United States Census 1850

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''[[United States|United States ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Census|U.S. Census ]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]]  [[United States Census 1850|1850 Census]]''  
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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Census|U.S. Census]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[United States Census 1850|1850 Census]]''  
  
 
== Indexes and Images  ==
 
== Indexes and Images  ==
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Also, there are articles about the [[United States Census Mortality Schedule, 1850 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|1850 mortality schedule indexes]], and [[United States Census Slave Schedule, 1850 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|1850 slave owner schedule indexes]] free online as part of FamilySearch Record Search. Ancestry.com has those mortality and slave owner indexes and images online for a subscription fee.  
 
Also, there are articles about the [[United States Census Mortality Schedule, 1850 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|1850 mortality schedule indexes]], and [[United States Census Slave Schedule, 1850 (FamilySearch Historical Records)|1850 slave owner schedule indexes]] free online as part of FamilySearch Record Search. Ancestry.com has those mortality and slave owner indexes and images online for a subscription fee.  
 +
 +
A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census can be viewed on the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1401638 FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site]. This index includes every name listed on the census and is linked to an image including information about each person’s residence and age in 1850, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.
  
 
For more details, see individual state census Wiki pages. For tips if the first census index search does not work, see the [[United States Census Searching]] Wiki page.  
 
For more details, see individual state census Wiki pages. For tips if the first census index search does not work, see the [[United States Census Searching]] Wiki page.  
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== Contents  ==
 
== Contents  ==
  
1850 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1850, for&nbsp;five months. The following information was recorded by the census taker:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Name<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Age<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Sex<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Color<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Occupation males over 15<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Value of real estate<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Birthplace—territory of country of birth<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Attended school or married in the year?<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;If over 20—could read/write?<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Deaf-mute, blind, insane, or idiotic?<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Fugitive from state?<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;'''SLAVE SCHEDULES:'''<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Name of slave owner<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;# of slaves owned<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;# of slaves manumitted (released from slavery)<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; NO NAME OF SLAVES<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Age, color, sex<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Deaf-mute, blind, insane, idiotic?<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; Fugitive from state?<br>
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The 1850 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1850, for five months. The following information was recorded by the census taker:
 +
 
 +
'''Population Schedules'''
 +
 
 +
*Name
 +
*Age
 +
*Sex
 +
*Color
 +
*Occupation males over 15
 +
*Value of real estate
 +
*Birthplace—territory of country of birth
 +
*Attended school or married in the year?
 +
*If over 20—could read/write?
 +
*Deaf-mute, blind, insane, or idiotic?
 +
*Fugitive from state?
 +
 
 +
'''Slave Schedules'''
 +
 
 +
*Name of slave owner
 +
*Number of slaves owned
 +
* Number of slaves manumitted (released from slavery)
 +
*NO NAME OF SLAVES
 +
*Age, color, sex
 +
*Deaf-mute, blind, insane, idiotic?
 +
*Fugitive from state?  
  
 
1790-2000 Info: [http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf]  
 
1790-2000 Info: [http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf]  
  
== &nbsp;Value  ==
+
== Value  ==
  
The 1850 census can be used to:<sup>1</sup>
+
The 1850 census can be used to:
  
&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Find free population/slave pop. &amp; mortality, agriculture, industry data<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Identify families by name<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Identify birthplaces which helps w/immigration<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Identify ages —go to vital records<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;Identify Real estate—land and tax records<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Identifly probable relationships—be careful!<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Identify occupations/property value<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Identify possible remarriages/step relationships<br>1850-1930&nbsp;Search Tips:&nbsp;&nbsp;[http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html&nbsp;]
+
*Find free population/slave pop. &amp; mortality, agriculture, industry data
 +
*Identify families by name
 +
*Identify birthplaces which helps w/immigration
 +
*Identify ages —go to vital records
 +
*Identify Real estate—land and tax records
 +
*Identify probable relationships—be careful!
 +
*Identify occupations/property value
 +
*Identify possible remarriages/step relationships
  
== &nbsp;Unique Features and Problems  ==
+
1850-1930 Search Tips: [http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html]
  
