United States Freedmen’s Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)

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|title=North Carolina Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1862-1870  
 
|title=North Carolina Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1862-1870  
 
|CID=CID1596147
 
|CID=CID1596147
|title=Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters, 1865-1872
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|title=Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence 1865-1872
|location=United States}}&nbsp;<br>  
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|location=United States}}<br>  
  
== Collection Time Period ==
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== Record Description ==
  
The dates covered by this collection are 1862 through 1872.  
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This Collection will include records from 1865 to 1872.  
 
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== Record Description  ==
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Field office reports, letters received and sent, contracts, certificates, registers, censuses, affidavits, and other documents that preserve, directly and vividly, the experiences and circumstances of the individuals involved: freedpeople, Bureau officers, landowners and employers, and others. They contain desperate pleas for food, clothing, and medical care from rural communities; freedpeoples' testimonies about delinquent employers, continued use of forced labor and apprenticeship, violence, and restrictions due to the new state-legislated and repressive "black codes"; petitions for new schools, legal aid in courts, and protection from violence; applications for land; and marriage certificates.  
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This collection includes field office reports, letters received and sent, contracts, certificates, registers, censuses, affidavits, and other documents that preserve, directly and vividly, the experiences and circumstances of the individuals involved, such as freedpeople, Bureau officers, landowners and employers, and others. They contain desperate pleas for food, clothing, and medical care from rural communities; freedpeoples' testimonies about delinquent employers, continued use of forced labor and apprenticeship, violence, restrictions due to the new state-legislated and repressive "black codes"; petitions for new schools, legal aid in courts, and protection from violence; applications for land; and marriage certificates.  
  
 
Marriage records from this NARA publication have been published in a separate collection: [[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Freedmen's Bureau Virginia Marriages]], ca. 1815-1866.  
 
Marriage records from this NARA publication have been published in a separate collection: [[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Freedmen's Bureau Virginia Marriages]], ca. 1815-1866.  
  
The [[African American Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Records|Freedmen’s Bank records]] are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.  
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The [[African American Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Records|Freedmen’s Bank Records]] are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.  
  
The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001, and the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.  
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The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001;&nbsp;the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.  
  
=== Record Content  ===
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The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.&nbsp;
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The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.<br>&nbsp;
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The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America.&nbsp;
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The dates covered by this collection are 1862 through 1872.&nbsp;
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The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau.
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<br>Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.
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=== Citations for This Collection  ===
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The following citation refers to the original source of the information published in FamilySearch.org Historical Record collections. Sources include the author, custodian, publisher and archive for the original records.
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{{Collection citation | text= "Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872." Index and Images. <i>FamilySearch</i>. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2013. Citing NARA microfilm publication M1913. College Park, Maryland: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.}}
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[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters (FamilySearch Historical Records)#Citation_Example_for_a_Record_Found_in_This_Collection|Suggested citation format for a record in this collection.]]
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== Record Content  ==
  
 
<gallery perrow="2" heights="120px" widths="180px">
 
<gallery perrow="2" heights="120px" widths="180px">
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*Residence  
 
*Residence  
 
*Age  
 
*Age  
*Bride  
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*Bride and groom
*Groom
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*Marriage date and place
*Marriage date  
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*Marriage place
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== How to Use the Records  ==
 
== How to Use the Records  ==
  
The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. Freedmen's Bureau records are a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence and other information for each person along with his or her age to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.  
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The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. They are also&nbsp;a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence, age,&nbsp;and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.  
  
== Record History ==
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== Known Issues with This Collection ==
  
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.<br>
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{{HR Known Issues}}For a full list of all known issues associated with this collection see the attached [[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters (FamilySearch Historical Records)/Known Issues|Wiki article]]. If you encounter additional problems, please email them to [mailto:support@familysearch.org support@familysearch.org]. Please include the full path to the link and a description of the problem in your e-mail. Your assistance will help ensure that future reworks will be considered.  
  
The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.<br>
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== Related Websites  ==
  
The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, more than 25% of the population of former African American slaves in America.  
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*[http://www.archives.gov/research/genealogy/index.html National Archives Resources for Genealogists]
 
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*[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]
=== Why This Record Was Created  ===
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*[http://freedmensbureau.com/ The Freedmen's Bureau Online]. Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands.  
 
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*[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]
The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves; some of them were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans sought help from the Bureau who were not African Americans.
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*[http://suffolk.libguides.com/content.php?pid=117960&sid=1828859 Suffolk University]
 
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=== Record Reliability  ===
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Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.  
+
 
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== Related Web Sites  ==
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[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]  
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This section of the article is incomplete. You can help FamilySearch Wiki by supplying links to related websites here.  
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== Related Wiki Articles  ==
 
== Related Wiki Articles  ==
  
[[African American Freedmen's Bureau Records|African American Freedmen’s Bureau Records]]  
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*[[Virginia African Americans|Virginia African Americans]]
 
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*[[African American Freedmen's Bureau Records|African American Freedmen’s Bureau Records]]  
[[Quick Guide to African American Records|Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
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*[[Quick Guide to African American Records|Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
 
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*[[African American Research|African American Research]]
[[African American Research|African American Research]]  
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*[[Virginia]]
  
 
== Contributions to This Article  ==
 
== Contributions to This Article  ==
  
{{Contributor invite}}  
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{{Contributor_invite}}  
  
 
== Citing FamilySearch Historical Collections  ==
 
== Citing FamilySearch Historical Collections  ==
  
When you copy information from a record, you should also list where you found the information. This will help you or others to find the record again. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records.
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When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information. This will help you or others to find the record again. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records.  
 
