South Carolina Emigration and Immigration

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== The People  ==
 
== The People  ==
  
About 80 percent of the settlers of colonial [[South Carolina]] were of English origin. Many of them came by way of [[Barbados|Barbados]] and other colonies rather than directly from [[England|England]].<ref>In 1664, a "group of Barbadians joined in an agreement to settle in Carolina." In the twentieth century, this document was kept in the South Carolina Historical Society Collection (reference V/29). See: Moriarty, Appendix, ''Barbados Genealogies,'' p. 670.</ref> A group of Dutch settlers from [[New York|New York]] came to South Carolina in 1671. Another smaller group was of French origin, mostly descendants of [[South Carolina Church Records#Huguenot|Huguenots]], who came to the area beginning in 1680. More numerous were the Scottish dissenters, who were brought in beginning in 1682, and the Germans, who arrived during the eighteenth century. Blacks constituted a majority of the population from early colonial times until 1930. Indian wars drove most of the native Americans from the state, but there are still a few Catawba Indians in [[York County, South Carolina|York County]].  
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About 80 percent of the settlers of colonial [[South Carolina]] were of English origin. Many of them came by way of [[Barbados|Barbados]] and other colonies rather than directly from [[England|England]].<ref>Warren Alleyne and Henry Fraser, ''The Barbados-Carolina Connection'' (London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1988). {{WorldCat|17840897|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|428472|item|disp=FHL book 972.981 H2a}}; David L. Kent, ''Barbados and America''. (Arlington, Va.: C.M. Kent, 1980). {{WorldCat|6647288|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|316574|item|disp=FHL book 972.981 X2b}}. In 1664, a "group of Barbadians joined in an agreement to settle in Carolina." In the twentieth century, this document was kept in the South Carolina Historical Society Collection (reference V/29). See: Moriarty, Appendix, ''Barbados Genealogies,'' p. 670.</ref> A group of Dutch settlers from [[New York|New York]] came to South Carolina in 1671. Another smaller group was of French origin, mostly descendants of [[South Carolina Church Records#Huguenot|Huguenots]], who came to the area beginning in 1680. More numerous were the Scottish dissenters, who were brought in beginning in 1682, and the Germans, who arrived during the eighteenth century. Blacks constituted a majority of the population from early colonial times until 1930. Indian wars drove most of the native Americans from the state, but there are still a few Catawba Indians in [[York County, South Carolina|York County]].
 
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Several histories chronicle&nbsp;these Atlantic World links:
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*Alleyne, Warren and Henry Fraser. ''The Barbados-Carolina Connection''. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1988. {{FHL|428472|item}} 972.981 H2a
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*Kent, David L. ''Barbados and America''. Arlington, Va.: C.M. Kent, 1980. {{FHL|316574|item}} 972.981 X2b
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== Settlement Patterns  ==
 
== Settlement Patterns  ==
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The earliest settlements were on the coastal plain low country of South Carolina. Pushed by a desire to escape the Revolutionary War and pulled by a desire for land, settlers eventually poured into the Piedmont up country. Townships in eighteenth-century South Carolina were established as residences for foreign protestants of various nationalities. Many immigrants were of Ulster Scots, German, and Welsh descent.<ref>[http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_townships_established.html South Carolina Townships Created During the Royal Period (1729 to 1776)], Carolana.com.</ref> In 1770 the population of South Carolina was less than 50,000; by 1790 it had reached 140,000.  
 
The earliest settlements were on the coastal plain low country of South Carolina. Pushed by a desire to escape the Revolutionary War and pulled by a desire for land, settlers eventually poured into the Piedmont up country. Townships in eighteenth-century South Carolina were established as residences for foreign protestants of various nationalities. Many immigrants were of Ulster Scots, German, and Welsh descent.<ref>[http://www.carolana.com/SC/Royal_Colony/sc_royal_colony_townships_established.html South Carolina Townships Created During the Royal Period (1729 to 1776)], Carolana.com.</ref> In 1770 the population of South Carolina was less than 50,000; by 1790 it had reached 140,000.  
  
[[Image:{{SCMigTra}}]] '''Early migration routes:'''<ref>''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.], and William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the Early Colonial Period" (1923). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref> Savannah River{{·}} [[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]]{{·}} [[Augusta-Savannah Trail]]{{·}} [[Augusta-St. Augustine Trail]]{{·}} [[Camden-Charleston Path]]{{·}} [[Catawba and Northern Trail]]{{·}} [[Catawba Trail]]{{·}} [[Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]]{{·}} [[Charleston-Savannah Trail]]{{·}} [[Cisca and St. Augustine Trail]] (or Nickajack Trail){{·}} [[Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath]]{{·}} [[Fall Line Road]] (or Southern Road){{·}} [[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]]{{·}} [[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]]{{·}} [[Great Valley Road]]{{·}} [[King's Highway]]{{·}} [[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]]{{·}} [[Lower Creek Trading Path]]{{·}} [[Middle Creek Trading Path]]{{·}} [[Occaneechi Path]]{{·}} [[Old Cherokee Path]]{{·}} [[Old South Carolina State Road]]{{·}} [[Savannah-Jacksonville Trail]]{{·}} [[Secondary Coast Road]]{{·}} [[Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail]]{{·}} [[Unicoi Trail]]{{·}} [[Upper Road]]{{·}} '''''Ports:&nbsp;''''' [[Beaufort County, South Carolina|Beaufort]]{{·}} [[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]]{{·}} [[Georgetown County, South Carolina|Georgetown]] <br><br>  
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[[Image:{{SCMigTra}}]] '''Early migration routes:'''<ref>''Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed.'' (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. ({{FHL|1049485|item|disp=FHL Book 973 D27e 2002}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/50140092 WorldCat entry.], and William E. Myer, ''Indian Trails of the Southeast''. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the Early Colonial Period" (1923). ({{FHL|54678|item|disp=FHL Book 970.1 M992i}}) [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/1523234 WorldCat entry].</ref> Savannah River{{·}} [[Augusta and Cherokee Trail]]{{·}} [[Augusta-Savannah Trail]]{{·}} [[Augusta-St. Augustine Trail]]{{·}} [[Camden-Charleston Path]]{{·}} [[Catawba and Northern Trail]]{{·}} [[Catawba Trail]]{{·}} [[Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail]]{{·}} [[Charleston-Savannah Trail]]{{·}} [[Cisca and St. Augustine Trail]] (or Nickajack Trail){{·}} [[Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath]]{{·}} [[Fall Line Road]] (or Southern Road){{·}} [[Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path]]{{·}} [[Fort Moore-Charleston Trail]]{{·}} [[Great Valley Road]]{{·}} [[King's Highway]]{{·}} [[Lower Cherokee Traders' Path]]{{·}} [[Lower Creek Trading Path]]{{·}} [[Middle Creek Trading Path]]{{·}} [[Occaneechi Path]]{{·}} [[Old Cherokee Path]]{{·}} [[Old South Carolina State Road]]{{·}} [[Savannah-Jacksonville Trail]]{{·}} [[Secondary Coast Road]]{{·}} [[Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail]]{{·}} [[Unicoi Trail]]{{·}} [[Upper Road]]{{·}} '''''Ports:&nbsp;''''' [[Beaufort County, South Carolina|Beaufort]]{{·}} [[Charleston County, South Carolina|Charleston]]{{·}} [[Georgetown County, South Carolina|Georgetown]] <br><br>
  
