United States Census 1940

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''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[United States Census|U.S. Census]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[United_States_Census_1940|1940 Census]]''  
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[[Image:1940 Census.jpg|thumb|right|200px|<center>1940 Census<center></center>]] ''[[United States|United States]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[United States Census|U.S. Census]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png|go to]] [[United_States_Census_1940|1940 Census]]''  
  
== Indexes and Images ==
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== Related Wiki pages ==
  
[[Image:1940 Census.jpg|thumb|right|200px|1940 U.S. Census Campaign Poster]]  
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*[[1940 Census Frequently Asked Questions]]
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*[[United States Census Population Schedules, 1940 (FamilySearch Historical Records)/Known Issues|1940 Census - Known Issues]]
 +
*[[1940 Census - Enumeration Districts]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States – Census Form Headings]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Rural Ancestors]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States - Where to Find an Address]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States - What is Next?]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States - Using City Directories to Find a Street Address]]
 +
*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Your Ancestor in a Big City]]
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*[[FamilySearch Indexing: US—1940 Federal Census TEST, FAQ]]
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*[[United States Census Population Schedules, 1940 (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
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*[[Finding Ancestors in the 1940 Census Using the E.D. Number]]
 +
*[[Finding Ancestors in the 1940 Census Using a City Directory]]  
 +
 
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== Indexes and Images  ==
  
The 1940 Census is scheduled for public release on April 2, 2012. For more information see the [http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1940/ National Archives]. This release will be images only. &nbsp;This is the first census released as digital images as well as in microfilm format. The digital images will be available on the National Archives website.  
+
The 1940 Census was released to the public on April 2, 2012. For more information see the [http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1940/ National Archives]. This is the first census released as digital images. The digital images are available on the National Archives website.  
  
Microfilm images are available for [http://estore.archives.gov/Category/105_1/1940_Census.aspx purchase from the National Archives]. The Family History Library is planning to purchase digital copies only.&nbsp;  
+
Microfilm and digital images are available for [http://estore.archives.gov/Category/105_1/1940_Census.aspx purchase from the National Archives]. The Family History Library is planning to purchase digital copies only.&nbsp;  
  
 
Indexes will become available as they are completed. For the latest information about completed FamilySearch indexes see the [http://the1940census.com/ 1940 U.S Census Community Project.] On this site learn how you can become part of the community indexing initiative. Also find links to historical and genealogical societies who are involved in indexing the 1940 census.  
 
Indexes will become available as they are completed. For the latest information about completed FamilySearch indexes see the [http://the1940census.com/ 1940 U.S Census Community Project.] On this site learn how you can become part of the community indexing initiative. Also find links to historical and genealogical societies who are involved in indexing the 1940 census.  
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:*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Your Ancestor in a Big City|Finding your 1940 ancestor in a big city]]
 
:*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Your Ancestor in a Big City|Finding your 1940 ancestor in a big city]]
  
Steve Morse and Joel Weintraub have created tools to help researchers locate individuals in the unindexed 1940 census. &nbsp;For an overview of their site see [http://stevemorse.org/census/intro.html Which One-Step Census Form Should I Use?]  
+
Stephen Morse and Joel Weintraub have created tools to help researchers locate individuals in the unindexed 1940 census. &nbsp;For an overview of their site see [http://stevemorse.org/census/intro.html Which One-Step Census Form Should I Use?]  
  
 
'''Additional Facts About the 1940 Census'''  
 
'''Additional Facts About the 1940 Census'''  
  
 
*4,643 rolls of 35mm microfilm<br>  
 
*4,643 rolls of 35mm microfilm<br>  
*Approximately 3.25 million digital images<br>  
+
*Approximately 3.85 million digital images<br>  
*132 million names<br>  
+
*132 million names for the US proper plus additional names for US Territories<br>  
 
*First census to use statistical sampling <br>
 
*First census to use statistical sampling <br>
  
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=== Enumerator Questions  ===
 
=== Enumerator Questions  ===
  
The 1940 Census gives the same basic information obtained from previous census years: name, age, place of birth, family relationships, location of residence, physical description education, and citizenship.  
+
The 1940 Census gives the same basic information obtained from previous census years: name, age, place of birth, family relationships, location of residence, education, and citizenship.  
  
