South Carolina Vital Records

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''[[United States|United States ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[South Carolina|South Carolina ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  '''[[South_Carolina_Vital_Records|Vital Records]]'''''  
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[South Carolina|South Carolina]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[South_Carolina_Vital_Records|Vital Records]]''  
  
== '''Introduction to Vital Records''' ==
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== '''Introduction to Vital Records''' ==
  
[[United States Vital Records|Vital Records]] consist of [[United States Birth Records|births]], adoptions, [[United States Marriage Records|marriages]], divorces, and [[United States Death Records|deaths]] recorded in ledgers, registers, or on certificates. The [[Locating United States Vital Records|United States Vital Records]] page has additional research guidance on researching and using vital records. In South Carolina, a computer-generated birth or death certificate can only be purchased from the [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/ South Carolina Division of Vital Records] for certificates issued since January 1, 1915. The county branch offices of the Division of Vital Records can only issue a short form birth certification (birth card). These offices can issue a death certificate for deaths that occurred within that county in the last 5 years. These offices are located in the 46 county [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/locations.htm public health departments.] Marriage records from July 1950 to November 2009 are available from the [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/ Vital Records Office] in Columbia, South Carolina. Marriage records prior to July 1950 and after October 2009 are available from the [http://www.judicial.state.sc.us/probateCourt/probJudgeListPF.cfm Office of the Probate Judge] in the county where the marriage license was obtained.  
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[[United States Vital Records|Vital Records]] consist of [[United States Birth Records|births]], adoptions, [[United States Marriage Records|marriages]], divorces, and [[United States Death Records|deaths]] recorded in ledgers, registers, or on certificates. The [[Locating United States Vital Records|United States Vital Records]] page has additional research guidance on researching and using vital records. In South Carolina, a computer-generated birth or death certificate can only be purchased from the [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/ South Carolina Division of Vital Records] for certificates issued since January 1, 1915. The county branch offices of the Division of Vital Records can only issue a short form birth certification (birth card). These offices can issue a death certificate for deaths that occurred within that county in the last 5 years. These offices are located in the 46 county [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/locations.htm public health departments.] Marriage records from July 1950 to November 2009 are available from the [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/ Vital Records Office] in Columbia, South Carolina. Marriage records prior to July 1950 and after October 2009 are available from the [http://www.judicial.state.sc.us/probateCourt/probJudgeListPF.cfm Office of the Probate Judge] in the county where the marriage license was obtained.  
  
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|-
 
|-
 
| width="44%" | __TOC__  
 
| width="44%" | __TOC__  
| valign="middle" | <center>'''&nbsp; [[Image:Vital Records Collage.JPG|center|350px]]&nbsp;&nbsp; '''<br></center>
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| valign="middle" | <center>'''&nbsp; [[Image:Vital Records Collage.JPG|center|350px|Vital Records Collage.JPG]]&nbsp;&nbsp; '''<br></center>  
 
=== Vital Records Reference Dates  ===
 
=== Vital Records Reference Dates  ===
  
 
South Carolina's civil records start the following years:  
 
South Carolina's civil records start the following years:  
  
{| cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" width="100%" border="1"
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{| width="100%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="1" border="1"
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" width="16.6%" |
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | <br>
| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Birth_and_Death_Records Birth]'''  
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| width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Birth_and_Death_Records Birth]'''  
| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Marriage_Records Marriage]'''  
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| width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Marriage_Records Marriage]'''  
| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Birth_and_Death_Records Death]'''
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| width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" | '''[http://wiki.familysearch.org/en/South_Carolina_Vital_Records#Birth_and_Death_Records Death]'''
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | Earliest
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| width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" | Statewide Registration
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1706
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1915
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1732
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1911
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1706
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1915
 
|-
 
|-
| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | Statewide Registration
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| width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" align="center" | General Compliance
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1915
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1918
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1911
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1911
| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1915
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| width="16.6%" align="center" | 1918
|-
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| align="center" width="16.6%" bgcolor="#ffffcc" | General Compliance
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| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1918
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| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1911
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| align="center" width="16.6%" | 1918
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|}
 
|}
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'''A few cities have earlier birth, marriage, and death records.'''
  
 
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== '''South Carolina&nbsp;Birth, Marriage and Death Records Online'''  ==
 
== '''South Carolina&nbsp;Birth, Marriage and Death Records Online'''  ==
  
The following is a list of online resources useful for locating South Carolina Vital Records which consist of [[United States Birth Records|births]], adoptions, [[United States Marriage Records|marriages]], divorces, and [[United States Death Records|deaths]].&nbsp; After locating a person in an index always consult the original record to [[Contradictions and discrepancies|confirm the information]] in the index. '''<br>'''
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The following is a list of online resources useful for locating South Carolina Vital Records which consist of [[United States Birth Records|births]], adoptions, [[United States Marriage Records|marriages]], divorces, and [[United States Death Records|deaths]].&nbsp; After locating a person in an index always consult the original record to [[Contradictions and discrepancies|confirm the information]] in the index. '''<br>'''  
  
<br>
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<br>  
  
 
'''Births:'''  
 
'''Births:'''  
  
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1239 South Carolina Delayed Births, 1766-1900] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index with images
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1675535 ''South Carolina, Births and Christenings, 1846-1935''] (FamilySearch Historical Records - Free, Index)
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1239 ''South Carolina Delayed Births, 1766–1900''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– ($); Index with images, INCOMPLETE
  
'''Marriages:'''  
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'''Marriages:'''&nbsp;
  
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7840 South Carolina Marriages, 1641-1965] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index  
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*[https://www.familysearch.org/search/collection/show#uri=http://www.familysearch.org/searchapi/search/collection/1675541 ''South Carolina, Marriages, 1890-1945''] (FamilySearch Historical Records - Free, index)
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49056 South Carolina Marriages, 1688-1799] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index  
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7840 ''South Carolina Marriages, 1641–1965''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– ($); Index, INCOMPLETE
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49331 South Carolina Marriages, 1800-1820] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49056 ''South Carolina Marriages, 1688–1799''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– ($); Index, INCOMPLETE
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=49331 ''South Carolina Marriages, 1800–1820''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– $; Index, INCOMPLETE
  