 
Early settlement was blocked by thick forests. The best way through the trees was by river, or over Indian trails that were slowly improved into wagon and stagecoach roads. Use the above list of early migration trails to get a better understanding of where early South Carolina settlers came from and where they may have moved.  
 
Early settlement was blocked by thick forests. The best way through the trees was by river, or over Indian trails that were slowly improved into wagon and stagecoach roads. Use the above list of early migration trails to get a better understanding of where early South Carolina settlers came from and where they may have moved.  
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=== Colonial Period  ===
 
=== Colonial Period  ===
  
Brent H. Holcomb, CG,&nbsp;sums up the problem of finding South Carolina passenger lists:  
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Brent H. Holcomb, CG, sums up the problem of finding South Carolina passenger lists:<br>"One of the questions most frequently asked about South Carolina records is 'Where are the shiplists?'. Your editor has seen many disappointed faces when he has explained that in the Colonial period they do not exist outside of the few actual lists in the South Carolina Council Journals and what might be gleaned from the texts of individual petitioners for lands."<ref>Brent H. Holcomb, "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research,'' Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183.</ref>
  
:"One of the questions most frequently asked about South Carolina records is 'Where are the shiplists?'. Your editor has seen many disappointed faces when he has explained that in the Colonial period they do not exist outside of the few actual lists in the South Carolina Council Journals and what might be gleaned from the texts of individual petitioners for lands."<ref>Brent H. Holcomb, "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research,'' Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183.</ref>
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*Revill, Janie. ''A Compilation of the Original Lists of Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1763-1773. ''Columbia, S.C.: The State Co., 1939. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/A_Compilation_of_the_Original_Lists_of_Protestant_Immigrants_to_South_Carolina_1763_1773/4870.html Genealogical.com]; {{FHL|199954|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 W2r 1968}}; digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=48270 Ancestry] ($); 1968 reprint: {{FHL|199954|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 W2r 1968}}; digital version of 1996 reprint at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806305991_originalimmigrantssc1763 World Vital Records] ($).
  
Some early immigrant lists that do survive include:
 
 
*Revill, Janie. ''A Compilation of the Original Lists of Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1763-1773. ''Columbia, S.C.: The State Co., 1939. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/A_Compilation_of_the_Original_Lists_of_Protestant_Immigrants_to_South_Carolina_1763_1773/4870.html Genealogical.com]; {{FHL|199954|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 W2r 1968}}; digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=48270 Ancestry] ($); 1968 reprint: {{FHL|975.7 W2r 1968}}; digital version of 1996 reprint at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806305991_originalimmigrantssc1763 World Vital Records] ($).
 
 
*"Some Emigrants to South Carolina 1727," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer 1986):133. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 14}}
 
*"Some Emigrants to South Carolina 1727," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer 1986):133. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 14}}
  
In the eighteenth century, many immigrants petitioned for headright lands in the Colony of South Carolina, see:
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*Holcomb, Brent H.[https://www.familysearch.org/search/catalog/show?uri=http%3A%2F%2Fcatalog-search-api%3A8080%2Fwww-catalogapi-webservice%2Fitem%2F775059 ''Petitions for Land from the South Carolina Council Journals'']. (1734-1774) 7 vols. Columbia, S.C.: SCMAR, 1996-1999. In the eighteenth century, many immigrants petitioned for headright lands in the Colony of South Carolina.
  
*Holcomb, Brent H. ''Petitions for Land from the South Carolina Council Journals''. (1734-1774) 7 vols. Columbia, S.C.: SCMAR, 1996-1999. {{FHL|975.7 R2h v. 1-7}}
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*"Some Irish Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1753 and 1754," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol.&nbsp;17, No. 1 (Winter&nbsp;1989):25-29. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17}}Abstracts of select Irish immigrants found in Council Journals.
  
Abstracts of select Irish immigrants found in Council Journals were published in:  
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*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham,&nbsp;Peter Wilson]]. ''Emigrants from England to the American Colonies, 1773-1776''. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing co., 1988. {{FHL|313545|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Book 973 W3c}}.<br>For English passenger lists, 1773 to 1776, which includes some emigrants destined for South Carolina.
  
*"Some Irish Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1753 and 1754," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol.&nbsp;17, No. 1 (Winter&nbsp;1989):25-29. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17}}
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*Scholarly articles published in ''The American Genealogist'' and the ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly'' illustrate strategies that will help Americans trace their colonial South Carolina immigrant origins.
 
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For English passenger lists, 1773 to 1776, which includes some emigrants destined for South Carolina, see:
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*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham,&nbsp;Peter Wilson]]. ''Emigrants from England to the American Colonies, 1773-1776''. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing co., 1988. {{FHL|313545|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Book 973 W3c}}.
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Scholarly articles published in ''The American Genealogist'' and the ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly'' illustrate strategies that will help Americans trace their colonial South Carolina immigrant origins.  
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==== Colonial Ships  ====
 
==== Colonial Ships  ====
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Several resources can help you learn more about a colonial ship's history.  
 
Several resources can help you learn more about a colonial ship's history.  
  
Though they do not include names of passengers, records kept by the Colonial Office and stored at [[England The National Archives|The National Archives]] (Kew, England), document ships' arrivals and departures from South Carolina ports between 1716 and 1767. FamilySearch microfilmed these records. They are useful for learning about the history of ships entering the colony:  
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Though they do not include names of passengers, records kept by the Colonial Office and stored at [[England The National Archives|The National Archives]] (Kew, England), document ships' arrivals and departures from South Carolina ports between 1716 and 1767. FamilySearch microfilmed these records. They are useful for learning about the history of ships entering the colony:
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:Shipping Lists for South Carolina, 1716-1767. {{FHL|209568|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Films 964002-964003}}
  
*Shipping Lists for South Carolina, 1716-1767. {{FHL|209568|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Films 964002-964003}}
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Dr. Marianne S. Wokeck created a detailed list of "German Immigrant Voyages, 1683-1775" to Colonial America. Destinations include South Carolina (1730s-1770s). She published the list in an Appendix to:
  
Dr. Marianne S. Wokeck created a detailed list of "German Immigrant Voyages, 1683-1775" to Colonial America. Destinations include South Carolina (1730s-1770s). She published the list in an Appendix to:  
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:Wokeck, Marianne S. ''Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America''. (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999) {{FHL|1023023|item|disp=FHL book 970 W2w}}.
  
