Superintendencies of Indian Affairs

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Superintendents of Indian Affairs for a specific locality existed from approximately 1803 until 1878, when the last Superintendency was abolished. After 1878, agents of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] reported directly to the Commissioner's Office in Washington, DC, at least until the BIA created [[Area_Offices_of_the_Bureau_of_Indian_Affairs|Area Offices]].
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[American Indian Genealogy|American Indian Research]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Superintendencies of Indian Affairs|Superintendencies]]''
  
A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.  
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Superintendents of Indian Affairs for a specific locality existed from approximately 1803 until 1878, when the last Superintendency was abolished. After 1878, agents of the [[Bureau of Indian Affairs|Bureau of Indian Affairs]] reported directly to the Commissioner's Office in Washington, DC, at least until the BIA created [[Area Offices of the Bureau of Indian Affairs|Area Offices]].  
  
== The Superintendencies Listed Alphabetically  ==
+
A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. Records for Superintendencies exist in the [[National Archives and Records Administration|National Archives]] and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.
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=== Superintendent of Indian Trade,  ===
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====Records ====
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Arkansas Trading House, 1805-1810. M142. Letter Book {{FHL|276065|item}}, film: 1025157
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Choctaw Trading House, 1803-1824. T500. {{FHL|276330|item}}, film: 1025085-1025090
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Creek Trading House, 1795-1816. M4.  Letter Book {{FHL|Film: 1024433}}
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 +
Creek Factory of the Office of Indian Trade, 1795-1821. M1334.{{FHL|Film: 1605523}} (first film of thirteen)
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Natchitoches Sulphur Fork Factory, 1809-1821. T1029. {{FHL|276307|item}}, film: 1025158
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 +
== The Superintendencies, Listed Alphabetically  ==
 +
 
 +
==== [[Arizona Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arizona Superintendency]]  ====
 +
 
 +
:Established 1863; abolished 1873
  
==== [[Arizona Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arizona Superintendency]]  ====<br>
 
 
==== [[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1819; abolished 1834; to Western Superintendency
  
 
==== [[California Superintendency of Indian Affairs|California Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[California Superintendency of Indian Affairs|California Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1852; abolished 1873
  
 
==== [[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]]  ====
 +
 +
:Established 1851; abolished 1878; from St. Louis Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Colorado Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Colorado Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1861; abolished 1870
  
 
==== [[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]]  ====
 +
 +
:Established 1861; discontinued 1870; reestablished 1877; abolished 1878; from part of Central Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Florida Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Florida Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Florida Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Florida Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1824; abolished 1834
  
 
==== [[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1863; abolished 1870
  
 
==== [[Iowa Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Iowa Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Iowa Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Iowa Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1838; abolished 1846; to St. Louis Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]] <br> ====
 
==== [[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]] <br> ====
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 +
:Established 1805; abolished 1851; to Northern Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Minnesota Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Minnesota Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1849; abolished 1856; to Northern Superintendency
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==== Missouri Superintendency  ====
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 +
:Established 1813; abolished 1848; duties transferred to St. Louis Superintendency after 1851
  
 
==== [[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1864; abolished 1873
  
 
==== [[Nevada Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Nevada Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Nevada Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Nevada Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1861; abolished 1870
  
 
==== [[New Mexico Superintendency of Indian Affairs|New Mexico Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[New Mexico Superintendency of Indian Affairs|New Mexico Superintendency]]  ====
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:Established 1850; abolished 1874
  
 
==== [[Northern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Northern Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Northern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Northern Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1851; abolished 1876; from Michigan and Wisconsin Superintendencies
  
 
==== [[Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Oregon Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Oregon Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1848; abolished 1873
  
 
==== [[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]]  ====
 +
 +
:Established 1851; abolished 1870; from Western Superintendency
  
 
==== [[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1822; abolished 1851; to Central Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Utah Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Utah Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1850; abolished 1870
  
 
==== [[Washington Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Washington Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Washington Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Washington Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1853; abolished 1874
  