 
'''Deaths:'''  
 
'''Deaths:'''  
  
*{{RecordSearch|1417492|South Carolina Deaths, 1915-1943}}&nbsp;[https://www.familysearch.org/ FamilySearch.org] - Free; Index with images  
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*{{RecordSearch|1417492|South Carolina Deaths, 1915–1943}}&nbsp;at [https://www.familysearch.org/ FamilySearch]&nbsp;– Free; Index with images  
*{{RecordSearch|1589507|South Carolina Deaths, 1944-1955}}&nbsp;[https://www.familysearch.org/ FamilySearch.org] - Free; Index  
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*{{RecordSearch|1589507|South Carolina Deaths, 1944-1955}}&nbsp;at [https://www.familysearch.org/ FamilySearch]&nbsp;– Free; Index  
*[http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/vrdi.htm South Carolina Death Indexes 1915-1960 ]- Free; Index&nbsp;  
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*[http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/vrdi.htm ''South Carolina Death Indexes 1915–1960''&nbsp;]Free; Index&nbsp;  
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7591 South Carolina Death Index, 1950-1952] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index  
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=7591 ''South Carolina Death Index, 1950–1952''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– ($); Index  
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=8741 South Carolina Death&nbsp;Records, 1821-1955] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry] - $; Index&nbsp;with images&nbsp;
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*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=8741 ''South Carolina Death&nbsp;Records, 1821–1955''] at [http://www.ancestry.com/ Ancestry]&nbsp;– ($); Index&nbsp;with images
  
'''Order a Copy of a Certificate:'''
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{{Tip|Newspapers are an excellent substitute when there are no government records for&nbsp;birth, marriages and deaths.&nbsp; For online indexes and abstracts for South Carolina, see [[South Carolina Newspapers#Newspaper_Abstracts_of_Births.2C_Marriages.2C_and_Deaths_in_South_Carolina|South Carolina Newspapers]].}}
 
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*Order [http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/w2w/south_carolina.htm|South Carolina Certificates] online
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[[South Carolina Vital Records#More Online South Carolina Vital Records Links|More Online South Carolina Vital Records Links]]
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<br>Newspapers are an excellent substitute when there are no government records for&nbsp;birth, marriages and deaths.&nbsp; For online indexes and abstracts for South Carolina, see [[South Carolina Newspapers#Newspaper_Abstracts_of_Births.2C_Marriages.2C_and_Deaths_in_South_Carolina|South Carolina Newspapers]].  
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[[South Carolina Vital Records#Substitute Records|More South Carolina substitute records]]
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== <br>'''Birth and Death Records'''  ==
 
== <br>'''Birth and Death Records'''  ==
  
'''Pre-1915'''
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=== Pre-1915 ===
  
 
South Carolina did not issue birth and death certificates prior to January 1, 1915. South Carolina did institute a number of laws regarding the registry of births and deaths, some going back as far as March 1, 1669/70. These laws however, were apparently not implemented or ignored. If they were implemented then the register books have not survived. Under the Church Act of 1706 the registering of births, marriages, and burials was transferred to the established church in the colony, the Church of England.<sup><ref name="SC Marriage">Ruth S. Green, Charles H. Lesser, Charles R. Lessor, "South Carolina Marriage Records," ''The South Carolina Historical Magazine'' 79, no. 2 (Apr 1978): 155-162.</ref></sup> It did not matter if the individuals were members of the Church or not. The Church was disestablished as the state church in 1778, however the churches continued to create records according to their&nbsp;canon laws.  
 
South Carolina did not issue birth and death certificates prior to January 1, 1915. South Carolina did institute a number of laws regarding the registry of births and deaths, some going back as far as March 1, 1669/70. These laws however, were apparently not implemented or ignored. If they were implemented then the register books have not survived. Under the Church Act of 1706 the registering of births, marriages, and burials was transferred to the established church in the colony, the Church of England.<sup><ref name="SC Marriage">Ruth S. Green, Charles H. Lesser, Charles R. Lessor, "South Carolina Marriage Records," ''The South Carolina Historical Magazine'' 79, no. 2 (Apr 1978): 155-162.</ref></sup> It did not matter if the individuals were members of the Church or not. The Church was disestablished as the state church in 1778, however the churches continued to create records according to their&nbsp;canon laws.  
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*''Inventory of the Church Archives of South Carolina Presbyterian Churches&nbsp;: 1969 Arrangement with Indexes'' originally prepared by the Works Project Administration ({{FHL|53309|titleno}} Films 906117 and 906118). Other denominations' records should also be consulted.  
 
*''Inventory of the Church Archives of South Carolina Presbyterian Churches&nbsp;: 1969 Arrangement with Indexes'' originally prepared by the Works Project Administration ({{FHL|53309|titleno}} Films 906117 and 906118). Other denominations' records should also be consulted.  
 
*''Local and Family History in South Carolina'' ({{FHL|322348|titleno}} Book 975.7 H23c) by Richard Cote for more information about the availability of church records to substitute for civil vital records.  
 