*Wokeck, Marianne S. ''Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America''. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999. {{FHL|1023023|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Book 970 W2w}}.
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The [http://web.archive.org/web/20100123093207/http://escndatabase.com/shiplist.htm Early South Carolina Newspaper Database] (WayBack Machine) offers a free online index to ships mentioned in eighteenth-century South Carolina newspapers.
  
The [http://web.archive.org/web/20100123093207/http://escndatabase.com/shiplist.htm Early South Carolina Newspaper Database] (WayBack Machine) offers a free online index to ships mentioned in eighteenth-century South Carolina newspapers.
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Lists of ship arrivals announced in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' between 1760 and 1770 have also been published:
  
Lists of ship arrivals announced in the ''South Carolina Gazette'' between 1760 and 1770 have also been published:<br>
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:Jones, Jack Moreland and Mary Bondurant Warren. ''South Carolina Immigrants, 1760 to 1770''. (Danielsville, Ga.: Heritage Papers, 1988) {{FHL|667315|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 W2j}}.
  
*Jones, Jack Moreland and Mary Bondurant Warren. ''South Carolina Immigrants, 1760 to 1770''. Danielsville, Ga.: Heritage Papers, 1988. {{FHL|667315|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Book 975.7 W2j}}.<br>
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Many ships that sailed from Bristol, England to South Carolina are described in: ''Bristol, Africa and the Eighteenth-Century Slave Trade to America 1698-1807'' (4 vols.) {{FHL|504033|item|disp=FHL British Books 942.41/B2 B4b v. 38-39, 42, 47}}.
  
 
==== African Immigrants  ====
 
==== African Immigrants  ====
  
The [http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database] Internet site contains references to 35,000 slave voyages, including over 67,000 Africans aboard slave ships, using name, age, gender, origin, and place of embarkation. The database documents the slave trade between Africa, Europe, Brazil, the Caribbean, and the United States.  
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*The [http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/index.faces Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database] Internet site contains references to 35,000 slave voyages, including over 67,000 Africans aboard slave ships, using name, age, gender, origin, and place of embarkation. The database documents the slave trade between Africa, Europe, Brazil, the Caribbean, and the United States.
  
Records of blacks are listed in the Family History Library Catalog Place Search under the heading [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=subject&searchCriteria=south+carolina+-+slavery+and+bondage&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= SOUTH CAROLINA - SLAVERY AND BONDAGE] and under the heading [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&collectionId=&fed=false&page=1&catSearchType=subject&searchCriteria=south+carolina+-+minorities&placeName=&author_givenName=&author_surname= SOUTH CAROLINA - MINORITIES].
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*Records of blacks are listed in the Family History Library Catalog Place-names Search under the heading:
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:SOUTH CAROLINA - SLAVERY AND BONDAGE  
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:SOUTH CAROLINA - MINORITIES
  
 
==== English Immigrants  ====
 
==== English Immigrants  ====
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In lieu of colonial passenger lists regarding early settlers of South Carolina, genealogists must rely on evidence gleaned from a variety of sources to successfully trace immigrant origins.  
 
In lieu of colonial passenger lists regarding early settlers of South Carolina, genealogists must rely on evidence gleaned from a variety of sources to successfully trace immigrant origins.  
  
The Prerogative Court of Canterbury in London proved the wills of many residents of South Carolina. For access, see&nbsp;[[South Carolina Probate Records|South Carolina&nbsp;Probate Records]]. Heraldic visitations list some members of prominent English families who crossed the Atlantic. [http://www.pricegen.com/english_genealogy.html Expert Links: English Family History and Genealogy] includes a concise list of visitations available online. Online archive catalogs, such as [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a/ Access to Archives], can be keyword searched for place names, such as "South Carolina" and "Charleston," to retrieve manuscripts stored in hundreds of English archives relating to persons and landholdings&nbsp;in this former English colony. These types of records establish links between South Carolina residents and England, which can lead researchers back to their specific ancestral English towns, villages, and hamlets.  
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*The Prerogative Court of Canterbury in London proved the wills of many residents of South Carolina. For access, see [[South Carolina Probate Records|South Carolina Probate Records]]. Heraldic visitations list some members of prominent English families who crossed the Atlantic. [http://www.pricegen.com/english_genealogy.html Expert Links: English Family History and Genealogy] includes a concise list of visitations available online. Online archive catalogs, such as [http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/a2a/ Access to Archives], can be keyword searched for place names, such as "South Carolina" and "Charleston," to retrieve manuscripts stored in hundreds of English archives relating to persons and landholdings&nbsp;in this former English colony. These types of records establish links between South Carolina residents and England, which can lead researchers back to their specific ancestral English towns, villages, and hamlets.
  
The multi-volume ''Calendar of Colonial State Papers Colonial, America, and West Indies'' (1574-1739), which is available for free online (see discussion in&nbsp;[[South Carolina Public Records|South Carolina&nbsp;Public Records]]), highlights many connections between England and South Carolina.  
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*The multi-volume ''Calendar of Colonial State Papers Colonial, America, and West Indies'' (1574-1739), which is available for free online at [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/catalogue.aspx?type=3&gid=123 British History Online.] (see discussion in [[South Carolina Public Records|South Carolina Public Records]]), highlights many connections between England and South Carolina.
  
Remnants of passenger lists and other substitute sources are discussed below.  
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*More detailed information on immigration sources is in the [[United States Emigration and Immigration|United States Emigration and Immigration]]. Records of other major ethnic groups, including French Huguenots, Ulster Scots, Jews, Quakers, and Catawba Indians exist.
  
More detailed information on immigration sources is in the [[United States Emigration and Immigration|United States Emigration and Immigration]]. Records of other major ethnic groups, including French Huguenots, Ulster Scots, Jews, Quakers, and Catawba Indians exist.  
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*Motes, Margaret Peckham. ''Migration to South Carolina, Movement from the New England and Mid-Atlantic States, 1850 Census''. Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 2004. {{FHL|1181581|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 X2mm 1850}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc080635223_margaretpeckhammotes2004 World Vital Records] ($).
  
