the Internet. Leave a message in a Zip-Lock bag flag by a grave just before Memorial Day. Hire a professional genealogist. Pray for help. Submit ancestors for ordinances.

33. Share.  Give in order to receive. Contribute to the Family History Library’s Wiki, to Family Tree Makers’s World Family Tree Pedigrees, to the Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine’s Computer Roots Cellar, to Keith A. Johnson’s Genealogical Research Directory, and to family group sheet exchanges advertised in Everton's Genealogical Helper Magazine. Send a copy of John Doe’s family history (include your address) to each county library and to each state and county genealogical society where John Doe lived. Publish an article on the family in their local genealogical periodical. Register your address in directories of members of genealogical Internet web sites and submit your genealogy to their libraries. Put your genealogy on a web page and register your site with major search engines and lists. Other researchers will start to contact you and share added details.

Sources

  1. 1.0 1.1 Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Genealogical Mindset Principles of Scholarship" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).
  2. G. David Dilts, "Research Logs: The Most Important Tool for Organizing Your Family History," Genealogical Journal 30 (2002): 10-11. [FHL Book 973 D25gj v. 30 2002].
  3. Carol Harless, et. al., PAF Documentation Guidelines (N.p.: Silicon Valley PAF Users Group, 1993), 1 [FHL Book 005.3 H224].
  4. Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Dissecting the Research Problem” (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 17 June 2005).
  5. Mills, “Genealogical Mindset Principles of Scholarship.”
  6. Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”
  7. Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”
  8. Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Land Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 15 June 2005).
  9. Dilts.
  10. Harless.
  11. Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”
  12. Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”
  13. Mills, “Dissecting the Research Problem.”
  14. Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land Other Records" (lecture in Course 4 Advanced Methodology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 16 June 2005).
  15. Elizabeth Shown Mills, "Censuses: Analysis, Interpretation Correlation” (lecture presented in Course 4 Advanced Method-ology Evidence, Institute for Genealogical and Historical Research at Samford University, Birmingham, Ala., 13 June 2005).
  16. Mills, “Rural Strategies: Correlation of Land Other Records.”

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