*''Local and Family History in South Carolina'' ({{FHL|322348|titleno}} Book 975.7 H23c) by Richard Cote for more information about the availability of church records to substitute for civil vital records.  
*''South Carolina Name Index to Genealogical Records Collected by South Carolina Daughters of the American Revolution'' ({{FHL|656316|item|disp= FHL film/fiche beginning with 6052835}}). These indexed records include South Carolina church records and cemetery transcripts among other records.<br><br>
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*''South Carolina Name Index to Genealogical Records Collected by South Carolina Daughters of the American Revolution'' ({{FHL|656316|item|disp= FHL film/fiche beginning with 6052835}}). These indexed records include South Carolina church records and cemetery transcripts among other records.<br>
  
Early vital records were kept by some of the larger cities and are available from the appropriate county health department, except for a few major cities where the records are at the city health department. The Family History Library has deaths for Charleston 1821-1886 ({{FHL|387889|item|disp=FHL film beginning with 23361}}) and births 1877-1901 ({{FHL|387620|item|disp=FHL film beginning with 23416}}.) <br><br>
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Early vital records were kept by some of the larger cities and are available from the appropriate county health department, except for a few major cities where the records are at the city health department. The Family History Library has deaths for Charleston 1821-1886 ({{FHL|387889|item|disp=FHL film beginning with 23361}}) and births 1877-1901 ({{FHL|387620|item|disp=FHL film beginning with 23416}}.) <br>  
  
'''1915'''
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=== Delayed birth certificates  ===
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Some residents recorded delayed birth certificates that date back to the late 1800s. Andrew Jackson's delayed birth certificate (1766) is the earliest example. The clerk in [[Marion County, South Carolina|Marion County]] recorded every entry in family Bibles when residents came to have their births registered.<ref name="beck">Mike Becknell, "Overview of South Carolina Genealogical Research," Group Tour of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 10 May 2011.</ref>
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=== 1915 ===
  
 
Statewide registration of births and deaths began&nbsp;January 1, 1915. For information write to:  
 
Statewide registration of births and deaths began&nbsp;January 1, 1915. For information write to:  
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Office of Vital Records and Public Health Statistics<br>2600 Bull Street<br>Columbia, SC 29201<br>Telephone: 803-734-4830<br>Fax: 803-799-0301<br>Internet: [http://www.scdhec.net/administration/vr/ South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control]  
 
Office of Vital Records and Public Health Statistics<br>2600 Bull Street<br>Columbia, SC 29201<br>Telephone: 803-734-4830<br>Fax: 803-799-0301<br>Internet: [http://www.scdhec.net/administration/vr/ South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control]  
  
Only&nbsp;the person&nbsp;named&nbsp;(must be at least 18) on&nbsp;the certificate or the parent(s) named on the birth certifcate may request a&nbsp;copy of a birth certificate.&nbsp;The&nbsp;guardian or a legal representative of the&nbsp;named individual or parent(s) may also request a copy of a birth certificate.&nbsp;Immediate family members may request a birth certificate for a deceased person if they submit an original certified copy of the registrant's death record.
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Only&nbsp;the person&nbsp;named&nbsp;(must be at least 18) on&nbsp;the certificate or the parent(s) named on the birth certifcate may request a&nbsp;copy of a birth certificate.&nbsp;The&nbsp;guardian or a legal representative of the&nbsp;named individual or parent(s) may also request a copy of a birth certificate.&nbsp;Immediate family members may request a birth certificate for a deceased person if they submit an original certified copy of the registrant's death record.  
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'''A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:'''<br>
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[[South Carolina Births and Christenings (FamilySearch Historical Records)|South Carolina Births and Christenings (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]<br>
  
== [[Image:Wilbanks james walter.jpg|thumb|right]]Death Records  ==
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== [[Image:Wilbanks james walter.jpg|thumb|right|Wilbanks james walter.jpg]]Death Records  ==
  
 
South Carolina required death certificates beginning&nbsp;January 1,&nbsp;1915. Death certificates less than 50 years old must be ordered from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Please see information concerning ordering certificates under the heading "Birth and Death Records" on this wiki page. If you are not an immediate family member, you may be issued a statement of death naming the date and county of death.  
 
South Carolina required death certificates beginning&nbsp;January 1,&nbsp;1915. Death certificates less than 50 years old must be ordered from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Please see information concerning ordering certificates under the heading "Birth and Death Records" on this wiki page. If you are not an immediate family member, you may be issued a statement of death naming the date and county of death.  
  
After 50 years, death records become public record and these certificates are available from the [http://archives.sc.gov/genealogy/ South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]&nbsp;Their address is:  
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After 50 years, death records become public record and these certificates are available from the [http://scdah.sc.gov/Pages/default.aspx South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]&nbsp;Their address is:  
  
 
Reference Services<br>SC&nbsp;Department of Archives and History<br>8301 Parklane Rd<br>Columbia, SC 29223<br>Phone: 803-896-6104<br>Fax: 803-896-6198  
 
Reference Services<br>SC&nbsp;Department of Archives and History<br>8301 Parklane Rd<br>Columbia, SC 29223<br>Phone: 803-896-6104<br>Fax: 803-896-6198  
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*Charleston 1821-1886 ({{FHL|387889|titleno}} Film beginning with 23361).  
 
*Charleston 1821-1886 ({{FHL|387889|titleno}} Film beginning with 23361).  
*Georgetown Coroner's Report 1913-1916. Available from the [http://archives.sc.gov/genealogy/ South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]
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*Georgetown Coroner's Report 1913-1916. Available from the [http://archives.sc.gov/Pages/default.aspx South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]
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'''Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:'''
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*[[South Carolina Deaths, 1915-1945 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|South Carolina Deaths, 1915-1945 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]<br>
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*[[South Carolina Statewide Death (FamilySearch Historical Records)|South Carolina&nbsp; Deaths 1944-1955 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
 
== Marriage Records  ==
 
== Marriage Records  ==
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<br>South Carolina did not require marriage licenses until July 1, 1911. The probate judge's office in the county courthouse holds licenses issued before 1950 and after October 2009. Statewide registration of marriages began in July 1950.&nbsp;Both [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/index.htm The&nbsp;Division of Vital Records] and the [http://www.judicial.state.sc.us/probateCourt/probateMap.cfm county probate court] have&nbsp;copies of licenses issued after July 1, 1950 through November 2009.  
 