*Motes, Margaret Peckham. ''Migration to South Carolina, Movement from the New England and Mid-Atlantic States, 1850 Census''. Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 2004. {{FHL|975.7 X2mm 1850}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc080635223_margaretpeckhammotes2004 World Vital Records] ($).
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*Scott, Kenneth. ''British Aliens in the United States During the War of 1812''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979. {{FHL|78653|item|disp=FHL book 973 W4s}}; digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49091 Ancestry] ($). Identifies many British immigrants living in Charleston during the War of 1812.
*Scott, Kenneth. ''British Aliens in the United States During the War of 1812''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979. {{FHL|973 W4s}}; digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49091 Ancestry] ($). [Identifies many British immigrants living in Charleston during the War of 1812.]
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A standard work on early South Carolina immigrants, which includes some passenger lists, is now also widely available on the Internet:
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*Hotten, John Camden. ''The Original Lists of Persons of Quality: Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700, with Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars; from MSS. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office, England''. London: the author, 1874. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2065 Ancestry] ($); [http://books.google.com/books?id=B414AAAAMAAJ Google Books]&nbsp;and [http://www.archive.org/details/originallistsofp00hottuoft Internet Archive]; 1983 reprint: {{FHL|1055287|item|disp=FHL book 973 W2hot 1983}}<br>A standard work on early South Carolina immigrants, which includes some passenger lists.
  
*Hotten, John Camden. ''The Original Lists of Persons of Quality: Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700, with Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars; from MSS. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office, England''. London: the author,&nbsp;1874. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=2065 Ancestry] ($); [http://books.google.com/books?id=B414AAAAMAAJ Google Books]&nbsp;and [http://www.archive.org/details/originallistsofp00hottuoft Internet Archive]; 1983 reprint: {{FHL|1055287|item}} 973 W2hot 1983
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:Brandow published an addendum to Hotten's work<br>Brandow, James C. ''Omitted Chapters from Hotten's Original Lists of Persons of Quality ... and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2001. Digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=5XVU5n4ACE0C Google books] (free) and at[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49280 Ancestry] ($).
  
Brandow published an addendum to Hotten's work:  
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*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Peter Wilson Coldham]] has published several volumes of English records that identify, among other American immigrants, those destined for South Carolina. Many English indentured servants completed labor terms in South Carolina. Coldham's works are indexed in Filby's ''Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s'' (digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7486 Ancestry] ($)).
  
*Brandow, James C. ''Omitted Chapters from Hotten's Original Lists of Persons of Quality ... and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2001. Digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49280 Ancestry] ($).
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*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''British Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1788''. (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Pub. Co., 2004) {{WorldCat|70046500|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|1210004|item|disp=FHL CD-ROM no. 2150.}}
  
[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Peter Wilson Coldham]] has published several volumes of English records that identify, among other American immigrants, those destined for South Carolina. Many English indentured servants completed labor terms in South Carolina. Coldham's works are indexed in Filby's ''Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s'' (digital version at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7486 Ancestry] ($)).  
+
*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''The Bristol Registers of Servants Sent to Foreign Plantations, 1654-1686''. (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1988) {{WorldCat|18328169|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|658375|item|disp=FHL book 942.41/B2 W2c}}; digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49090 Ancestry] ($); [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~brbwgw/PubForums.htm Chronicle Barbados]&nbsp;(Barbados entries only); [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/search_indentures.html Virtual Jamestown].
  
*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''British Emigrants in Bondage, 1614-1788''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Pub. Co., 2004. {{FHL|1210004|item}} CD-ROM no. 2150.
+
*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''The Complete Book of Emigrants: 1607-1776''. n.p.: Brøderbund, 1996. {{WorldCat|62596131|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|773852|item|disp=FHL CD-ROM no. 9 pt. 350}}; digital version of select portions at [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/search_indentures.html Virtual Jamestown].
*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''The Bristol Registers of Servants Sent to Foreign Plantations, 1654-1686''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Pub. Co., 1988. {{FHL|658375|item}} 942.41/B2 W2c; digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49090 Ancestry] ($); [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~brbwgw/PubForums.htm Chronicle Barbados]&nbsp;(Barbados entries only); [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/search_indentures.html Virtual Jamestown].
+
*[[Peter Wilson Coldham|Coldham, Peter Wilson]]. ''The Complete Book of Emigrants: 1607-1776''. n.p.: Brøderbund, 1996. {{FHL|773852|item}} CD-ROM no. 9 pt. 350; digital version of select portions at [http://www.virtualjamestown.org/indentures/search_indentures.html Virtual Jamestown].  
+
*"Convicts to South Carolina 1728," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring 1992):82. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 20}}
+
  
Runaway advertisements for colonial indentured servants often yield immigration data. The [http://www.escndatabase.com/ Early South Carolina Newspaper Database] indexes these records.  
+
*"Convicts to South Carolina 1728," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring 1992):82. {{WorldCat|28227902|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 20}}
 +
 
 +
*Runaway advertisements for colonial indentured servants often yield immigration data. The [http://www.shipindex.org/resources/144-early_south_carolina_newspaper_database Early South Carolina Newspaper Database] indexes these records.
  
 
==== French Immigrants  ====
 
==== French Immigrants  ====
  
Many French Huguenots made South Carolina their home. The 114+ volume ''Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina'' is a great starting point for research: {{FHL|233283|item|disp=FHL&nbsp;Book 975.7 C4h}}.  
+
*Many French Huguenots made South Carolina their home. The 114+ volume ''Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina'' is a great starting point for research: {{FHL|233283|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 C4h}}. [http://www.google.com/search?tbm=bks&hl=en Google books] has several volumes.
  
 
==== German Immigrants  ====
 
==== German Immigrants  ====
  
[http://www.progenealogists.com/palproject/ The Palatine Project], sponsored by [http://www.progenealogists.com/ ProGenealogists], includes annotated passenger lists for Germans entering Colonial South Carolina.  
+
*[http://www.progenealogists.com/palproject/ The Palatine Project], sponsored by [http://www.progenealogists.com/ ProGenealogists], includes annotated passenger lists for Germans entering Colonial South Carolina.
  
The following internet site has potentially useful information:&nbsp;[http://www.germanroots.com/miscports/charleston.html German Roots]&nbsp;(Port of Charleston).  
+
*The following internet site has potentially useful information:&nbsp;[http://www.germanroots.com/miscports/charleston.html German Roots] (Port of Charleston).
  