 
==== [[Western Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Western Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Western Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Western Superintendency]]  ====
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 +
:Established 1832; abolished 1851; to Southern Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Wisconsin Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wisconsin Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Wisconsin Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wisconsin Superintendency]]  ====
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:Established 1836; abolished 1848; to Northern Superintendency
  
 
==== [[Wyoming Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wyoming Superintendency]]  ====
 
==== [[Wyoming Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wyoming Superintendency]]  ====
  
== The Superintendencies Listed by Date of Creation  ==
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:Established 1869; abolished 1870
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== The Superintendencies, Listed by Date of Creation  ==
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The dates of the records listed in the following chart may extend beyond the date when the Superintendency was abolished. The Bureau of Indian Affairs occasionally filed correspondence under the name of the Superintendency even after it had ceased to operate. Pre-1824 correspondence was under the jurisdiction of the War Department.
  
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|-
 
|-
 
|  
 
|  
&nbsp;[[Arkansas_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Arkansas&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Superintendency]]&nbsp;
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Missouri Superintendency&nbsp;  
  
&nbsp;1824-1834
+
1813-1822
  
|  
+
| Existing records would be filed with the correspondence of the War Department
Tribes: Cherokee, [[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw,]] [[Osage Indians|Osage]], [[Shawnee Indians|Shawnee]], [[Caddo Indians|Caddo]] and [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]]  
+
| &nbsp;-
 
+
| &nbsp;-
1825 &amp; 1826 Quapaw removed to Caddo or Red River Agency  
+
| &nbsp;-
 +
| &nbsp;-
 +
|-
 +
| [[Arkansas Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arkansas Superintendency]] 1824-1834
 +
| Tribes: Cherokee, [[Quapaw Indians|Quapaw]], [[Choctaw Indians|Choctaw,]] [[Osage Indians|Osage]], [[Shawnee Indians|Shawnee]], [[Caddo Indians|Caddo]] and [[Delaware Indians|Delaware]]  
 +
1825-1826 Quapaw removed to Caddo or Red River Agency  
  
 
1834 Most Indians had been removed from Arkansas  
 
1834 Most Indians had been removed from Arkansas  
  
1834 Indians west of Arkansas were place under the new Western Superintendency (Cherokee, Choctaw, Quapaw and others)
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1834 Indians west of Arkansas were placed under the new Western Superintendency (Cherokee, Choctaw, Quapaw and others)
  
| -  
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| &nbsp;-  
| -  
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| &nbsp;-  
| -  
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| &nbsp;-  
| -
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| &nbsp;-
 
|-
 
|-
 +
| [[St. Louis Superintendency of Indian Affairs|St. Louis Superintendency]] 1822-1851
 
|  
 
|  
[[Florida_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Florida Superintendency]] 1824-1853
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| &nbsp;-
 
+
| &nbsp;-
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| &nbsp;-
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| &nbsp;-
 +
|-
 +
| [[Florida Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Florida Superintendency]] 1824-1853  
 
|  
 
|  
 
Tribes: [[Seminole Indians|Seminole]]  
 
Tribes: [[Seminole Indians|Seminole]]  
  
Agency: Seminole or Florida&nbsp;
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Agency: Seminole or Florida  
  
 
Subagency: Apalachicola
 
Subagency: Apalachicola
Line 103: Line 181:
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Michigan_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]] 1824-1851  
+
| [[Michigan Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Michigan Superintendency]] 1824-1851  
 
|  
 
|  
 
Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Winnebago, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee and Ottawa of Maumee  
 
Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Winnebago, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee and Ottawa of Maumee  
Line 109: Line 187:
 
1832-1834 The Six Nations of New York were attached to the Michigan Superintendency
 