<br>South Carolina did not require marriage licenses until July 1, 1911. The probate judge's office in the county courthouse holds licenses issued before 1950 and after October 2009. Statewide registration of marriages began in July 1950.&nbsp;Both [http://www.scdhec.gov/administration/vr/index.htm The&nbsp;Division of Vital Records] and the [http://www.judicial.state.sc.us/probateCourt/probateMap.cfm county probate court] have&nbsp;copies of licenses issued after July 1, 1950 through November 2009.  
  
During the colonial period, the governor, as judge of the Ordinary [Probate] Court&nbsp;could issue a marriage license.&nbsp;Some of these licenses have been found.&nbsp;Generally, most individuals would have been&nbsp;married&nbsp;in the parish&nbsp;chuch&nbsp;after banns&nbsp;had been published. The Act of 1704 and the Church Act of 1706 recognized the Church of England as the established church and the state was divided into seven parishes. Although the ministers of the "Dissenter" religions, everyone not a member of the Church of England,&nbsp;retained their&nbsp;right&nbsp;to baptize and marry,&nbsp;the&nbsp;law required the registrar of the parish to record all marriages.&nbsp;Not all marriages were reported to the parish registrar. This was the law until the&nbsp;Episcopal Church was disestablished in 1778 when South Carolina adopted a new Constitution. The dissenter religions may have kept their own records concurrently with the established church during the colonial period.<ref name="SC Guide">Theresa M. Hicks, ''South Carolina a Guide for Genealogists'' (Columbia, SC : South Carolina Genealogical Society, 2004) 132-33</ref> A few counties or cities may have earlier records than 1911. If they exist they would normally be in the custody of the county probate judge or in the South Carolina&nbsp;Department of&nbsp;Archives and History.  
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During the colonial period, the governor, as judge of the Ordinary [Probate] Court&nbsp;could issue a marriage license.&nbsp;Some of these licenses have been found.&nbsp;Generally, most individuals would have been&nbsp;married&nbsp;in the parish&nbsp;chuch&nbsp;after banns&nbsp;had been published. The Act of 1704 and the Church Act of 1706 recognized the Church of England as the established church and the state was divided into seven parishes. Although the ministers of the "Dissenter" religions, everyone not a member of the Church of England,&nbsp;retained their&nbsp;right&nbsp;to baptize and marry,&nbsp;the&nbsp;law required the registrar of the parish to record all marriages.&nbsp;Not all marriages were reported to the parish registrar. This was the law until the&nbsp;Episcopal Church was disestablished in 1778 when South Carolina adopted a new Constitution. The dissenter religions may have kept their own records concurrently with the established church during the colonial period.<ref name="SC Guide">Theresa M. Hicks, ''South Carolina a Guide for Genealogists'' (Columbia, SC : South Carolina Genealogical Society, 2004) 132-33</ref> A few counties or cities may have earlier records than 1911. If they exist they would normally be in the custody of the county probate judge or in the [http://archives.sc.gov/Pages/default.aspx South Carolina Department of Archives and History].  
  
In several cases there are marriage settlement records found&nbsp;at the South Carolina Department of Archives and History or in the records of the probate court of many counties. Marriage settlements were legal agreements, primarily made by women who had been married previously. These records were kept from the 1760s to the 1880s.&nbsp;Recording these documents with the Secretary of State became law in 1785.&nbsp;The Family History Library has some of these records, ''South Carolina Marriage Settlements, 1785 to 1889'', ({{FHL|387569|item|disp=FHL film beginning with 22512}}) from the Department of Archives and History.  
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From the 1760s to the 1880s, some marriages were recorded in marriage settlements. These marriage settlements were legal "pre-marital agreements" primarily made by women who had been married previously to protect their property.<ref>Echholz, Alice. Red Book. 3rd Ed. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004.</ref> Somen of these marriages were recorded in deed books of various counties.<ref>Holcomb, Brent. A Guide to South Carolina Genealogical Research and Records. Columbia, SC: Brent H. Holcomb, 1998.</ref> Most settlements are found in two microfilm collections, ''South Carolina Marriage Settlements'' and ''Miscellaneous Records of South Carolina'' both located at the [http://archives.sc.gov/Pages/default.aspx South Carolina Department of Archives and History]. The ''South Carolina Marriage Settlements'' are also at the [[Family History Library|Family History Library]]. {{FHL|387569|item}} [[Ordering Microfilm or Microfiche from a Family History Center|How to order microfilm to a Family History Center]]. All of these marriage settlements have been transcribed and indexed in Barbara R. Langdon’s 7 volume set titled, ''South Carolina Marriages''. {{FHL|476905|item|disp=975.7 V2L vol.1-7}}&nbsp; [http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=south+carolina+marriages+langdon&qt=results_page WorldCat]
  
 
Some larger cities and counties have early marriage records. Charleston and Georgetown both had early marriage records.  
 
Some larger cities and counties have early marriage records. Charleston and Georgetown both had early marriage records.  
  
 
*Charleston marriage records 1877 to 1887 ({{FHL|387561|titleno}} Film beginning with 23410).  
 
*Charleston marriage records 1877 to 1887 ({{FHL|387561|titleno}} Film beginning with 23410).  
*Georgetown returns of marriages 1884 to 1899. Available from the [http://archives.sc.gov/genealogy/ South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]
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*Georgetown returns of marriages 1884 to 1899. Available from the [http://archives.sc.gov/Pages/default.aspx South Carolina Department of Archives and History.]
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*Scott, Kenneth. "Some South Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1733," ''National Genealogical Society Quarterly,'' Vol. 63 (1975):176-180. {{FHL|39597|item|disp=FHL Book 973 B2ng v. 63 (1975)}}.
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After the law was passed mandating the recording of marriages in 1911, some residents who had been married in the 1890s and early 1900s came before authorities to have their marriages officially recorded.<ref name="beck">Mike Becknell, "Overview of South Carolina Genealogical Research," Group Tour of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 10 May 2011.</ref>
  
 
In many cases newspapers may need to serve as a substitute for a marriage record. Numerous South Carolina marriages have been abstracted from newspapers (see the [[South Carolina Newspapers|“Newspapers”]] page). Of special note:  
 
In many cases newspapers may need to serve as a substitute for a marriage record. Numerous South Carolina marriages have been abstracted from newspapers (see the [[South Carolina Newspapers|“Newspapers”]] page). Of special note:  
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*Holcomb, Brent H. ''South Carolina Marriages'', 3 Volumes. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1984) ({{FHL|7225|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 V2hsc}}) This covers 1688 to 1820.  
 