 
==== Scottish and Irish Immigrants  ====
 
==== Scottish and Irish Immigrants  ====
  
David Dobson has dedicated many&nbsp;years to establishing links between Scots and their dispersed Scottish cousins who settled throughout the world. For South Carolina connections,&nbsp;see:  
+
David Dobson has dedicated many&nbsp;years to establishing links between Scots and their dispersed Scottish cousins who settled throughout the world. For South Carolina connections, see:  
  
*Dobson, David. ''Directory of Scots in the Carolinas 1680-1830. Volume 1. ''Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc. , 1986. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/Directory_of_Scots_in_the_Carolinas_1680_1830__Volume_1/1483.html Genealogical.com]; {{FHL|383575|item|disp=FHL Book 975 F2d}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc_directoryscottishnorthamerica1680-1830_vol1 World Vital Records] ($).
+
*Dobson, David. ''Directory of Scots in the Carolinas 1680-1830. Volume 1. ''Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Company, Inc. , 1986. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/Directory_of_Scots_in_the_Carolinas_1680_1830__Volume_1/1483.html Genealogical.com]; {{WorldCat|13148391|disp=At various libraries}}; {{FHL|383575|item|disp=FHL Book 975 F2d}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc_directoryscottishnorthamerica1680-1830_vol1 World Vital Records] ($).
*Dobson, David. ''Directory of Scots in the Carolinas, 1680-1830, Volume 2''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004. Digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806352310_directoryscotscarolinas_vol2 World Vital Records] ($).
+
  
Additional studies include:  
+
*Dobson, David. ''Directory of Scots in the Carolinas, 1680-1830, Volume 2''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2004. Digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806352310_directoryscotscarolinas_vol2 World Vital Records] ($). Also available {{WorldCat|55732092|disp=at various libraries (WorldCat).}}
  
*Motes, Margaret Peckham. ''Irish Found in South Carolina 1850 Census''. Baltimore, Md.:&nbsp;Clearfield, 2003. {{FHL|975.7 F2mm}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806352035_margaretpeckhammotes World Vital Records] ($).
+
*Motes, Margaret Peckham. ''Irish Found in South Carolina 1850 Census''. (Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 2003) {{WorldCat|52114210|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|1127308|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 F2mm}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806352035_margaretpeckhammotes World Vital Records] ($).
*Stephenson, Jean. ''Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, 1772 Rev. William Martin and His Five Shiploads of Settlers. ''Strasburg, Virginia: Shenandoah Publishing House, 1971. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/Scotch_Irish_Migration_to_South_Carolina_1772/9428.html Genealogical.com]; {{FHL|199956|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 W2s}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806348321_scotch-irishsc World Vital Records] ($).
+
  
=== 1783&nbsp;to Present  ===
+
*Stephenson, Jean. ''Scotch-Irish Migration to South Carolina, 1772 Rev. William Martin and His Five Shiploads of Settlers. ''Strasburg, Virginia: Shenandoah Publishing House, 1971. [http://www.genealogical.com/ '''Free Name Search''']<ref name="name">Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see [http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/Publications_in_Name_Search_at_Genealogical.com Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com]</ref>; publisher's bookstore: [http://www.genealogical.com/products/Scotch_Irish_Migration_to_South_Carolina_1772/9428.html Genealogical.com]; {{WorldCat|138947|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|199956|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 W2s}}; digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=rts4J_rwXRsC Google books] (Free) and at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806348321_scotch-irishsc World Vital Records] ($).
  
The Family History Library and the National Archives (Washington, D.C.) have fragmentary passenger lists for Charleston for 1820 to 1828 {{FHL|830232}} and for Port Royal for 1865 {{FHL|830245}}. Abstracts:
+
=== 1783 to Present  ===
  
*Holcomb, Brent H. "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183-189; Vol. 18, No. 1 (Winter 1990):13-21; Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring 1990):75-83; Vol. 18, No. 3 (Summer 1990):133-145; Vol. 18, No. 4 (Fall 1990):195-201; Vol. 19, No. 1 (Winter 1991):13-23; Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring 1991):79-91; Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer 1991):127-137; Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 1991):189-198; Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter 1992):11-21; Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring 1992):83-93; Vol. 20, No. 3 (Summer 1992):143-153; Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter 1993):21-27; Vol. 21, No. 2 (Spring 1993):81-87; Vol. 21, No. 3 (Summer 1993):151-159; Vol. 21, No. 4 (Fall 1993):205-213; Vol. 22, No. 1 (Winter 1994):29-37; Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring 1994):99-105. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17-22}}.
+
*The Family History Library and the National Archives (Washington, D.C.) have fragmentary passenger lists for Charleston for 1820 to 1828 {{FHL|66154|item|disp=FHL film 820234}} and for Port Royal for 1865 {{FHL|66154|item|disp=FHL film 830245}}.
  
Reprinted in:  
+
*The following abstracts of the Charleston and Port Royal Passenger lists:<br>Holcomb, Brent H. "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183-189; Vol. 18, No. 1 (Winter 1990):13-21; Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring 1990):75-83; Vol. 18, No. 3 (Summer 1990):133-145; Vol. 18, No. 4 (Fall 1990):195-201; Vol. 19, No. 1 (Winter 1991):13-23; Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring 1991):79-91; Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer 1991):127-137; Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 1991):189-198; Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter 1992):11-21; Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring 1992):83-93; Vol. 20, No. 3 (Summer 1992):143-153; Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter 1993):21-27; Vol. 21, No. 2 (Spring 1993):81-87; Vol. 21, No. 3 (Summer 1993):151-159; Vol. 21, No. 4 (Fall 1993):205-213; Vol. 22, No. 1 (Winter 1994):29-37; Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring 1994):99-105. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17-22}}.
  
*Holcomb, Brent H. ''Passenger Arrivals at the Port of Charleston, 1820-1829''. 1994. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=48269 Ancestry] ($) and [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc_passengerarrivalscharleston1820-1829 World Vital Records] ($).
+
*Reprinted versions of the Charleston passenger lists:<br>Holcomb, Brent H. ''Passenger Arrivals at the Port of Charleston, 1820-1829''. 1994. Digital versions at [http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=48269 Ancestry] ($) and [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc_passengerarrivalscharleston1820-1829 World Vital Records] ($).
  