1832-1834 The Six Nations of New York were attached to the Michigan Superintendency
  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| 75  
| &nbsp;M1  
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| M1  
| 1604649  
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| {{FHL| Film 1604649 }}
 
| 71 rolls
 
| 71 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Iowa_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Iowa Superintendency]] 1838-1849  
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| [[Iowa Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Iowa Superintendency]] 1838-1849  
 
|  
 
|  
 
Tribes Sac and Fox  
 
Tribes Sac and Fox  
Line 125: Line 203:
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Western_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Western Superintendency]] 1832-1851  
+
| [[Western Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Western Superintendency]] 1832-1851  
 
|  
 
|  
Tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Osage, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca&nbsp; and Shawnee, Quapaw, Seminole Chickasaw, Caddo, Kiowa Camanche and others  
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Tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Osage, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Seminole Chickasaw, Caddo, Kiowa Comanche and others  
  
1839 Chickaswa moved west - Oklahoma
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1839 Chickasaw moved west - Oklahoma
  
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| M640  
 
| M640  
| 1602871  
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| {{FHL|Film 1602871 }}
 
| 22
 
| 22
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Wisconsin_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Wisconsin Superintendency]] 1836-1848  
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| [[Wisconsin Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wisconsin Superintendency]] 1836-1848  
 
|  
 
|  
Tribes: Sauk and Fox, Winnebago, Chippewa, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee,&nbsp;Sioux and &nbsp;Iowa&nbsp;
+
Tribes: Sauk and Fox, Winnebago, Chippewa, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee, Sioux and Iowa
  
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| 75  
 
| M951  
 
| M951  
| 1618086  
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| {{FHL| Film 1618086 }}
 
| 4 rolls
 
| 4 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[California_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|California Superintendency]] 1849-1880  
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| [[California Superintendency of Indian Affairs|California Superintendency]] 1849-1880  
 
|  
 
|  
Tribes: Tejon, Tule (Tularenos) Mono, Kern River (Tubatulabal), Wikchamni, Nomelaki, Kings River, Fresno, Kawia, Nuimok,&nbsp; Noi-sas, Wailaki, Yupu, Yuki, Klamath, Hupa, Saia, Mattole, Pit River, Redwood (Whilkut), Wappo, Yokaia (Ukiah), Kianamaras, Pomo, Salan Pomo (Potter), Concow (Konkau) and Mission Indians.
+
Tribes: Tejon, Tule (Tularenos) Mono, Kern River (Tubatulabal), Wikchamni, Nomelaki, Kings River, Fresno, Kawia, Nuimok, Noi-sas, Wailaki, Yupu, Yuki, Klamath, Hupa, Saia, Mattole, Pit River, Redwood (Whilkut), Wappo, Yokaia (Ukiah), Kianamaras, Pomo, Salan Pomo (Potter), Concow (Konkau) and Mission Indians.
  
 
| -  
 
| -  
Line 154: Line 232:
 
| -
 
| -
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Minnesota_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Minnesota Superintendency]] 1849-1856  
+
| [[Minnesota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Minnesota Superintendency]] 1849-1856  
 
| Tribes: Sioux, Chippewa, Winnebago, Assiniboin and Mandan  
 
| Tribes: Sioux, Chippewa, Winnebago, Assiniboin and Mandan  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| 75  
 
| M872 / 842  
 
| M872 / 842  
| 1618093
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| {{FHL| Film1618093 }}
 