*Holcomb, Brent H. ''South Carolina Marriages'', 3 Volumes. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1984) ({{FHL|7225|item|disp=FHL book 975.7 V2hsc}}) This covers 1688 to 1820.  
 
*Salley, A.S. ''Marriage Notices in the South Carolina Gazette and Its Successors, 1732 - 1801''. Albany, N.Y.: A.S. Salley, 1902. Digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdsc6010_marriagenotices World Vital Records] ($).
 
*Salley, A.S. ''Marriage Notices in the South Carolina Gazette and Its Successors, 1732 - 1801''. Albany, N.Y.: A.S. Salley, 1902. Digital version at [http://www.worldvitalrecords.com/indexinfo.aspx?ix=qcdsc6010_marriagenotices World Vital Records] ($).
 +
 +
Langdon's series of implied marriages is also a valuable substitute. See [https://www.familysearch.org/#form=catalog&catSearchType=author FamilySearch Catalog] (Author Search for [https://www.familysearch.org/search/search/index/catalog-search#searchType=catalog&filtered=true&fed=false&collectionId=&catSearchType=author&searchCriteria=&placeName=&author_givenName=Barbara&author_surname=Langdon Barbara Langdon]).
 +
 +
'''A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:'''<br>
 +
 +
[[South Carolina Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|South Carolina Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]<br>
  
 
== Divorce Records  ==
 
== Divorce Records  ==
Line 141: Line 155:
 
== Adoption Records  ==
 
== Adoption Records  ==
  
Adoption records in South Carolina are confidential and sealed.&nbsp; Adoption records are court records and the court where the adoption was finalized must be petitioned to open the adoption files.&nbsp; For questions and help regarding adoption reunion, contact the [[Charleston and Georgetown both had early marriage records.|South Carolina Adoption Reunion Registry]]. Adult adoptees, adoptive families, birth parents of the adoptee, or biological siblings to the adoptee&nbsp;can request non-identifying information or access to runion register services.&nbsp;  
+
Adoption records in South Carolina are confidential and sealed.&nbsp; Adoption records are court records and the court where the adoption was finalized must be petitioned to open the adoption files.&nbsp; For questions and help regarding adoption reunion, contact the [http://www.southcarolinaadoptions.com South Carolina Adoption Reunion Registry]. Adult adoptees, adoptive families, birth parents of the adoptee, or biological siblings to the adoptee&nbsp;can request non-identifying information or access to runion register services.&nbsp;  
  
 
== Additional Helps  ==
 
== Additional Helps  ==
Line 148: Line 162:
  
 
*Information listed on vital records is given by and informant.&nbsp; Learn the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) of the record.&nbsp; The closer the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) and whether or not the informant was present at the&nbsp;time of the event can help determine the accuracy of the information found on the record.  
 
*Information listed on vital records is given by and informant.&nbsp; Learn the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) of the record.&nbsp; The closer the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) and whether or not the informant was present at the&nbsp;time of the event can help determine the accuracy of the information found on the record.  
*If you are unable to locate vital records recorded by governments, search for&nbsp;church records of christening, marriage, death or burial.&nbsp; A family Bible may have been used to record births, marriages and deaths.  
+
*If you are unable to locate vital records recorded by governments, search for&nbsp;church records of christening, marriage, death or burial.&nbsp; Baptists did not keep marriage registers.&nbsp; A family Bible may have been used to record births, marriages and deaths.  
 
*Records for African American may be recorded in separate files with separate indexes.  
 
*Records for African American may be recorded in separate files with separate indexes.  
 
*Privacy laws may restrict your access to some vital records.&nbsp; Copies of some vital records recorded in the last 100 years may be unavailable to anyone except a direct relative.  
 
*Privacy laws may restrict your access to some vital records.&nbsp; Copies of some vital records recorded in the last 100 years may be unavailable to anyone except a direct relative.  
 
*Search for Vital Records in the Family History Library Catalog by using a '''Place Search''' and then choosing '''Vital Records'''.&nbsp; Search for '''South Carolina''' to locate records filed by the States and then search the '''name of the county''' to locate records kept by the&nbsp; county,
 
*Search for Vital Records in the Family History Library Catalog by using a '''Place Search''' and then choosing '''Vital Records'''.&nbsp; Search for '''South Carolina''' to locate records filed by the States and then search the '''name of the county''' to locate records kept by the&nbsp; county,
  
<br>
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<br>  
  
=== [[Image:Fire.png|thumb|right|110px]]Lost and Missing Records  ===
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=== [[Image:Fire.png|thumb|right|110px|Fire.png]]Lost and Missing Records  ===
  
 
Abbebille 1873, Beaufort 1865, Chesterfield 1865, Clarendon 1911, Colleton 1805, 1865, Darlington 1806, Georgetown 1865, Lancaster 1865, Lexington 1939, 1865,Oranageburg 1865, Richland 1865, Sumpter 1801.  
 
