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Superintendents of Indian Affairs for a specific locality existed from approximately 1803 until 1878, when the last Superintendency was abolished. After 1878, agents of the Bureau of Indian Affairs reported directly to the Commissioner's Office in Washington, DC.
A Superintendent of Indian Affairs was an administrator, communicating and overseeing the agents who worked directly with individual tribes. It was the responsibility of the superintendent to see that the agents were following official government policy. Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.
Chart of Superintendencies Listed by Date of Creation
|NARA#||FHLC First Film||Rolls|
|Arkansa Superintendency 1824-1834||
Tribes: Cherokee, Quapaw, Choctaw, Osage, Shawnee, Caddo and Delaware
1825 & 1826 Quapaw removed to Caddo or Red River Agency
1834 Most Indians had bee removed from Arkansas
1834 Indians west of Arkansas were place under the new Western Superintendency (Cherokee, Choctaw, Quapaw and others)
Florida Superintendency 1824-1853
Agency: Seminole or Florida
|Michigan Superintendency 1824-1851||
Tribes: Cihippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Winnebago, Wyandot, Seneca, Shawnee, Delaware, Miami, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee and Ottawa of Maumee
1832-1834 The Six Nations of New York were attached to the Michigan Superintendency
|Iowa Superindency 1838-1849||
Tribes Sac and Fox
1845 Sauk and Fox moved to the Osage River west of Missouri (now Kansas).
|Western Superindency 1832-1851||
Tribes: Choctaw, Cherokee, Creek, Osage, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, Quapaw, Seminole Chickasaw, Caddo, Kiowa Camanche and others
1839 Chickaswa moved west - Oklahoma
|Wisconsin Superindency 1836-1848||
Tribes: Sauk and Fox, Winnebago, Chippewa, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Munsee, Sioux and Iowa
|California Superindency 1849-1880||
Tribes: Tejon, Tule (Tularenos) Mono, Kern River (Tubatulabal), Wikchamni, Nomelaki, Kings River, Fresno, Kawia, Nuimok, Noi-sas, Wailaki, Yupu, Yuki, Klamath, Hupa, Saia, Mattole, Pit River, Redwood (Whilkut), Wappo, Yokaia (Ukiah), Kianamaras, Pomo, Salan Pomo (Potter), Concow (Konkau) and mission Indians.
|Minnesota Superindency 1849-1856||Tribes: Sioux, Chippewa, Winnebago, Assiniboin and Mandan||75||M872||1618093||9 rolls|
|New Mexico Superindency 1849-1880||Tribes: Navajo, Southern Apache, Utrah (Ute), Abiquiu (Ute and Jicarilla Apache), Conejos (Tabaquache Ute) Pueblo, Tuscon (Pima, Papago, Maricopa and Apache), Cimarron (Jicarilla Apache and Moache Ute) and Mescalero||75||T21||1617620||30 rolls|
|Oregon Superindency 1842-1880||Tribes: Umpaqua, Umitilla, Caysue, Wallawalla, Wasco. Shoshoni (Snake), Kalapuya, Clackamas, Rogue River, Warm Springs, Shasta, Klamath, Modoc, Paiute, Tenion, Nez Perce, Molala, Yamel, Joshua, Sixes (Kwatami), Chastacosta, Chetco and Bannock||75||M2||1617787||29 rolls|
|Utah Superindency 1849-1880||
1853-1870 Tribes: Ute, Shoshoni, Bannock, Paiute and Washo
|Central Superindency 1813,1851-1880||Tribes: Delaware, Shawnee, Wyandot, Kickapoo, Kansa, Sauk and Fox (of Mississippi and Missouri), Iowa, Patawatomi, Chippewa, Ottawa, Munsee, Peoria, Wea, Kaskaskia, Piankeshaw, Miami, Oto, Missouri, Omaha, Pawnee, Ponca, Kowa, Apache (Kiowa-Apache), Camanche, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and Sioux and others||75||M856||1602893||108 rolls|
|Northern Superindency 1851-1876||
Tribes: Chippewa, Ottawa, Potawatomi, Menominee, Oneida, Stockbridge, Mackinac, Omaha, Pawnee, Otoe (Oto and Missouri Indians), Great Nemaha (Sauk and Fox of Missiour and Iowa) and Winnebago
1863 many of the Winnebago and Sioux Indians moved to Dakota Territory
|Southern Superindency 1851-1871||
Tribes: Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole, Quapaw, Seneca and Mixed Band of Seneca and Shawnee, and Osage Indians of southern Kansas, Wichita and Kichai.
In 1859 Caddo, Anadarko, Waco thokawa, Hainai, Kichai, tawakoni, Delaware, Shawnee and Comanche Indians were moved from Texas to Wichita Agency in Indian Territory
1861-1864 Indians loyal to U.S. fled to Kansas, after the Civil War the Indians began to return to Indian territory.
|Washington Superindency 1853-1880||Tribes: Makah, Skokomish, Yakima, Colville, Puyallup, tulalip, Nisqualli, Nez perce, Flathead, Spokan, Pend d'Oreille, Cayuse, Paloos, Wallawalla, Quinaielt, Blackfeet, Chehalix, Chilkat, Chinook, Clackamas, Clallam, Lake, Klikitat, Coeur d'Alene, Cowlitz. Dwamish, Lummi, Muckleshoot, Quileute, Quaitso (Queet), Squaxon and Swinomish||75||M5||1637277||26 rolls|
|Colorado Superindency 1861-1880|
|Dakota Superindency 1861-1880||Bands of Sioux: Hunkpapa, Oglala, Yankton, Blackfee, Brule, Sisseton, Wahpeton, Yanktonai, San Arcs, Miniconjou, Two Kettles (Oohenonpa), Cut head (Pabaska) and Santee||75||M1016||1549631||13 rolls|
|Idaho Superindency 1863-1880||Tribes: Nez Perce, Shoshone, Bannock, Coeur d'Alene, Kutenai, pend d'Oreille and Spokan||75||M832||1580047||3 rolls|
|Montana Superindency 1864-1880||Tribes: Blackfeet, Piegan, Blood (Kainah), Grosventre, Flathead, Kutenai, Pend d'Oreille, Crow, Assiniboin and bands of Sioux||75||M833||1618090||3 rolls|
|Nevada Superindency 1861-1880||75||M0837||1637276||1 roll|
|Wyoming Superindency 1869-1880||Tribes: Eastern Shoshoni, Bannock, Arapaho, Cheyenne and Sioux||75||M1016||1549631||13 rolls|
Arizona Superindency 1863-1880
|Tribes:Pima, Papago, Maricopa, tame Apache, Papago, Yavapai, Walapai, Havasupai, Mojave, Yuma, Moqui Pueble and scattered Apache||75||M734||1694796||8 rolls|
Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches. New York, New York: Clearwater Press, .
Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington [District of Columbia]: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.
Historical Sketches for Jurisdictional and Subject Headings Used for the Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880. National Archives Microcopy T1105.
Preliminary Inventory No. 163: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Washington, DC. Available online