| 9 rolls
 
| 9 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[New_Mexico_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|New Mexico Superintendency]] 1849-1880
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| [[Oregon Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Oregon Superintendency]] 1848-1880  
| Tribes: Navajo, Southern Apache, Utrah (Ute), Abiquiu (Ute and Jicarilla Apache), Conejos (Tabaquache Ute) Pueblo, Tuscon (Pima, Papago, Maricopa and Apache), Cimarron (Jicarilla Apache and Moache Ute) and Mescalero&nbsp;
+
| Tribes: Umpqua, Umatilla, Cayuse, Wallawalla, Wasco. Shoshoni (Snake), Kalapuya, Clackamas, Rogue River, Warm Springs, Shasta, Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, Tenion, Nez Perce, Molala, Yamel, Joshua, Sixes (Kwatami), Chastacosta, Chetco and Bannock  
| &nbsp; 75
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| 75  
| T21
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| 1617620
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| 30 rolls
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|-
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| [[Oregon_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Oregon Superintendency]] 1842-1880  
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| Tribes: Umpaqua, Umitilla, Caysue, Wallawalla, Wasco. Shoshoni (Snake), Kalapuya, Clackamas, Rogue River, Warm Springs, Shasta, Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, Tenion, Nez Perce, Molala, Yamel, Joshua, Sixes (Kwatami), Chastacosta, Chetco and Bannock  
+
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| M2  
 
| M2  
| 1617787  
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| {{FHL|Film 1617787 }}
 
| 29 rolls
 
| 29 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Utah_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Utah Superintendency]] 1849-1880  
+
| [[New Mexico Superintendency of Indian Affairs|New Mexico Superintendency]] 1849-1880
 +
| Tribes: Navajo, Southern Apache, Utah (Ute), Abiquiu (Ute and Jicarilla Apache), Conejos (Tabaquache Ute) Pueblo, Tucson (Pima, Papago, Maricopa and Apache), Cimarron (Jicarilla Apache and Moache Ute) and Mescalero
 +
| 75
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| T21
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| {{FHL|Film 1617620 }}
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| 30 rolls
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|-
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| [[Utah Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Utah Superintendency]] 1849-1880  
 
|  
 
|  
1853-1870&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Tribes: Ute, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute and Washo
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Tribes: Ute, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute and Washo  
  
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| M834  
 
| M834  
| 1025139  
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| {{FHL|Film 1025139 }}
 
| 2 rolls
 
| 2 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Central_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Central Superintendency]] 1813,1851-1880  
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| [[Central Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Central Superintendency]] 1813,1851-1880  
| Tribes: Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, Kickapoo, Kansa, Sauk and Fox (of Mississippi and Missouri), Iowa, Patawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, Munsee, Peoria, Wea, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw, Miami, Oto, Missouri, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Kowa, Apache (Kiowa-Apache), Camanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux and others  
+
| Tribes: Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, Kickapoo, Kansa, Sauk and Fox (of Mississippi and Missouri), Iowa, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, Munsee, Peoria, Wea, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw, Miami, Oto, Missouri, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Kowa, Apache (Kiowa-Apache), Comanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux and others  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| 75  
 
| M856  
 
| M856  
| 1602893  
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| {{FHL|Film 1602893 }}
 
| 108 rolls
 
| 108 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Northern_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Northern Superintendency]] 1851-1876  
+
| [[Northern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Northern Superintendency]] 1851-1876  
 
|  
 
|  
Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Mackinac, Omaha, Pawnee, Otoe (Oto and Missouri Indians), Great Nemaha (Sauk and Fox of Missiour and Iowa) and&nbsp;Winnebago&nbsp;  
+
Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Mackinac, Omaha, Pawnee, Otoe (Oto and Missouri Indians), Great Nemaha (Sauk and Fox of Missouri and Iowa) and&nbsp;Winnebago&nbsp;  
  
 
1863 many of the Winnebago and Sioux Indians moved to Dakota Territory
 
1863 many of the Winnebago and Sioux Indians moved to Dakota Territory
  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| M1166  
 
| M1166  
| 1490921  
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| {{FHL|Film 1490921 }}
 
| 35 rolls
 
| 35 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Southern_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Southern Superintendency]] 1851-1871  
+
| [[Southern Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Southern Superintendency]] 1851-1871  
 
|  
 
|  
 
Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, Quapaw, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, and Osage Indians of southern Kansas, Wichita and Kichai.  
 
Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, Quapaw, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, and Osage Indians of southern Kansas, Wichita and Kichai.  
  