Abbebille 1873, Beaufort 1865, Chesterfield 1865, Clarendon 1911, Colleton 1805, 1865, Darlington 1806, Georgetown 1865, Lancaster 1865, Lexington 1939, 1865,Oranageburg 1865, Richland 1865, Sumpter 1801.  
Line 179: Line 193:
 
[[South Carolina Newspapers|South Carolina Newspapers]] Besides obituaries, local newspapers may contain birth and marriage announcements and death notices.&nbsp; Also check newspaper social columns for&nbsp;additional information.&nbsp;  
 
[[South Carolina Newspapers|South Carolina Newspapers]] Besides obituaries, local newspapers may contain birth and marriage announcements and death notices.&nbsp; Also check newspaper social columns for&nbsp;additional information.&nbsp;  
  
*[[South Carolina Probate Records|Probate Records]]: If no death record exists, probate records&nbsp;may be helpful in estimating when an individual has died. Probate records in the 20th Century&nbsp;often contain the exact death date.
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[[South Carolina Probate Records|Probate Records]]: If no death record exists, probate records&nbsp;may be helpful in estimating when an individual has died. Probate records in the 20th Century&nbsp;often contain the exact death date. Implied marriages are also identified when fathers mention married daughters.  
  
*[[South Carolina History|History]]: &nbsp;Local histories, family&nbsp;histories&nbsp;and biographies can all be sources of birth, marriage and death information. Often this information is found in county-level records or in surname searches of the Family History Library catalog.
+
[[South Carolina History|History]]: &nbsp;Local histories, family&nbsp;histories&nbsp;and biographies can all be sources of birth, marriage and death information. Often this information is found in county-level records or in surname searches of the Family History Library catalog.  
  
 
<br>
 
<br>
  
=== More Online South Carolina Vital Records Links<br> ===
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=== More Online South Carolina Vital Records Links<br> ===
  
 
*[http://hip.richland.lib.sc.us:8080/ipac20/ipac.jsp?profile=main--1&lang=eng#focus Obituary Index] Database with obituary and death notice information from the Columbia, SC newspapers. -Free  
 
*[http://hip.richland.lib.sc.us:8080/ipac20/ipac.jsp?profile=main--1&lang=eng#focus Obituary Index] Database with obituary and death notice information from the Columbia, SC newspapers. -Free  
*[http://fhlfavorites.info/Links/USA_States/States_Frames/South%20Carolina/south_carolina.htm South Carolina Links] from [http://fhlfavorites.info/ fhlfavorites.info] -&nbsp;Free  
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*[http://fhlfavorites.info/Links/USA_States/States_Frames/South%20Carolina/south_carolina.htm South Carolina Links] from [http://fhlfavorites.info/ fhlfavorites.info] - Free  
 
*[http://userdb.rootsweb.ancestry.com/regional.html# South Carolina Databases] listed on [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/ Rootsweb.com]- Free  
 
*[http://userdb.rootsweb.ancestry.com/regional.html# South Carolina Databases] listed on [http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/ Rootsweb.com]- Free  
 
*USGenWeb.org [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/ South Carolina Site] - Free  
 
*USGenWeb.org [http://sciway3.net/scgenweb/ South Carolina Site] - Free  
*German Roots&nbsp;Links for South Carolina [http://www.germanroots.com/vitalrecords.html#South Birth &amp; Marriage]&nbsp;and [http://www.germanroots.com/deathrecords.html Death] Records -&nbsp;Free/$&nbsp; This site includes all records, not just those for persons with German ancestry.  
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*German Roots&nbsp;Links for South Carolina [http://www.germanroots.com/vitalrecords.html#South Birth &amp; Marriage]&nbsp;and [http://www.germanroots.com/deathrecords.html Death] Records -&nbsp;Free/$ This site includes all records, not just those for persons with German ancestry.  
*Progenealogists Links for the [http://progenealogists.com/genealogysleuthb.htm United States]. Press '''Ctrl + F'''&nbsp; to search for '''South Carolina''' or&nbsp;'''SC''' -&nbsp;Free/$
+
*Progenealogists Links for the [http://progenealogists.com/genealogysleuthb.htm United States]. Press '''Ctrl + F''' to search for '''South Carolina''' or&nbsp;'''SC''' -&nbsp;Free/$<br>
 
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== <br>Family History Library Vital Records Collections  ==
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=== South Carolina Vital Records Index  ===
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<br>This is a collection of Family History Library records which are abstracted, indexed and titled the [[South Carolina Vital Records Index (FamilySearch Historical Records)|South Carolina Vital Records Index.]] For over 30 years, volunteer indexers extracted this information from microfilm copies of the original records. In 1998, a few of the entries were published on 7 CDs by the Family History Department of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints as the "North America Vital Records Index." This index is an index of the births, marriages, and deaths throughout Kentucky. The index is not necessarily complete for any particular place or region.
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These records are availble online for free at [https://beta.familysearch.org/s/collection/list FamilySearch Historical Records Collection].
+
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==
  
<references />
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<references />  
 
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{{South Carolina|South Carolina}}
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<br>
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[[South Carolina Statewide Death (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
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{{South Carolina|South Carolina}} {{U.S. Vital Records}}
  
 
[[Category:South_Carolina|Vital]] [[Category:Record_Types_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:United_States_Vital_Records]]
 
[[Category:South_Carolina|Vital]] [[Category:Record_Types_of_the_United_States]] [[Category:United_States_Vital_Records]]

Revision as of 17:10, 4 September 2012

United States Gotoarrow.png South Carolina Gotoarrow.png Vital Records

Introduction to Vital Records

Vital Records consist of births, adoptions, marriages, divorces, and deaths recorded in ledgers, registers, or on certificates. The United States Vital Records page has additional research guidance on researching and using vital records. In South Carolina, a computer-generated birth or death certificate can only be purchased from the South Carolina Division of Vital Records for certificates issued since January 1, 1915. The county branch offices of the Division of Vital Records can only issue a short form birth certification (birth card). These offices can issue a death certificate for deaths that occurred within that county in the last 5 years. These offices are located in the 46 county public health departments. Marriage records from July 1950 to November 2009 are available from the Vital Records Office in Columbia, South Carolina. Marriage records prior to July 1950 and after October 2009 are available from the Office of the Probate Judge in the county where the marriage license was obtained.