+
A suggested format for keeping track of records that you have searched is found in the Wiki Article: [[How to Cite FamilySearch Collections|How to Cite FamilySearch Collections]]
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==== Examples of Source Citations for a Record in This Collection  ====
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"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters, 1865-1872." index and images, ''FamilySearch'' ([http://www.familysearach.org]): accessed 8 April 2011. entry for Henry Dillen; citing Bureau Letters, FHL microfilm 2,414,677; National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
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== Sources of Information for This Collection:  ==
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<!--bibdescbegin-->"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters, 1865-1872,"index and images, FamilySearch Historical Records, 2010; from National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives, Washington, D.C. NARA M1913. FHL microfilm, 203 reels. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.<!--bibdescend-->
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"North Carolina Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1862-1870," database, FamilySearch Historical Records, 2010; from National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives, Washington, D.C. NARA M843. FHL microfilm, 38 reels. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.
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"Alabama Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872," database, FamilySearch Historical Records, 2010; from National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives, Washington, D.C. NARA M1900. FHL microfilm, 34 reels. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.  
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"Texas Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872," database, FamilySearch Historical Records, 2010; from National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives, Washington, D.C. NARA M1912. FHL microfilm, 28 reels. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.  
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A suggested format for keeping track of records that you have searched is found in the wiki article [[Help:How to Cite FamilySearch Collections]].  
  
"Kentucky Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872," database, FamilySearch Historical Records, 2010; from National Archives and Records Administration. National Archives, Washington, D.C. NARA M1904. FHL microfilm, 133 reels. Family History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.
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=== Citation Example for a Record Found in This Collection  ===
  
<br><br>
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"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872," index and images, ''FamilySearch'' (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/FPGC-YP5&nbsp;: accessed 10 May 2012), Henry Dillen; citing Bureau Letters, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives, Washington, D.C.
  
[[Category:African_American]]
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[[Category:African_Americans]]

Revision as of 16:57, 4 April 2013

FamilySearch Record Search This article describes a collection of historical records available at FamilySearch.org.

Contents

Record Description

This Collection will include records from 1865 to 1872.

This collection includes field office reports, letters received and sent, contracts, certificates, registers, censuses, affidavits, and other documents that preserve, directly and vividly, the experiences and circumstances of the individuals involved, such as freedpeople, Bureau officers, landowners and employers, and others. They contain desperate pleas for food, clothing, and medical care from rural communities; freedpeoples' testimonies about delinquent employers, continued use of forced labor and apprenticeship, violence, restrictions due to the new state-legislated and repressive "black codes"; petitions for new schools, legal aid in courts, and protection from violence; applications for land; and marriage certificates.

Marriage records from this NARA publication have been published in a separate collection: Freedmen's Bureau Virginia Marriages, ca. 1815-1866.

The Freedmen’s Bank Records are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.

The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001; the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank. 

The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.
 

The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America. 

The dates covered by this collection are 1862 through 1872. 

The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau.


Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.

Citations for This Collection

The following citation refers to the original source of the information published in FamilySearch.org Historical Record collections. Sources include the author, custodian, publisher and archive for the original records.

"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872." Index and Images. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2013. Citing NARA microfilm publication M1913. College Park, Maryland: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

Suggested citation format for a record in this collection.

Record Content

The following important genealogical information is often found in Bureau records:

  • Name of the freedman
  • Name of the freedman’s former owner
  • Date of the record
  • Birthplace
  • Residence
  • Age
  • Bride and groom
  • Marriage date and place

How to Use the Records

The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. They are also a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence, age, and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.

Known Issues with This Collection

Important.png Problems with this collection?
See a list of known issues, workarounds, tips, restrictions, future fixes, news and other helpful information.

For a full list of all known issues associated with this collection see the attached Wiki article. If you encounter additional problems, please email them to support@familysearch.org. Please include the full path to the link and a description of the problem in your e-mail. Your assistance will help ensure that future reworks will be considered.

Related Websites

Related Wiki Articles

Contributions to This Article

We welcome user additions to FamilySearch Historical Records wiki articles. Guidelines are available to help you make changes. Thank you for any contributions you may provide. If you would like to get more involved join the WikiProject FamilySearch Records.

Citing FamilySearch Historical Collections

When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information. This will help you or others to find the record again. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records.

A suggested format for keeping track of records that you have searched is found in the wiki article Help:How to Cite FamilySearch Collections.

Citation Example for a Record Found in This Collection

"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/FPGC-YP5&nbsp;: accessed 10 May 2012), Henry Dillen; citing Bureau Letters, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives, Washington, D.C.