A few arrivals at Charleston are included in an index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at miscellaneous southern ports from 1890 to 1924 {{FHL|1324938}}-{{FHL|1324963}}.
+
*A few arrivals at Charleston are included in an index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at miscellaneous southern ports from 1890 to 1924 {{FHL|341257|item|disp=FHL films 1324938 1324963.}}
  
Customs records for the ports of Charleston, Georgetown, and Beaufort are at the [[South Carolina Department of Archives and History]]. Several published records of pre-1900 immigrants are indexed in P. William Filby, ''Passenger and Immigration Lists Index'' (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1981, 1985, 1986; {{FHL|973 W32p}}. Supplements are issued annually. There are cumulative indexes.  
+
*Customs records for the ports of Charleston, Georgetown, and Beaufort are at the [[South Carolina Department of Archives and History]]. Several published records of pre-1900 immigrants are indexed in P. William Filby, ''Passenger and Immigration Lists Index'' (Detroit, Michigan: Gale Research Company, 1981, 1985, 1986) {{WorldCat|7385897|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|291926|item|disp=FHL book 973 W32p}}. Supplements are issued annually. There are cumulative indexes.
  
 
=== Online Resources  ===
 
=== Online Resources  ===
Line 158: Line 145:
 
=== North Carolina Immigrants  ===
 
=== North Carolina Immigrants  ===
  
*Linn, Mrs. Stahle. "Some Migrations from Rowan County, North Carolina to South Carolina," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research,'' Vol. 11, No. 3 (Summer 1983):124-127. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 11}}  
+
*Linn, Mrs. Stahle. "Some Migrations from Rowan County, North Carolina to South Carolina," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research,'' Vol. 11, No. 3 (Summer 1983):124-127. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 11}}
 +
 
 
*Webster, Irene B. "Some Migrations from Rockingham County, North Carolina to South Carolina," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 1998):28-30. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 9}}
 
*Webster, Irene B. "Some Migrations from Rockingham County, North Carolina to South Carolina," ''The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research'', Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 1998):28-30. {{FHL|43856|item|disp=FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 9}}
  
Line 173: Line 161:
 
Free native-born South Carolinians, alive in 1850, who had left the state, resettled as follows:<ref name="Lynch">These statistics do not account for the large number of South Carolinians who had migrated and died before the year 1850. See: William O. Lynch, "The Westward Flow of Southern Colonists before 1861," ''The Journal of Southern History,'' Vol. 9, No. 3 (Aug. 1943):303-327. Digital version at [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2191319 JSTOR] ($).</ref>  
 
Free native-born South Carolinians, alive in 1850, who had left the state, resettled as follows:<ref name="Lynch">These statistics do not account for the large number of South Carolinians who had migrated and died before the year 1850. See: William O. Lynch, "The Westward Flow of Southern Colonists before 1861," ''The Journal of Southern History,'' Vol. 9, No. 3 (Aug. 1943):303-327. Digital version at [http://www.jstor.org/stable/2191319 JSTOR] ($).</ref>  
  
{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
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|-
 
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| bgcolor="#cccccc" | '''State'''  
 
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Robertson compiled a list of South Carolinians living in Kansas in 1860:
+
*Dorothy Williams Potter in ''Passports of Southeastern Pioneers 1770-1823'' {{WorldCat|21376809|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|265121|item|disp=FHL Book 975 W4p}}) identifies some migrants from South Carolina into territories that are now [[Alabama|Alabama]], [[Florida|Florida]], [[Louisiana|Louisiana]], [[Mississippi|Mississippi]], and [[Missouri|Missouri]].  
 
+
*Robertson, Clara Hamlett. ''Kansas Territorial Settlers of 1860 Who were Born in Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina:&nbsp;A Compilation with Historical Annotations and Editorial Comment''. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976. {{FHL|978.1 H2ro}}; digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806306971_clarahamlettrobertson1976 World Vital Records] ($).
+
  
== Web Sites ==
+
*Robertson compiled a list of South Carolinians living in Kansas in 1860:<br>Robertson, Clara Hamlett. ''Kansas Territorial Settlers of 1860 Who were Born in Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina : A Compilation with Historical Annotations and Editorial Comment''. (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976) {{WorldCat|2523248|disp=At various libraries (WorldCat)}}; {{FHL|205844|item|disp=FHL book 978.1 H2ro}}; digital version at [http://books.google.com/books?id=ERajaYX1Zo4C Google Books] (free) and [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=gpc0806306971_clarahamlettrobertson1976 World Vital Records] ($).
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />  
+
<references />
{{South Carolina|South Carolina}} <div></div>  
+
{{South Carolina|South Carolina}} <div></div>
 
[[Category:South_Carolina|Emigration]] [[Category:Huguenots]] [[Category:English]] [[Category:Dutch]] [[Category:African_Americans]]
 
[[Category:South_Carolina|Emigration]] [[Category:Huguenots]] [[Category:English]] [[Category:Dutch]] [[Category:African_Americans]]

Revision as of 23:41, 25 October 2012

United States  Gotoarrow.png  U.S. Immigration  Gotoarrow.png  South Carolina  Gotoarrow.png  Emigration and Immigration
British Ships at Deptford. Site of the first Royal Dockyard.jpg
Wagon Train.jpg

Contents

The People

About 80 percent of the settlers of colonial South Carolina were of English origin. Many of them came by way of Barbados and other colonies rather than directly from England.[1] A group of Dutch settlers from New York came to South Carolina in 1671. Another smaller group was of French origin, mostly descendants of Huguenots, who came to the area beginning in 1680. More numerous were the Scottish dissenters, who were brought in beginning in 1682, and the Germans, who arrived during the eighteenth century. Blacks constituted a majority of the population from early colonial times until 1930. Indian wars drove most of the native Americans from the state, but there are still a few Catawba Indians in York County.

Settlement Patterns

The earliest settlements were on the coastal plain low country of South Carolina. Pushed by a desire to escape the Revolutionary War and pulled by a desire for land, settlers eventually poured into the Piedmont up country. Townships in eighteenth-century South Carolina were established as residences for foreign protestants of various nationalities. Many immigrants were of Ulster Scots, German, and Welsh descent.[2] In 1770 the population of South Carolina was less than 50,000; by 1790 it had reached 140,000.

Overland migration routes in and around early South Carolina.
Early migration routes:[3] Savannah River · Augusta and Cherokee Trail · Augusta-Savannah Trail · Augusta-St. Augustine Trail · Camden-Charleston Path · Catawba and Northern Trail · Catawba Trail · Charleston-Ft. Charlotte Trail · Charleston-Savannah Trail · Cisca and St. Augustine Trail (or Nickajack Trail) · Coosa-Tugaloo Indian Warpath · Fall Line Road (or Southern Road) · Fort Charlotte and Cherokee Old Path · Fort Moore-Charleston Trail · Great Valley Road · King's Highway · Lower Cherokee Traders' Path · Lower Creek Trading Path · Middle Creek Trading Path · Occaneechi Path · Old Cherokee Path · Old South Carolina State Road · Savannah-Jacksonville Trail · Secondary Coast Road · Tugaloo-Apalachee Bay Trail · Unicoi Trail · Upper Road · Ports:  Beaufort · Charleston · Georgetown

Early settlement was blocked by thick forests. The best way through the trees was by river, or over Indian trails that were slowly improved into wagon and stagecoach roads. Use the above list of early migration trails to get a better understanding of where early South Carolina settlers came from and where they may have moved.