Contents

 
Vital Records Collage.JPG
  

Vital Records Reference Dates

South Carolina's civil records start the following years:


Birth Marriage Death
Statewide Registration 1915 1911 1915
General Compliance 1918 1911 1918

A few cities have earlier birth, marriage, and death records.

South Carolina Birth, Marriage and Death Records Online

The following is a list of online resources useful for locating South Carolina Vital Records which consist of births, adoptions, marriages, divorces, and deaths.  After locating a person in an index always consult the original record to confirm the information in the index.


Births:

Marriages: 

Deaths:


Birth and Death Records

Pre-1915

South Carolina did not issue birth and death certificates prior to January 1, 1915. South Carolina did institute a number of laws regarding the registry of births and deaths, some going back as far as March 1, 1669/70. These laws however, were apparently not implemented or ignored. If they were implemented then the register books have not survived. Under the Church Act of 1706 the registering of births, marriages, and burials was transferred to the established church in the colony, the Church of England.[1] It did not matter if the individuals were members of the Church or not. The Church was disestablished as the state church in 1778, however the churches continued to create records according to their canon laws.

Begining in 1706, birth, marriage and burial records were recorded in registers of the Church of England (later known as the Protestant Episcopal Church). There are seven Episcopal parish registers in existence from the colonial era. All of these registers have been published either in book form or in the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine (FHL Collection Book 975.7 B2s). Theresa M. Hicks' book South Carolina: A Guide for Genealogists, pages 148-61 (FHL Collection Book 975.7 D27hs) includes a list of parish names and other churches. She provides the South Carolina Historical Magazine volume number and page where corresponding parish records have been published. She provides the title and author's name if the records were published seperately or copied by the WPA.

Late in December 1853, the South Carolina state legislature passed the 1853 Registration Act[2], which required the tax collectors in the districts and parishes [counties] of the state to make "a seperate return, stating the number of whites, male and female, who have been born, married, or who have died during the year in their respective households, and the number of blacks who have been born, or who have died during the same period." This law was strengthened by adding a payment to the collector in 1856[2], but was repealed in January 1861[2]. Unfortunately none of these registers have been found or are known to have survived.[1]

For addtional information regarding other church or record subtitutes see:

  • Inventory of the Church Archives of South Carolina Presbyterian Churches : 1969 Arrangement with Indexes originally prepared by the Works Project Administration (FHL Collection Films 906117 and 906118). Other denominations' records should also be consulted.
  • Local and Family History in South Carolina (FHL Collection Book 975.7 H23c) by Richard Cote for more information about the availability of church records to substitute for civil vital records.
  • South Carolina Name Index to Genealogical Records Collected by South Carolina Daughters of the American Revolution (FHL film/fiche beginning with 6052835). These indexed records include South Carolina church records and cemetery transcripts among other records.

Early vital records were kept by some of the larger cities and are available from the appropriate county health department, except for a few major cities where the records are at the city health department. The Family History Library has deaths for Charleston 1821-1886 (FHL film beginning with 23361) and births 1877-1901 (FHL film beginning with 23416.)

Delayed birth certificates

Some residents recorded delayed birth certificates that date back to the late 1800s. Andrew Jackson's delayed birth certificate (1766) is the earliest example. The clerk in Marion County recorded every entry in family Bibles when residents came to have their births registered.[3]

1915

Statewide registration of births and deaths began January 1, 1915. For information write to:

Office of Vital Records and Public Health Statistics
2600 Bull Street
Columbia, SC 29201
Telephone: 803-734-4830
Fax: 803-799-0301
Internet: South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control

Only the person named (must be at least 18) on the certificate or the parent(s) named on the birth certifcate may request a copy of a birth certificate. The guardian or a legal representative of the named individual or parent(s) may also request a copy of a birth certificate. Immediate family members may request a birth certificate for a deceased person if they submit an original certified copy of the registrant's death record.

A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:

South Carolina Births and Christenings (FamilySearch Historical Records)

Wilbanks james walter.jpg
Death Records

South Carolina required death certificates beginning January 1, 1915. Death certificates less than 50 years old must be ordered from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control. Please see information concerning ordering certificates under the heading "Birth and Death Records" on this wiki page. If you are not an immediate family member, you may be issued a statement of death naming the date and county of death.

After 50 years, death records become public record and these certificates are available from the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. Their address is:

Reference Services
SC Department of Archives and History
8301 Parklane Rd
Columbia, SC 29223
Phone: 803-896-6104
Fax: 803-896-6198

The South Carolina Deaths, 1915-1943 collection at FamilySearch has death certificate images online. FamilySearch also has an online index to deaths for the years 1944-1955. The Family History Library collection includes death certificates 1915-1955. (FHL Collection Film beginning with 1913451).

Charleston and Georgetown both had some early death records.

Wiki articles describing online collections are found at:

Marriage Records


South Carolina did not require marriage licenses until July 1, 1911. The probate judge's office in the county courthouse holds licenses issued before 1950 and after October 2009. Statewide registration of marriages began in July 1950. Both The Division of Vital Records and the county probate court have copies of licenses issued after July 1, 1950 through November 2009.

During the colonial period, the governor, as judge of the Ordinary [Probate] Court could issue a marriage license. Some of these licenses have been found. Generally, most individuals would have been married in the parish chuch after banns had been published. The Act of 1704 and the Church Act of 1706 recognized the Church of England as the established church and the state was divided into seven parishes. Although the ministers of the "Dissenter" religions, everyone not a member of the Church of England, retained their right to baptize and marry, the law required the registrar of the parish to record all marriages. Not all marriages were reported to the parish registrar. This was the law until the Episcopal Church was disestablished in 1778 when South Carolina adopted a new Constitution. The dissenter religions may have kept their own records concurrently with the established church during the colonial period.[4] A few counties or cities may have earlier records than 1911. If they exist they would normally be in the custody of the county probate judge or in the South Carolina Department of Archives and History.