1.&nbsp;&nbsp;Census takers were given more instructions and guidelines in print<br>2.&nbsp; First census to list names of all in the household<br>3.&nbsp; First to list ages, sex, color, &amp; place of birth<br>4.&nbsp; Census taken in order of visitation<br>5.&nbsp; Listed those married within the year<br>6.&nbsp; Listed those who died after 1 June<br>7.&nbsp; Dwelling house number<br>8.&nbsp; Real estate value<br>9.&nbsp; Occupation of males over 16<br>10. Whether a fugitive of the state<br>11. Though it still did not list slave names, it listed more information about the slaves<br>12. Listed heath or lifestyle issues: “Deaf, dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper or convict”<br>13. Omitted children born after 1 June (even if the census taker took it later)<br>14. Indians that lived on reservations or unsettles tracts of land were not included.<br>15. Make count by personal inquiry at every dwelling<br>16. Enumerator to make 2 additional copies:<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;- Clerk of county court<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;- Secretary of state/territory<br>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;- Census Office<br>17. No Indians in reservations or unsettled land
+
== Unique Features and Problems  ==
  
== States Covered and Missing  ==
+
#Census takers were given more instructions and guidelines in print
 +
#First census to list names of all in the household
 +
#First to list ages, sex, color, &amp; place of birth
 +
#Census taken in order of visitation
 +
#Listed those married within the year
 +
#Listed those who died after 1 June
 +
#Dwelling house number
 +
#Real estate value
 +
#Occupation of males over 16
 +
#Whether a fugitive of the state
 +
#Though it still did not list slave names, it listed more information about the slaves
 +
#Listed heath or lifestyle issues: “Deaf, dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper or convict”
 +
#Omitted children born after 1 June (even if the census taker took it later)
 +
#Indians that lived on reservations or unsettles tracts of land were not included.
 +
#Make count by personal inquiry at every dwelling
 +
#Enumerator to make 2 additional copies:
 +
##Clerk of county court
 +
##Secretary of state/territory
 +
#No Indians in reservations or unsettled land
  
'''''1850 United States Census—'''''A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census can be viewed on the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1401638 FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site]. This index includes every name listed on the census and is linked to an image including information about each person’s residence and age in 1850, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.
+
== States and Territories Covered ==
 +
 
 +
'''States'''
  
 
*Alabama  
 
*Alabama  
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*Mississippi  
 
*Mississippi  
 
*New Hampshire  
 
*New Hampshire  
*New Jersey<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1213890973770_620" />
+
*New Jersey  
 
*New York  
 
*New York  
 
*North Carolina  
 
*North Carolina  
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*Wisconsin
 
*Wisconsin
  
&nbsp;'''No states missing.'''  
+
'''Territories'''
 
+
== Territories  ==
+
  
 
*Minnesota (inc. Dakotas)  
 
*Minnesota (inc. Dakotas)  
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*Utah
 
*Utah
  
== Web Sites <br>  ==
+
== Missing Records ==
  
'''United States Censuses 1850-1920'''—Free Internet census indexes and images to the [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#c=1401638;p=collectionDetails;t=searchable 1850], [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#c=1473181;p=collectionDetails;t=searchable 1860], [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#c=1438024;p=collectionDetails;t=searchable 1870], [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#c=1417683;p=collectionDetails;t=searchable 1880 (index only)], [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1325221 1900], and [http://pilot.familysearch.org/recordsearch/start.html#p=collectionDetails;t=searchable;c=1488411 1920 (partial index only)] can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search. These indexes show every name listed on the census and except for 1880 and 1920 are also linked to census images including information about each person’s residence, age, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.
+
*'''No States Missing'''
  
1790-2000 Info: [http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf]
+
== Where to Find the Records ==
  
1850-1930&nbsp;Search Tips: [http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/census/1850-1930.html]
+
The 1850 Federal Census is available online.
  
== Sources of This Collectio<span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1272053880067_679" /><span id="fck_dom_range_temp_1272053880067_535" />n&nbsp;  ==
+
'''Online'''
  
1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)  
+
*[http://search.ancestry.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=8054 1850 United States Federal Census] (Ancestry) ($)
 +
*{{RecordSearch|1401638|United States Census, 1850}} (FamilySearch)
  
'''How to Cite Your Sources'''
+
== Web Sites ==
  
An example of citing these records is: United States. Census Office. 7th census, 1850. United States Census, 1850. Census page. From FamilySearch Internet (www.familysearch.org), April 23, 2010. Emma Newell, Shoreham, Addison, Vermont, film number 27446, image number 00188.  
+
1790-2000 Info: [http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf]
  
Instructions for citing this source can be found at: [[How to Cite FamilySearch Collections|How to Cite FamilySearch Collections]]  
+
1850-1930 Search Tips: [http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html]  
 +
 