Almost immediately after statehood, South Carolina began to lose population to the westward movement. In the early 1800s, slaveholders moved to new, more fertile plantations in Alabama and Mississippi. In the 1820s, antislavery Quakers moved to the Old Northwest, especially Indiana.

South Carolina did not attract many overseas immigrants during the nineteenth century. State-sponsored recruiting efforts brought in a few hundred Germans between 1866 and 1868 and about 2,500 northern Europeans in the early 1900s.

Overseas Immigration

The major port of entry to South Carolina is Charleston. Others important ports have included Beaufort and Georgetown.

Colonial Period

Brent H. Holcomb, CG, sums up the problem of finding South Carolina passenger lists:
"One of the questions most frequently asked about South Carolina records is 'Where are the shiplists?'. Your editor has seen many disappointed faces when he has explained that in the Colonial period they do not exist outside of the few actual lists in the South Carolina Council Journals and what might be gleaned from the texts of individual petitioners for lands."[4]

  • "Some Emigrants to South Carolina 1727," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 14, No. 3 (Summer 1986):133. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 14
  • "Some Irish Protestant Immigrants to South Carolina 1753 and 1754," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Winter 1989):25-29. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17Abstracts of select Irish immigrants found in Council Journals.
  • Coldham, Peter Wilson. Emigrants from England to the American Colonies, 1773-1776. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing co., 1988. FHL Book 973 W3c.
    For English passenger lists, 1773 to 1776, which includes some emigrants destined for South Carolina.
  • Scholarly articles published in The American Genealogist and the National Genealogical Society Quarterly illustrate strategies that will help Americans trace their colonial South Carolina immigrant origins.

Colonial Ships

Several resources can help you learn more about a colonial ship's history.

Though they do not include names of passengers, records kept by the Colonial Office and stored at The National Archives (Kew, England), document ships' arrivals and departures from South Carolina ports between 1716 and 1767. FamilySearch microfilmed these records. They are useful for learning about the history of ships entering the colony:

Shipping Lists for South Carolina, 1716-1767. FHL Films 964002-964003

Dr. Marianne S. Wokeck created a detailed list of "German Immigrant Voyages, 1683-1775" to Colonial America. Destinations include South Carolina (1730s-1770s). She published the list in an Appendix to:

Wokeck, Marianne S. Trade in Strangers: The Beginnings of Mass Migration to North America. (University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1999) FHL book 970 W2w.

The Early South Carolina Newspaper Database (WayBack Machine) offers a free online index to ships mentioned in eighteenth-century South Carolina newspapers.

Lists of ship arrivals announced in the South Carolina Gazette between 1760 and 1770 have also been published:

Jones, Jack Moreland and Mary Bondurant Warren. South Carolina Immigrants, 1760 to 1770. (Danielsville, Ga.: Heritage Papers, 1988) FHL book 975.7 W2j.

Many ships that sailed from Bristol, England to South Carolina are described in: Bristol, Africa and the Eighteenth-Century Slave Trade to America 1698-1807 (4 vols.) FHL British Books 942.41/B2 B4b v. 38-39, 42, 47.

African Immigrants

  • The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database Internet site contains references to 35,000 slave voyages, including over 67,000 Africans aboard slave ships, using name, age, gender, origin, and place of embarkation. The database documents the slave trade between Africa, Europe, Brazil, the Caribbean, and the United States.
  • Records of blacks are listed in the Family History Library Catalog Place-names Search under the heading:
SOUTH CAROLINA - SLAVERY AND BONDAGE
SOUTH CAROLINA - MINORITIES

English Immigrants

In lieu of colonial passenger lists regarding early settlers of South Carolina, genealogists must rely on evidence gleaned from a variety of sources to successfully trace immigrant origins.

  • The Prerogative Court of Canterbury in London proved the wills of many residents of South Carolina. For access, see South Carolina Probate Records. Heraldic visitations list some members of prominent English families who crossed the Atlantic. Expert Links: English Family History and Genealogy includes a concise list of visitations available online. Online archive catalogs, such as Access to Archives, can be keyword searched for place names, such as "South Carolina" and "Charleston," to retrieve manuscripts stored in hundreds of English archives relating to persons and landholdings in this former English colony. These types of records establish links between South Carolina residents and England, which can lead researchers back to their specific ancestral English towns, villages, and hamlets.
  • The multi-volume Calendar of Colonial State Papers Colonial, America, and West Indies (1574-1739), which is available for free online at British History Online. (see discussion in South Carolina Public Records), highlights many connections between England and South Carolina.
  • More detailed information on immigration sources is in the United States Emigration and Immigration. Records of other major ethnic groups, including French Huguenots, Ulster Scots, Jews, Quakers, and Catawba Indians exist.
  • Motes, Margaret Peckham. Migration to South Carolina, Movement from the New England and Mid-Atlantic States, 1850 Census. Baltimore, Md.: Clearfield, 2004. FHL book 975.7 X2mm 1850; digital version at World Vital Records ($).
  • Scott, Kenneth. British Aliens in the United States During the War of 1812. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1979. FHL book 973 W4s; digital version at Ancestry ($). Identifies many British immigrants living in Charleston during the War of 1812.
  • Hotten, John Camden. The Original Lists of Persons of Quality: Emigrants; Religious Exiles; Political Rebels; Serving Men Sold for a Term of Years; Apprentices; Children Stolen; Maidens Pressed; and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700, with Their Ages, the Localities Where They Formerly Lived in the Mother Country, the Names of the Ships in which They Embarked, and Other Interesting Particulars; from MSS. Preserved in the State Paper Department of Her Majesty's Public Record Office, England. London: the author, 1874. Digital versions at Ancestry ($); Google Books and Internet Archive; 1983 reprint: FHL book 973 W2hot 1983
    A standard work on early South Carolina immigrants, which includes some passenger lists.
Brandow published an addendum to Hotten's work
Brandow, James C. Omitted Chapters from Hotten's Original Lists of Persons of Quality ... and Others Who Went from Great Britain to the American Plantations, 1600-1700. Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 2001. Digital version at Google books (free) and atAncestry ($).
  • Peter Wilson Coldham has published several volumes of English records that identify, among other American immigrants, those destined for South Carolina. Many English indentured servants completed labor terms in South Carolina. Coldham's works are indexed in Filby's Passenger and Immigration Lists Index, 1500s-1900s (digital version at Ancestry ($)).