In 1859 Caddo, Anadarko, Waco Thokawa, Hainai, Kichai, Tawakoni, Delaware, Shawnee and Comanche Indians were moved from Texas to Wichita Agency in Indian Territory  
+
In 1859 Caddo, Anadarko, Waco Tonkawa, Hainai, Kichai, Tawakoni, Delaware, Shawnee and Comanche Indians were moved from Texas to Wichita Agency in Indian Territory  
  
 
1861-1864 Indians loyal to U.S. fled to Kansas, after the Civil War the Indians began to return to Indian territory.
 
1861-1864 Indians loyal to U.S. fled to Kansas, after the Civil War the Indians began to return to Indian territory.
  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| M640  
 
| M640  
| 1602878  
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| {{FHL|Film 1602878 }}
 
| 22 rolls
 
| 22 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Washington_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Washington Superintendency]] 1853-1880  
+
| [[Washington Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Washington Superintendency]] 1853-1880  
| Tribes: Makah, Skokomish, Yakima, Colville, Puyallup, Tulalip, Nisqualli, Nez perce, Flathead, Spokan, Pend d'Oreille, Cayuse, Paloos, Wallawalla, Quinaielt, Blackfeet, Chehalix, Chilkat, Chinook, Clackamas, Clallam, Lake, Klikitat, Coeur d'Alene, Cowlitz. Dwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot, Quileute, Quaitso (Queet), Squaxon and Swinomish  
+
| Tribes: Makah, Skokomish, Yakima, Colville, Puyallup, Tulalip, Nisqualli, Nez Perce, Flathead, Spokan, Pend d'Oreille, Cayuse, Paloos, Wallawalla, Quinaielt, Blackfeet, Chehalix, Chilkat, Chinook, Clackamas, Clallam, Lake, Klikitat, Coeur d'Alene, Cowlitz. Dwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot, Quileute, Quaitso (Queet), Squaxon and Swinomish  
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| M5  
 
| M5  
| 1637277  
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| {{FHL|Film 1637277 }}
 
| 26 rolls
 
| 26 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Colorado_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]] 1861-1880  
+
| [[Colorado Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Colorado Superintendency]] 1861-1880  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
 
|  
Line 229: Line 307:
 
|  
 
|  
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Dakota_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]] 1861-1880  
+
| [[Dakota Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Dakota Superintendency]] 1861-1880  
 
| Bands of Sioux: Hunkpapa, Oglala, Yankton, Blackfee, Brule, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Yanktonai, San Arcs, Miniconjou, Two Kettles (Oohenonpa), Cut Head (Pabaska) and Santee  
 
| Bands of Sioux: Hunkpapa, Oglala, Yankton, Blackfee, Brule, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Yanktonai, San Arcs, Miniconjou, Two Kettles (Oohenonpa), Cut Head (Pabaska) and Santee  
| &nbsp; 75  
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| 75  
 
| M1016  
 
| M1016  
| 1549631  
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| {{FHL|Film 1549631 }}
 
| 13 rolls
 
| 13 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Idaho_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]] 1863-1880  
+
| [[Nevada Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Nevada Superintendency]] 1861-1880
 +
|
 +
| 75
 +
| M0837
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| {{FHL|Film 1637276 }}
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| 1 roll
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|-
 +
| [[Idaho Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Idaho Superintendency]] 1863-1880  
 
| Tribes: Nez Perce, Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille and Spokan  
 
| Tribes: Nez Perce, Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille and Spokan  
| &nbsp; 75  
+
| 75  
 