 +
== References ==
 +
 
 +
1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)
  
&nbsp;
 
  
 
{{USCensus}}  
 
{{USCensus}}  
  
[[Category:United_States_Census]] [[Category:United_States_FamilySearch_Historical_Records]]
+
[[Category:United_States_Census]]

Revision as of 21:36, 5 December 2011

United States Gotoarrow.png U.S. Census Gotoarrow.png 1850 Census

Contents

Indexes and Images

For an article about 1850 census population schedules available for free online at FamilySearch Historical Record Collections see the U.S. Census Population Schedules, 1850 Wiki page. Ancestry.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1850 federal censuses. HeritageQuestOnline.com (subscription site) has indexes and images of all 1850 federal censuses.

Also, there are articles about the 1850 mortality schedule indexes, and 1850 slave owner schedule indexes free online as part of FamilySearch Record Search. Ancestry.com has those mortality and slave owner indexes and images online for a subscription fee.

A free Internet index and images to the 1850 United States Census can be viewed on the FamilySearch Record Search – Pilot Site. This index includes every name listed on the census and is linked to an image including information about each person’s residence and age in 1850, birthplace, occupation, other family members, and neighbors.

For more details, see individual state census Wiki pages. For tips if the first census index search does not work, see the United States Census Searching Wiki page.

Contents

The 1850 Census was taken beginning 1 June 1850, for five months. The following information was recorded by the census taker:

Population Schedules

  • Name
  • Age
  • Sex
  • Color
  • Occupation males over 15
  • Value of real estate
  • Birthplace—territory of country of birth
  • Attended school or married in the year?
  • If over 20—could read/write?
  • Deaf-mute, blind, insane, or idiotic?
  • Fugitive from state?

Slave Schedules

  • Name of slave owner
  • Number of slaves owned
  • Number of slaves manumitted (released from slavery)
  • NO NAME OF SLAVES
  • Age, color, sex
  • Deaf-mute, blind, insane, idiotic?
  • Fugitive from state?

1790-2000 Info: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf

Value

The 1850 census can be used to:

  • Find free population/slave pop. & mortality, agriculture, industry data
  • Identify families by name
  • Identify birthplaces which helps w/immigration
  • Identify ages —go to vital records
  • Identify Real estate—land and tax records
  • Identify probable relationships—be careful!
  • Identify occupations/property value
  • Identify possible remarriages/step relationships

1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html

Unique Features and Problems

  1. Census takers were given more instructions and guidelines in print
  2. First census to list names of all in the household
  3. First to list ages, sex, color, & place of birth
  4. Census taken in order of visitation
  5. Listed those married within the year
  6. Listed those who died after 1 June
  7. Dwelling house number
  8. Real estate value
  9. Occupation of males over 16
  10. Whether a fugitive of the state
  11. Though it still did not list slave names, it listed more information about the slaves
  12. Listed heath or lifestyle issues: “Deaf, dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper or convict”
  13. Omitted children born after 1 June (even if the census taker took it later)
  14. Indians that lived on reservations or unsettles tracts of land were not included.
  15. Make count by personal inquiry at every dwelling
  16. Enumerator to make 2 additional copies:
    1. Clerk of county court
    2. Secretary of state/territory
  17. No Indians in reservations or unsettled land

States and Territories Covered

States

  • Alabama
  • Arkansas
  • California
  • Connecticut
  • Delaware
  • District of Columbia
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Illinois
  • Indiana
  • Iowa
  • Kentucky
  • Louisiana
  • Maine
  • Maryland
  • Massachusetts
  • Michigan
  • Missouri
  • Mississippi
  • New Hampshire
  • New Jersey
  • New York
  • North Carolina
  • Ohio
  • Pennsylvania
  • Rhode Island
  • South Carolina
  • Tennessee
  • Texas
  • Vermont
  • Virginia (inc. West Virginia)
  • Wisconsin

Territories

  • Minnesota (inc. Dakotas)
  • New Mexico (inc. Arizona)
  • Oregon (inc. Washington & Idaho)
  • Utah

Missing Records

  • No States Missing

Where to Find the Records

The 1850 Federal Census is available online.

Online

Web Sites

1790-2000 Info: http://www.census.gov/prod/2000pubs/cff-2.pdf

1850-1930 Search Tips: http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1850-1930.html

References

1. Szucs, Loretto Dennis and Sandra Hargreaves Luebking. The Source: A Guide book to American Genealogy. 3rd ed. (Provo, UT: Ancestry, 2006.)