French Immigrants

  • Many French Huguenots made South Carolina their home. The 114+ volume Transactions of the Huguenot Society of South Carolina is a great starting point for research: FHL book 975.7 C4h. Google books has several volumes.

German Immigrants

  • The following internet site has potentially useful information: German Roots (Port of Charleston).

Scottish and Irish Immigrants

David Dobson has dedicated many years to establishing links between Scots and their dispersed Scottish cousins who settled throughout the world. For South Carolina connections, see:

1783 to Present

  • The Family History Library and the National Archives (Washington, D.C.) have fragmentary passenger lists for Charleston for 1820 to 1828 FHL film 820234 and for Port Royal for 1865 FHL film 830245.
  • The following abstracts of the Charleston and Port Royal Passenger lists:
    Holcomb, Brent H. "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183-189; Vol. 18, No. 1 (Winter 1990):13-21; Vol. 18, No. 2 (Spring 1990):75-83; Vol. 18, No. 3 (Summer 1990):133-145; Vol. 18, No. 4 (Fall 1990):195-201; Vol. 19, No. 1 (Winter 1991):13-23; Vol. 19, No. 2 (Spring 1991):79-91; Vol. 19, No. 3 (Summer 1991):127-137; Vol. 19, No. 4 (Fall 1991):189-198; Vol. 20, No. 1 (Winter 1992):11-21; Vol. 20, No. 2 (Spring 1992):83-93; Vol. 20, No. 3 (Summer 1992):143-153; Vol. 21, No. 1 (Winter 1993):21-27; Vol. 21, No. 2 (Spring 1993):81-87; Vol. 21, No. 3 (Summer 1993):151-159; Vol. 21, No. 4 (Fall 1993):205-213; Vol. 22, No. 1 (Winter 1994):29-37; Vol. 22, No. 2 (Spring 1994):99-105. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 17-22.
  • Reprinted versions of the Charleston passenger lists:
    Holcomb, Brent H. Passenger Arrivals at the Port of Charleston, 1820-1829. 1994. Digital versions at Ancestry ($) and World Vital Records ($).
  • A few arrivals at Charleston are included in an index to passenger lists of vessels arriving at miscellaneous southern ports from 1890 to 1924 FHL films 1324938 – 1324963.

Online Resources

Four major immigration collections include:

  1. Ancestry's Immigration & Travel Records ($). The place to start, includes Filby's indexes. 
  2. Immigrant Servants Database. Index to indentured servants; includes South Carolina. 
  3. Virtual Jamestown. Scope is not limited to Colonial Virginia; includes English emigrants embarking for South Carolina. 
  4. The Olive Tree Genealogy. Includes South Carolina passenger lists.

American Immigration

Many settlers from North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Virginia migrated down into South Carolina during the colonial period. The Great Valley Road, which passed through the Shenandoah Valley was a popular route.

North Carolina Immigrants

  • Linn, Mrs. Stahle. "Some Migrations from Rowan County, North Carolina to South Carolina," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 11, No. 3 (Summer 1983):124-127. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 11
  • Webster, Irene B. "Some Migrations from Rockingham County, North Carolina to South Carolina," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 9, No. 1 (Winter 1998):28-30. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 9

Pennsylvania Immigrants

Virginia Immigrants

Bell published a series of articles about Southside Virginians who migrated to eighteenth-century South Carolina. Her strategy demonstrates how to find migration records:

  • Bell, Mary McCampbell. "Some Migrations from Virginia to South Carolina," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Summer 1981):143-144; Vol. 9, No. 4 (Fall 1981):183-190; Vol. 10, No. 1 (Winter 1982):37-42; Vol. 10, No. 2 (Spring 1982):70-77; Vol. 10, No. 3 (Summer 1982):136-143; Vol. 11, No. 2 (Spring 1983):97-102; Vol. 12, No. 1 (Winter 1984):19-21; Vol. 12, No. 2 (Spring 1984):94-99; Vol. 13, No. 3 (Summer 1985):127-129. FHL Book 975.7 B2sc v. 9-13

Westward Migrants

Free native-born South Carolinians, alive in 1850, who had left the state, resettled as follows:[6]

State Persons Born in South Carolina
Georgia 52,154
Alabama 48,663
Mississippi 27,908
Tennessee 15,197
Arkansas 4,587
Louisiana 4,583
Texas 4,482
Florida 4,470
Indiana 4,169
Illinois 4,162
Kentucky 3,164
Missouri 2,919
Ohio 1,468
  • Robertson compiled a list of South Carolinians living in Kansas in 1860:
    Robertson, Clara Hamlett. Kansas Territorial Settlers of 1860 Who were Born in Tennessee, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina : A Compilation with Historical Annotations and Editorial Comment. (Baltimore, Md.: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1976) At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL book 978.1 H2ro; digital version at Google Books (free) and World Vital Records ($).

References

  1. Warren Alleyne and Henry Fraser, The Barbados-Carolina Connection (London: Macmillan Publishers Limited, 1988). At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL book 972.981 H2a; David L. Kent, Barbados and America. (Arlington, Va.: C.M. Kent, 1980). At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL book 972.981 X2b. In 1664, a "group of Barbadians joined in an agreement to settle in Carolina." In the twentieth century, this document was kept in the South Carolina Historical Society Collection (reference V/29). See: Moriarty, Appendix, Barbados Genealogies, p. 670.
  2. South Carolina Townships Created During the Royal Period (1729 to 1776), Carolana.com.
  3. Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 847-61. (FHL Book 973 D27e 2002) WorldCat entry., and William E. Myer, Indian Trails of the Southeast. (Nashville, Tenn.: Blue and Gray Press, 1971), 12-14, and the book's pocket map "The Trail System of the Southeastern United States in the Early Colonial Period" (1923). (FHL Book 970.1 M992i) WorldCat entry.
  4. Brent H. Holcomb, "Passengers Arriving at the Port of Charleston 1820-1829," The South Carolina Magazine of Ancestral Research, Vol. 17, No. 4 (Fall 1989):183.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Name Search at Genealogical.com is a comprehensive name index to 638 books and CDs published or reprinted by Genealogical Publishing Company (now Genealogical.com). For a complete list of the works included, see Publications in Name Search at Genealogical.com
  6. These statistics do not account for the large number of South Carolinians who had migrated and died before the year 1850. See: William O. Lynch, "The Westward Flow of Southern Colonists before 1861," The Journal of Southern History, Vol. 9, No. 3 (Aug. 1943):303-327. Digital version at JSTOR ($).