| M832  
 
| M832  
| 1580047  
+
| {{FHL|Film 1580047 }}
 
| 3 rolls
 
| 3 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Montana_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Montana Superintendency]] 1864-1880  
+
| [[Arizona Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Arizona Superintendency]] 1863-1880  
| Tribes:&nbsp; Blackfeet, Piegan, Blood (Kainah), Grosventre, Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille, Crow, Assiniboin and Bands of Sioux  
+
| Tribes:Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Tame Apache, Papago, Yavapai, Walapai, Havasupai, Mojave, Yuma, Moqui Pueblo&nbsp;and Scattered Apache
| &nbsp; 75  
+
| 75
 +
| M734
 +
| {{FHL|Film 1694796 }}
 +
| 8 rolls
 +
|-
 +
| [[Montana Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Montana Superintendency]] 1864-1880
 +
| Tribes: Blackfeet, Piegan, Blood (Kainah), Grosventre, Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille, Crow, Assiniboin and Bands of Sioux  
 +
| 75  
 
| M833  
 
| M833  
| 1618090  
+
| {{FHL|Film 1618090 }}
 
| 3 rolls
 
| 3 rolls
 
|-
 
|-
| [[Nevada_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Nevada Superintendency]] 1861-1880
+
| [[Wyoming Superintendency of Indian Affairs|Wyoming Superintendency]] 1869-1880  
|
+
| &nbsp; 75
+
| M0837
+
| 1637276
+
| 1 roll
+
|-
+
| [[Wyoming_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Wyoming Superintendency]] 1869-1880  
+
 
| Tribes: Eastern Shoshoni, Bannock, Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux  
 
| Tribes: Eastern Shoshoni, Bannock, Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux  
| &nbsp; 75  
+
| 75  
 
| M1016  
 
| M1016  
| 1549631  
+
| {{FHL|Film 1549631 }}
 
| 13 rolls
 
| 13 rolls
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|
 
[[Arizona_Superintendency_of_Indian_Affairs|Arizona Superintendency]] 1863-1880
 
 
| Tribes:Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Tame Apache, Papago, Yavapai, Walapai, Havasupai, Mojave, Yuma, Moqui Pueble&nbsp;and Scattered Apache
 
| &nbsp; 75
 
| M734
 
| 1694796
 
| 8 rolls
 
|-
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
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Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 
Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC. [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~texlance/records/bia(dc)intro.htm Available online]  
 +
 +
 +
{{American Indian}}
  
 
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]
 
[[Category:Indians_of_the_United_States]]

Revision as of 23:51, 14 September 2011

United States Gotoarrow.png American Indian Research Gotoarrow.png Bureau of Indian Affairs Gotoarrow.png Superintendencies

Superintendents of Indian Affairs for a specific locality existed from approximately 1803 until 1878, when the last Superintendency was abolished. After 1878, agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs reported directly to the Commissioner's Office in Washington, DC, at least until the BIA created Area Offices.

A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.

Contents

Superintendent of Indian Trade,

Records

Arkansas Trading House, 1805-1810. M142. Letter Book FHL Collection, film: 1025157

Choctaw Trading House, 1803-1824. T500. FHL Collection, film: 1025085-1025090 Creek Trading House, 1795-1816. M4. Letter Book FHL Film: 1024433

Creek Factory of the Office of Indian Trade, 1795-1821. M1334.FHL Film: 1605523 (first film of thirteen)

Natchitoches Sulphur Fork Factory, 1809-1821. T1029. FHL Collection, film: 1025158

The Superintendencies, Listed Alphabetically

Arizona Superintendency

Established 1863; abolished 1873

Arkansas Superintendency

Established 1819; abolished 1834; to Western Superintendency

California Superintendency

Established 1852; abolished 1873

Central Superintendency

Established 1851; abolished 1878; from St. Louis Superintendency

Colorado Superintendency

Established 1861; abolished 1870

Dakota Superintendency

Established 1861; discontinued 1870; reestablished 1877; abolished 1878; from part of Central Superintendency

Florida Superintendency

Established 1824; abolished 1834

Idaho Superintendency

Established 1863; abolished 1870

Iowa Superintendency

Established 1838; abolished 1846; to St. Louis Superintendency

Michigan Superintendency

Established 1805; abolished 1851; to Northern Superintendency

Minnesota Superintendency

Established 1849; abolished 1856; to Northern Superintendency

Missouri Superintendency

Established 1813; abolished 1848; duties transferred to St. Louis Superintendency after 1851