Learn more with a complete list of the &nbsp;[http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipums-europe/usa/voliii/inst1940.html 1940 enumerator questions].  
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Learn more about:
 +
 
 +
*Complete list of the [[1940 Census United States – Census Form Headings|1940 census form questions]]
 +
*The &nbsp;[http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipums-europe/usa/voliii/inst1940.html 1940 enumerator insturctions].
  
 
=== New Questions  ===
 
=== New Questions  ===
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5. Employment (Columns 23-33): Specific questions about employment, unemployment and income give greater insights into the lives of the people.  
 
5. Employment (Columns 23-33): Specific questions about employment, unemployment and income give greater insights into the lives of the people.  
  
6. Census Sampling used ( 2 lines from each page, 14 &amp; 29) A few more questions were asked concerning mother tongue, parents place of birth and employment.  
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6. Census Sampling used ( 2 lines from each page).&nbsp; A few more questions were asked concerning mother tongue, parents place of birth, employment, and whether more than one marriage for married females.  
  
7. Besides the Population and Agriculture Census and new census called the “Housing Census” was taken. This separate schedule asked detailed questions about the house, utilities, and mortgage or rent.  
+
7. Besides the Population and Agriculture Censuses, a new census called the “Housing Census” was taken. This separate schedule asked detailed questions about the house, utilities, and mortgage or rent. (Only the Population Schedule exists today)
  
 
== Value  ==
 
== Value  ==
Line 63: Line 80:
 
*Broader spectrum of questions concerning level of education.  
 
*Broader spectrum of questions concerning level of education.  
 
*More specific questions about employment.  
 
*More specific questions about employment.  
*Census sampling used for people on lines 14 and 29, where additional questions were asked. See this list below under the heading&nbsp;''Unique Features and Problems''
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*Census sampling used for two people on each census page,&nbsp; where additional questions were asked. See this list below under the heading&nbsp;''Unique Features and Problems''
  
 
== Unique Features and Problems  ==
 
== Unique Features and Problems  ==
  
1.'''Census Sampling''' in the form of additional questions were asked of persons whose names appeared on lines 14 or 29 of the Population schedule page. Enumerators were required to ask the supplementary questions "only for the member of the household whose name is entered on one of the lines described above, whether this be the head, his wife, a son or daughter, an infant, a lodger, or any other member of the household." <ref>Question 600, http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipums-europe/usa/voliii/inst1940.html,accessed 20 March 2012</ref> The answers were recorded at the bottom of each Population schedule page. If no one was listed on lines 14 or 29, no questions were asked on that schedule page. About 5% of the population answered these supplementary questions.  
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1.'''Census Sampling''' in the form of additional questions were asked of persons whose names appeared on two designated lines of the Population schedule page. Enumerators were required to ask the supplementary questions "only for the member of the household whose name is entered on one of the lines described above, whether this be the head, his wife, a son or daughter, an infant, a lodger, or any other member of the household." <ref>Question 600, http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipums-europe/usa/voliii/inst1940.html,accessed 20 March 2012</ref> The answers were recorded at the bottom of each Population schedule page. If no one was listed on the designated lines, no questions were asked on that schedule page. About 5% of the population answered these supplementary questions.  
  
 
These question included:  
 
These question included:  
Line 73: Line 90:
 
:35. Name
 
:35. Name
  
*Place of Birth of Father and Mother<br>36. Father’s Place of Birth<br> 37. Mother’s Place of Birth<br>
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*Place of Birth of Father and Mother<br>36. Father’s Place of Birth<br>37. Mother’s Place of Birth<br>
  
 
*Mother Tongue:<br>38. Language spoke in home in earliest childhood<br>
 
*Mother Tongue:<br>38. Language spoke in home in earliest childhood<br>
  
*Veterans - Is this person a veteran or a wife, widow or child under 18 of a veteran?<br>39. If so, enter yes<br> 40. If child, is the father dead?<br> 41. War or military service
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*Veterans - Is this person a veteran or a wife, widow or child under 18 of a veteran?<br>39. If so, enter yes<br>40. If child, is the father dead?<br>41. War or military service
  