From the 1760s to the 1880s, some marriages were recorded in marriage settlements. These marriage settlements were legal "pre-marital agreements" primarily made by women who had been married previously to protect their property.[5] Somen of these marriages were recorded in deed books of various counties.[6] Most settlements are found in two microfilm collections, South Carolina Marriage Settlements and Miscellaneous Records of South Carolina both located at the South Carolina Department of Archives and History. The South Carolina Marriage Settlements are also at the Family History Library. FHL Collection How to order microfilm to a Family History Center. All of these marriage settlements have been transcribed and indexed in Barbara R. Langdon’s 7 volume set titled, South Carolina Marriages. 975.7 V2L vol.1-7  WorldCat

Some larger cities and counties have early marriage records. Charleston and Georgetown both had early marriage records.

  • Scott, Kenneth. "Some South Carolina Marriage Bonds, 1733," National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol. 63 (1975):176-180. FHL Book 973 B2ng v. 63 (1975).

After the law was passed mandating the recording of marriages in 1911, some residents who had been married in the 1890s and early 1900s came before authorities to have their marriages officially recorded.[3]

In many cases newspapers may need to serve as a substitute for a marriage record. Numerous South Carolina marriages have been abstracted from newspapers (see the “Newspapers” page). Of special note:

  • Holcomb, Brent H. South Carolina Marriages, 3 Volumes. (Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1984) (FHL book 975.7 V2hsc) This covers 1688 to 1820.
  • Salley, A.S. Marriage Notices in the South Carolina Gazette and Its Successors, 1732 - 1801. Albany, N.Y.: A.S. Salley, 1902. Digital version at World Vital Records ($).

Langdon's series of implied marriages is also a valuable substitute. See FamilySearch Catalog (Author Search for Barbara Langdon).

A wiki article describing an online collection is found at:

South Carolina Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)

Divorce Records


Divorce proceedings are kept by the county court. Divorce was illegal in South Carolina until 1949, and there are restrictions on the availability of the records. Write to the individual counties for information.

Adoption Records

Adoption records in South Carolina are confidential and sealed.  Adoption records are court records and the court where the adoption was finalized must be petitioned to open the adoption files.  For questions and help regarding adoption reunion, contact the South Carolina Adoption Reunion Registry. Adult adoptees, adoptive families, birth parents of the adoptee, or biological siblings to the adoptee can request non-identifying information or access to runion register services. 

Additional Helps

Tips

  • Information listed on vital records is given by and informant.  Learn the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) of the record.  The closer the relationship of the informant to the subject(s) and whether or not the informant was present at the time of the event can help determine the accuracy of the information found on the record.
  • If you are unable to locate vital records recorded by governments, search for church records of christening, marriage, death or burial.  Baptists did not keep marriage registers.  A family Bible may have been used to record births, marriages and deaths.
  • Records for African American may be recorded in separate files with separate indexes.
  • Privacy laws may restrict your access to some vital records.  Copies of some vital records recorded in the last 100 years may be unavailable to anyone except a direct relative.
  • Search for Vital Records in the Family History Library Catalog by using a Place Search and then choosing Vital Records.  Search for South Carolina to locate records filed by the States and then search the name of the county to locate records kept by the  county,


Fire.png
Lost and Missing Records

Abbebille 1873, Beaufort 1865, Chesterfield 1865, Clarendon 1911, Colleton 1805, 1865, Darlington 1806, Georgetown 1865, Lancaster 1865, Lexington 1939, 1865,Oranageburg 1865, Richland 1865, Sumpter 1801.

See individual county wiki pages for more information about record loss in that county.
For further information on researching in burned counties, see the following:


Substitute Records

South Carolina Church Records Depending on the denomination, church records may contain information about birth, marriage and death.

South Carolina Cemetery Records Cemetery records are a rich source of birth and death information.  These records may also reveal family relationships.

South Carolina Census Census records are a valuable source for birth and marriage information. You may also determine approximate time of death when the individual disappear from the census. This is a good place to begin a search.

South Carolina Military Records Military pension records can give birth, marriage and death information,  In addtion, soldiers' homes records can included this same information.

South Carolina Periodicals Local genealogical and historical societies often publish periodicals which may contain abstracted early birth, marriage and death information.

South Carolina Newspapers Besides obituaries, local newspapers may contain birth and marriage announcements and death notices.  Also check newspaper social columns for additional information. 

Probate Records: If no death record exists, probate records may be helpful in estimating when an individual has died. Probate records in the 20th Century often contain the exact death date. Implied marriages are also identified when fathers mention married daughters.

History:  Local histories, family histories and biographies can all be sources of birth, marriage and death information. Often this information is found in county-level records or in surname searches of the Family History Library catalog.


More Online South Carolina Vital Records Links

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 Ruth S. Green, Charles H. Lesser, Charles R. Lessor, "South Carolina Marriage Records," The South Carolina Historical Magazine 79, no. 2 (Apr 1978): 155-162.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 South Carolina Statutes at Large 12:264
  3. 3.0 3.1 Mike Becknell, "Overview of South Carolina Genealogical Research," Group Tour of the South Carolina Department of Archives and History, 10 May 2011.
  4. Theresa M. Hicks, South Carolina a Guide for Genealogists (Columbia, SC : South Carolina Genealogical Society, 2004) 132-33
  5. Echholz, Alice. Red Book. 3rd Ed. Provo, Utah: Ancestry, 2004.
  6. Holcomb, Brent. A Guide to South Carolina Genealogical Research and Records. Columbia, SC: Brent H. Holcomb, 1998.