Montana Superintendency

Established 1864; abolished 1873

Nevada Superintendency

Established 1861; abolished 1870

New Mexico Superintendency

Established 1850; abolished 1874

Northern Superintendency

Established 1851; abolished 1876; from Michigan and Wisconsin Superintendencies

Oregon Superintendency

Established 1848; abolished 1873

Southern Superintendency

Established 1851; abolished 1870; from Western Superintendency

St. Louis Superintendency

Established 1822; abolished 1851; to Central Superintendency

Utah Superintendency

Established 1850; abolished 1870

Washington Superintendency

Established 1853; abolished 1874

Western Superintendency

Established 1832; abolished 1851; to Southern Superintendency

Wisconsin Superintendency

Established 1836; abolished 1848; to Northern Superintendency

Wyoming Superintendency

Established 1869; abolished 1870

The Superintendencies, Listed by Date of Creation

The dates of the records listed in the following chart may extend beyond the date when the Superintendency was abolished. The Bureau of Indian Affairs occasionally filed correspondence under the name of the Superintendency even after it had ceased to operate. Pre-1824 correspondence was under the jurisdiction of the War Department.

State

Chronological

Records

Record

Group

NARA# FHLC First Film Rolls

Missouri Superintendency 

1813-1822

Existing records would be filed with the correspondence of the War Department  -  -  -  -
Arkansas Superintendency 1824-1834 Tribes: Cherokee, Quapaw, Choctaw, Osage, Shawnee, Caddo and Delaware

1825-1826 Quapaw removed to Caddo or Red River Agency

1834 Most Indians had been removed from Arkansas

1834 Indians west of Arkansas were placed under the new Western Superintendency (Cherokee, Choctaw, Quapaw and others)

 -  -  -  -
St. Louis Superintendency 1822-1851  -  -  -  -
Florida Superintendency 1824-1853

Tribes: Seminole

Agency: Seminole or Florida

Subagency: Apalachicola

- - - -
Michigan Superintendency 1824-1851

Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Winnebago, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee and Ottawa of Maumee

1832-1834 The Six Nations of New York were attached to the Michigan Superintendency

75 M1 FHL Film 1604649 71 rolls
Iowa Superintendency 1838-1849

Tribes Sac and Fox

1845 Sauk and Fox moved to the Osage River west of Missouri (now Kansas).

- - - -
Western Superintendency 1832-1851

Tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Osage, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Seminole Chickasaw, Caddo, Kiowa Comanche and others

1839 Chickasaw moved west - Oklahoma

75 M640 FHL Film 1602871 22
Wisconsin Superintendency 1836-1848

Tribes: Sauk and Fox, Winnebago, Chippewa, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee, Sioux and Iowa

75 M951 FHL Film 1618086 4 rolls
California Superintendency 1849-1880

Tribes: Tejon, Tule (Tularenos) Mono, Kern River (Tubatulabal), Wikchamni, Nomelaki, Kings River, Fresno, Kawia, Nuimok, Noi-sas, Wailaki, Yupu, Yuki, Klamath, Hupa, Saia, Mattole, Pit River, Redwood (Whilkut), Wappo, Yokaia (Ukiah), Kianamaras, Pomo, Salan Pomo (Potter), Concow (Konkau) and Mission Indians.