*Social Security<br>42. Does the person have a Federal Social Security number? (Y or N)<br> 43. Were deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement taken from this person’s wages or salary in 1939? (Y or N)<br> 44. If so, were deductions made from (1) all, (2) one-half or more, (3) part, but less than half of pages or salary?
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*Social Security<br>42. Does the person have a Federal Social Security number? (Y or N)<br>43. Were deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement taken from this person’s wages or salary in 1939? (Y or N)<br>44. If so, were deductions made from (1) all, (2) one-half or more, (3) part, but less than half of pages or salary?
  
*Usual Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker&nbsp;:What occupation does the person regard as his usually occupation and is physically able to do?<br> If unable to determine, what occupation has the person worked the longest in the past 10 years and physically able to?<br> For a person without previous work experience enter “None” on column 45 and skip columns 46 and 47.45. Usual Occupation<br> 46. Usual Industry<br> 47. Usual Class of worker
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*Usual Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker&nbsp;:What occupation does the person regard as his usual occupation and is physically able to do?<br>If unable to determine, what occupation has the person worked the longest in the past 10 years and physically able to?<br>For a person without previous work experience enter “None” on column 45 and skip columns 46 and 47.45. Usual Occupation<br>46. Usual Industry<br>47. Usual Class of worker
  
*For All Women who are or have been married:<br>48. Has this woman been married more than once (Y or N) 49. Age at first marriage<br> 50. Number of children ever born (do not include stillborn)
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*For All Women who are or have been married:<br>48. Has this woman been married more than once (Y or N) 49. Age at first marriage<br>50. Number of children ever born (do not include stillborn)
  
2. '''Place of residence''' on April 1, 1935, if the person lived in a different place than in 1940. This essentially gave a 5-year census for all persons who changed residence during the decade.  
+
2. '''Place of residence''' on April 1, 1935. This essentially gave a 5-year census for all persons enumerated.  
  
3. '''Follow up schedules''' were used for people not home when the enumerator first visited. Until the census is indexed you will need to check for 3 separate schedules within each enumeration district.  
+
3. '''Follow up sheets''' were used for people not home when the enumerator first visited. Until the census is indexed you will need to check for 3 separate sheet numbering sequences within each enumeration district.  
  
 
:a. Pages were numbered 1A, 1B, 2A, etc. Persons were listed on these pages when they were home when the enumerator first visited.
 
:a. Pages were numbered 1A, 1B, 2A, etc. Persons were listed on these pages when they were home when the enumerator first visited.
  
:b. Sheets for revisits to households were numbered beginning on page 61A. The pages between the original enumeration visits and the revisits were intentionally left blank.
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:b. Sheets for revisits to households were numbered beginning on page 61A. <br>
  
:c. Beginning April 8th, people living in hotels, trailer camps, missions, etc., were enumerated beginning on sheet 81A. Again, pages between the original enumeration visits and these visits were intentionally left blank.
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:c. On April 8th, people living in hotels, trailer camps, missions, etc., were enumerated beginning on sheet 81A. <br>
  
:d. Not every ED had a page 61 or 81. You will be able to see that no pages were skipped because all pages were stamped consecutively from the first page.
+
:d. Not every ED has a page 61 or 81. You will be able to see that no pages were skipped because all pages were stamped (on the A side) consecutively from the first page.
  
 
4. '''1940 Enumeration Districts''' were smaller than previous census E.D.'s.  
 
4. '''1940 Enumeration Districts''' were smaller than previous census E.D.'s.  
Line 115: Line 132:
 
== Missing Records  ==
 
== Missing Records  ==
  
No records are missing from the 1940 Census.  
+
A very small number of EDs are missing from the records.  
  
 
== Where to Find the Records  ==
 
== Where to Find the Records  ==
  
[http://familysearch.org FamilySearch]  
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*[http://www.ancestry.com/1940-census 1940 United States Federal Census] (Ancestry) (''free'')
 
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*{{RecordSearch|2000219|United States Census, 1940}} (FamilySearch) (''free'')
[http://1940census.archives.gov/ National Archives]
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*[http://1940census.archives.gov 1940 Census] (National Archives) (''free'')
  
 
== Statistics at the time of the 1940 Census  ==
 
== Statistics at the time of the 1940 Census  ==
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• U.S. Resident Population: 132,164,569<ref>http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1940_fast_facts.html</ref><br>• Population per square mile of land area: 37.2 <br>• Percent increase of population from 1930 to 1940: 7.3<br>• Official Enumeration Date: April 1<br>• Number of States: 48  
 
• U.S. Resident Population: 132,164,569<ref>http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1940_fast_facts.html</ref><br>• Population per square mile of land area: 37.2 <br>• Percent increase of population from 1930 to 1940: 7.3<br>• Official Enumeration Date: April 1<br>• Number of States: 48  
  
{| width="85%" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="5" border="1"
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{| border="1" cellspacing="1" cellpadding="5" width="85%"
 
|-
 
|-
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | '''Rank'''  
 
| bgcolor="#ffffcc" | '''Rank'''  
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== Frequently Asked Questions  ==
 
== Frequently Asked Questions  ==
  
Q. ''Will there be an index to the 1940 census? If so, when will it be available?''<br> A. FamilySearch volunteers are working hard to create a complete index of the 1940 census. Indexes for individual states will be made available as they are completed. Learn more and get involved at&nbsp;[http://the1940census.com The 1940 Census] <br>  
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Q. ''Will there be an index to the 1940 census? If so, when will it be available?''<br>A. Community volunteers are working hard to create a complete index of the 1940 census. Indexes for individual states will be made available as they are completed. Learn more and get involved at&nbsp;[http://the1940census.com The 1940 Census] <br>  
  
Q. ''Are there microfilm copies of the 1940 census? Will they be available at the Family History Library?''<br> A. Microfilm copies of the 1940 census do exist. FamilySearch has decided instead to provide digital copies of the records instead of purchasing microfilm. <br>  
+
Q. ''Are there microfilm copies of the 1940 census? Will they be available at the Family History Library?''<br>A. Great news! The 1940 Census is completely digitized and all digital images are available on [http://www.familysearch.org FamilySearch].&nbsp;<br>  
  
Q. ''Where can I learn more about the 1940 census?''<br> A. Additional information about the 1940 census can be found at [http://www.familysearch.org/1940Census FamilySearch] or [http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1940/ the National Archives]<br>  
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Q. ''Where can I learn more about the 1940 census?''<br>A. Browse the 1940 pages of this Wiki. &nbsp;Return to the top of this page and find links to [http://www.familysearch.org/learn/wiki/en/United_States_Census_1940#Related_Wiki_Pages Related 1940 Wiki pages.]<br>  
  
 
Select here for [[1940 Census Frequently Asked Questions|Addtional Frequently Asked Questions]].  
 
Select here for [[1940 Census Frequently Asked Questions|Addtional Frequently Asked Questions]].  
 
== Related Wiki pages  ==
 
 
*[[1940 Census Frequently Asked Questions]]
 
*[[1940 Census - Enumeration Districts]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States – Census Form Headings]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Rural Ancestors]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States - Where to Find an Address]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States - What is Next?]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States - Using City Directories to Find a Street Address]]
 
*[[1940 Census United States - Finding Your Ancestor in a Big City]]
 
*[[FamilySearch Indexing: US—1940 Federal Census TEST, FAQ]]
 
  
 
== Websites  ==
 
== Websites  ==
  
 +
*[http://www.censusfinder.com/1940-census.htm 1940 Census Findings]
 
*[http://www.the1940census.com The 1940 Census]  
 
*[http://www.the1940census.com The 1940 Census]  
 
*[http://www.1940census.net 1940census.net]  
 
*[http://www.1940census.net 1940census.net]  
 
*[http://www.ancestry.com/1940 Ancestry - 1940 Census]  
 
*[http://www.ancestry.com/1940 Ancestry - 1940 Census]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/1940census FamilySearch - 1940 Census]  
 