- - - -
Minnesota Superintendency 1849-1856 Tribes: Sioux, Chippewa, Winnebago, Assiniboin and Mandan 75 M872 / 842 FHL Film1618093 9 rolls
Oregon Superintendency 1848-1880 Tribes: Umpqua, Umatilla, Cayuse, Wallawalla, Wasco. Shoshoni (Snake), Kalapuya, Clackamas, Rogue River, Warm Springs, Shasta, Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, Tenion, Nez Perce, Molala, Yamel, Joshua, Sixes (Kwatami), Chastacosta, Chetco and Bannock 75 M2 FHL Film 1617787 29 rolls
New Mexico Superintendency 1849-1880 Tribes: Navajo, Southern Apache, Utah (Ute), Abiquiu (Ute and Jicarilla Apache), Conejos (Tabaquache Ute) Pueblo, Tucson (Pima, Papago, Maricopa and Apache), Cimarron (Jicarilla Apache and Moache Ute) and Mescalero 75 T21 FHL Film 1617620 30 rolls
Utah Superintendency 1849-1880
Tribes: Ute, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute and Washo 
75 M834 FHL Film 1025139 2 rolls
Central Superintendency 1813,1851-1880 Tribes: Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, Kickapoo, Kansa, Sauk and Fox (of Mississippi and Missouri), Iowa, Potawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, Munsee, Peoria, Wea, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw, Miami, Oto, Missouri, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Kowa, Apache (Kiowa-Apache), Comanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux and others 75 M856 FHL Film 1602893 108 rolls
Northern Superintendency 1851-1876

Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Mackinac, Omaha, Pawnee, Otoe (Oto and Missouri Indians), Great Nemaha (Sauk and Fox of Missouri and Iowa) and Winnebago 

1863 many of the Winnebago and Sioux Indians moved to Dakota Territory

75 M1166 FHL Film 1490921 35 rolls
Southern Superintendency 1851-1871

Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, Quapaw, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, and Osage Indians of southern Kansas, Wichita and Kichai.

In 1859 Caddo, Anadarko, Waco Tonkawa, Hainai, Kichai, Tawakoni, Delaware, Shawnee and Comanche Indians were moved from Texas to Wichita Agency in Indian Territory

1861-1864 Indians loyal to U.S. fled to Kansas, after the Civil War the Indians began to return to Indian territory.

75 M640 FHL Film 1602878 22 rolls
Washington Superintendency 1853-1880 Tribes: Makah, Skokomish, Yakima, Colville, Puyallup, Tulalip, Nisqualli, Nez Perce, Flathead, Spokan, Pend d'Oreille, Cayuse, Paloos, Wallawalla, Quinaielt, Blackfeet, Chehalix, Chilkat, Chinook, Clackamas, Clallam, Lake, Klikitat, Coeur d'Alene, Cowlitz. Dwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot, Quileute, Quaitso (Queet), Squaxon and Swinomish 75 M5 FHL Film 1637277 26 rolls
Colorado Superintendency 1861-1880
Dakota Superintendency 1861-1880 Bands of Sioux: Hunkpapa, Oglala, Yankton, Blackfee, Brule, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Yanktonai, San Arcs, Miniconjou, Two Kettles (Oohenonpa), Cut Head (Pabaska) and Santee 75 M1016 FHL Film 1549631 13 rolls
Nevada Superintendency 1861-1880 75 M0837 FHL Film 1637276 1 roll
Idaho Superintendency 1863-1880 Tribes: Nez Perce, Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille and Spokan 75 M832 FHL Film 1580047 3 rolls
Arizona Superintendency 1863-1880 Tribes:Pima, Papago, Maricopa, Tame Apache, Papago, Yavapai, Walapai, Havasupai, Mojave, Yuma, Moqui Pueblo and Scattered Apache 75 M734 FHL Film 1694796 8 rolls
Montana Superintendency 1864-1880 Tribes: Blackfeet, Piegan, Blood (Kainah), Grosventre, Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille, Crow, Assiniboin and Bands of Sioux 75 M833 FHL Film 1618090 3 rolls
Wyoming Superintendency 1869-1880 Tribes: Eastern Shoshoni, Bannock, Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux 75 M1016 FHL Film 1549631 13 rolls

References

Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Press, [1974].

Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington [District of Columbia]: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.

Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC. Available online