*[https://www.familysearch.org/1940census FamilySearch - 1940 Census]  
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1940 National Archives - 1940 Census]
+
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/census/1940 National Archives - 1940 Census]
 +
*[http://www.geneamusings.com/2012/04/some-interesting-1940-us-census-entries.html Genea-Musings - 1940 Census enumerator instructions Hotel Residents]
 +
*[http://archive.org/details/us_census http://archive.org/details/us_census Internet Archive - all censuses except 1940]  
  
 
== References  ==
 
== References  ==

Revision as of 07:13, 19 November 2012

1940 Census
United States go to U.S. Census go to 1940 Census

Contents

Related Wiki pages

Indexes and Images

The 1940 Census was released to the public on April 2, 2012. For more information see the National Archives. This is the first census released as digital images. The digital images are available on the National Archives website.

Microfilm and digital images are available for purchase from the National Archives. The Family History Library is planning to purchase digital copies only. 

Indexes will become available as they are completed. For the latest information about completed FamilySearch indexes see the 1940 U.S Census Community Project. On this site learn how you can become part of the community indexing initiative. Also find links to historical and genealogical societies who are involved in indexing the 1940 census.

Until the indexes are completed, other methods can be used to find your ancestors in the 1940 Census. See Wiki articles for help with these various methods:

Stephen Morse and Joel Weintraub have created tools to help researchers locate individuals in the unindexed 1940 census.  For an overview of their site see Which One-Step Census Form Should I Use?

Additional Facts About the 1940 Census

  • 4,643 rolls of 35mm microfilm
  • Approximately 3.85 million digital images
  • 132 million names for the US proper plus additional names for US Territories
  • First census to use statistical sampling

Content

The 1940 Census was taken 1 April 1940. For privacy reasons, federal law required a 72-year wait for the census to be released (92 Stat. 915; Public Law 95-416; October 5, 1978).[1]

Enumerator Questions

The 1940 Census gives the same basic information obtained from previous census years: name, age, place of birth, family relationships, location of residence, education, and citizenship.

Learn more about:

New Questions

There were a few new questions asked which would help in genealogical research.

1. Name of informant: (Column 7): An “X” is placed by the name of the person giving the information. This would then allow knowing the credibility of the information given.

2. Individual present or absent (Column 7): Those who usually live in the home but currently not there were to be marked with “Ab” as being absent from the home.

3. Residence as of April 1 1935 (Columns 17-20). These series of questions help to establish a residence of 5 years previous.

4. Education (Columns 13-14): A broader spectrum of level of education is given.

5. Employment (Columns 23-33): Specific questions about employment, unemployment and income give greater insights into the lives of the people.

6. Census Sampling used ( 2 lines from each page).  A few more questions were asked concerning mother tongue, parents place of birth, employment, and whether more than one marriage for married females.

7. Besides the Population and Agriculture Censuses, a new census called the “Housing Census” was taken. This separate schedule asked detailed questions about the house, utilities, and mortgage or rent. (Only the Population Schedule exists today)

Value

  • Confirm who was the informant for the census information.
  • Establish residency mid-decade with questions about 1935 residency.
  • Broader spectrum of questions concerning level of education.
  • More specific questions about employment.
  • Census sampling used for two people on each census page,  where additional questions were asked. See this list below under the heading Unique Features and Problems

Unique Features and Problems

1.Census Sampling in the form of additional questions were asked of persons whose names appeared on two designated lines of the Population schedule page. Enumerators were required to ask the supplementary questions "only for the member of the household whose name is entered on one of the lines described above, whether this be the head, his wife, a son or daughter, an infant, a lodger, or any other member of the household." [2] The answers were recorded at the bottom of each Population schedule page. If no one was listed on the designated lines, no questions were asked on that schedule page. About 5% of the population answered these supplementary questions.

These question included:

35. Name
  • Place of Birth of Father and Mother
    36. Father’s Place of Birth
    37. Mother’s Place of Birth
  • Mother Tongue:
    38. Language spoke in home in earliest childhood
  • Veterans - Is this person a veteran or a wife, widow or child under 18 of a veteran?
    39. If so, enter yes
    40. If child, is the father dead?
    41. War or military service
  • Social Security
    42. Does the person have a Federal Social Security number? (Y or N)
    43. Were deductions for Federal Old-Age Insurance or Railroad Retirement taken from this person’s wages or salary in 1939? (Y or N)
    44. If so, were deductions made from (1) all, (2) one-half or more, (3) part, but less than half of pages or salary?
  • Usual Occupation, Industry, and Class of Worker :What occupation does the person regard as his usual occupation and is physically able to do?
    If unable to determine, what occupation has the person worked the longest in the past 10 years and physically able to?
    For a person without previous work experience enter “None” on column 45 and skip columns 46 and 47.45. Usual Occupation
    46. Usual Industry
    47. Usual Class of worker
  • For All Women who are or have been married:
    48. Has this woman been married more than once (Y or N) 49. Age at first marriage
    50. Number of children ever born (do not include stillborn)

2. Place of residence on April 1, 1935. This essentially gave a 5-year census for all persons enumerated.

3. Follow up sheets were used for people not home when the enumerator first visited. Until the census is indexed you will need to check for 3 separate sheet numbering sequences within each enumeration district.

a. Pages were numbered 1A, 1B, 2A, etc. Persons were listed on these pages when they were home when the enumerator first visited.
b. Sheets for revisits to households were numbered beginning on page 61A.
c. On April 8th, people living in hotels, trailer camps, missions, etc., were enumerated beginning on sheet 81A.
d. Not every ED has a page 61 or 81. You will be able to see that no pages were skipped because all pages were stamped (on the A side) consecutively from the first page.

4. 1940 Enumeration Districts were smaller than previous census E.D.'s.

5. For a complete listing of 1940 Census headings see the wiki page 1940 Census Form Headings.

State and Territories Covered

  • All states, District of Columbia,and the Territories listed below:
  • Alaska
  • American Samoa
  • Guam
  • Hawaii
  • Panama Canal Zone
  • Puerto Rico
  • U.S. Virgin Islands

Missing Records

A very small number of EDs are missing from the records.

Where to Find the Records

Statistics at the time of the 1940 Census

• U.S. Resident Population: 132,164,569[3]
• Population per square mile of land area: 37.2
• Percent increase of population from 1930 to 1940: 7.3
• Official Enumeration Date: April 1
• Number of States: 48

Rank City Population[4]
1 New York City, NY 7,454,995
2 Chicago, IL  3,396,808
3 Philadelphia, PA 1,931,334
4 Detroit, MI 1,623,452
5 Los Angeles, CA 1,504,277
6 Cleveland, OH 878,336
7 Baltimore, MD 859,100
8 St. Louis, MO 816,048
9 Boston, MA 770,816
10 Pittsburgh, PA 671,659

What Do I Do Next?

Often when a new record is found for an ancestor, the additional information can lead you to reframe your research question, or to ask an entirely new research question. See 1940 Census - What Do I Do Next?

1. Make a copy of the 1940 Census page.
2. Enter the information in your database and document your source.
3. Enter your information into a community tree and document your source.
4. What is your new question?
5. What record or records may answer your question?
6. Is there a Wiki page which can help me with the new question or record?

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. Will there be an index to the 1940 census? If so, when will it be available?
A. Community volunteers are working hard to create a complete index of the 1940 census. Indexes for individual states will be made available as they are completed. Learn more and get involved at The 1940 Census

Q. Are there microfilm copies of the 1940 census? Will they be available at the Family History Library?
A. Great news! The 1940 Census is completely digitized and all digital images are available on FamilySearch

Q. Where can I learn more about the 1940 census?
A. Browse the 1940 pages of this Wiki.  Return to the top of this page and find links to Related 1940 Wiki pages.

Select here for Addtional Frequently Asked Questions.

Websites

References

  1. http://www.census.gov/history/www/reference/genealogy/the_72_year_rule.html
  2. Question 600, http://www.hist.umn.edu/~rmccaa/ipums-europe/usa/voliii/inst1940.html,accessed 20 March 2012
  3. http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1940_fast_facts.html
  4. http://www.census.gov/history/www/through_the_decades/fast_facts/1940_fast_facts.html