United States Freedmen’s Branch Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)Edit This Page

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{{FamilySearch_Collection
 
{{FamilySearch_Collection
|CID=CID
+
|CID=CID2333780
|title=Kentucky Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872
+
|title=United States, Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878
|CID=CID
+
|title=Texas Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872
+
|CID=CID
+
|title=Alabama Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1865-1872
+
|CID=CID1803698
+
|title=North Carolina Freedmen’s Bureau Letters, 1862-1870
+
|CID=CID1596147
+
|title=Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence 1865-1872
+
 
|location=United States}}<br>  
 
|location=United States}}<br>  
  
 
== Record Description  ==
 
== Record Description  ==
  
This Collection will include records from 1865 to 1872.  
+
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (often called the Freedmen’s Bureau) was created in 1865 at the end of the American Civil War to supervise relief efforts including education, health care, food and clothing, refugee camps, legalization of marriages, employment, labor contracts, and securing back pay, bounty payments and pensions. These records include letters and endorsements sent and received, account books, applications for rations, applications for relief, court records, labor contracts, registers of bounty claimants, registers of complaints, registers of contracts, registers of disbursements, registers of freedmen issued rations, registers of patients, reports, rosters of officers and employees, special and general orders and circulars received, special orders and circulars issued, records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads. This collection corresponds with NARA microfilm publication M2029, The records of the Freedmen’s Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General are part of Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.  
  
This collection includes field office reports, letters received and sent, contracts, certificates, registers, censuses, affidavits, and other documents that preserve, directly and vividly, the experiences and circumstances of the individuals involved, such as freedpeople, Bureau officers, landowners and employers, and others. They contain desperate pleas for food, clothing, and medical care from rural communities; freedpeoples' testimonies about delinquent employers, continued use of forced labor and apprenticeship, violence, restrictions due to the new state-legislated and repressive "black codes"; petitions for new schools, legal aid in courts, and protection from violence; applications for land; and marriage certificates.
+
{{Collection_Browse_Link
 +
|CID=CID2333780
 +
|title=United States, Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878
 +
}}
  
Marriage records from this NARA publication have been published in a separate collection: [[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Marriages (FamilySearch Historical Records)|Freedmen's Bureau Virginia Marriages]], ca. 1815-1866.
+
== Record Content  ==
  
The [[African American Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Records|Freedmen’s Bank Records]] are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.  
+
<gallery perrow="3" heights="120px" widths="160px" caption="United States, Freedmen's Branch Record Examples">
 +
Image:United States, Freedmen's Branch Records (13-0478) Memorandum DGS 7635982_131.jpg|Memorandum
 +
Image:United States, Freedmen's Branch Records (13-0478) Record of Claimant DGS 7636007_160.jpg|Record of Claimant
 +
Image:United States, Freedmen's Branch Records (13-0478) Sample Letter DGS 7635976_407.jpg|Sample Letter
 +
</gallery>
  
The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001;&nbsp;the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.
+
The information varies between records. You may find any of the following:
  
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.&nbsp;
+
*Name(s) of the primary individual(s)
 +
*Name of the freedman’s former owner
 +
*Names of family members  
 +
*Residence
 +
*Age
 +
*Date of the record
 +
*Birth, marriage or death dates and places
  
The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.<br>&nbsp;
+
== How to Use the Records  ==
  
The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America.&nbsp;
+
To begin your search it is helpful to know
  
The dates covered by this collection are 1862 through 1872.&nbsp;
+
*The name of your ancestor
 +
*Identifying information such as name of spouse, age birthplace or residence
  
The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau.
+
=== Search the Collection  ===
  
<br>Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.  
+
To search the collection: <br> ⇒Select "Browse through images" on the initial collection page <br> ⇒Select the appropriate "Freedmen's Bureau Office or Subordinate Field Office Location" <br> ⇒Select the appropriate "NARA Roll Number-Contents" which takes you to the images.  
  
=== Citations for This Collection  ===
+
Look at each image comparing the information with what you already know about your ancestors to determine if the image relates to them. You may need to look at several images and compare the information about the individuals listed in those images to your ancestors to make this determination. Keep in mind:
  
The following citation refers to the original source of the information published in FamilySearch.org Historical Record collections. Sources include the author, custodian, publisher and archive for the original records.  
+
*There may be more than one person in the records with the same name.  
 +
*You may not be sure of your own ancestor’s name.  
 +
*Your ancestor may have used different names or variations of their name throughout their life.
  
{{Collection citation | text= "Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872." Index and Images. <i>FamilySearch</i>. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2013. Citing NARA microfilm publication M1913. College Park, Maryland: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.}}
+
=== Using the Information  ===
  
[[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters (FamilySearch Historical Records)#Citation_Example_for_a_Record_Found_in_This_Collection|Suggested citation format for a record in this collection.]]
+
When you have located your ancestor’s record, carefully evaluate each piece of information given. Download a copy of the record, or extract the genealogical information needed. These pieces of information may give you new biographical details. Add this new information to your records of each family. The information may also lead you to other records about your ancestors. The following examples show ways you can use the information:
  
== Record Content  ==
+
*Use the estimated age to calculate a birth date.
 +
*Use the names, ages, and residence to search the census records after 1965, land records and church records
  
<gallery perrow="2" heights="120px" widths="180px">
+
=== Tips to Keep in Mind  ===
Image:North Carolina Freedmen's Bureau Index (09-0472) DGS 4567385 43.jpg|Index Freedmen's Bureau Letters
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Image:North Carolina Freedmen's Bureau Letter (09-0472) DGS 4567385 351.jpg |Freedmen's Bureau Letter
+
</gallery>
+
  
The following important genealogical information is often found in Bureau records:
+
*Continue to search the records to identify children, siblings, parents, and other relatives.
 +
*When looking for a person who had a common name, look at all the entries for the name before deciding which is correct.
 +
*You may need to compare the information of more than one family or person to make this determination.
 +
*Be aware that your ancestor may have used more than one name during their lifetime.
 +
*Remember that there may be more than one person in the records with the same name as your ancestor and that your ancestor may have used nicknames or different names at different times.
  
*Name of the freedman
+
=== Unable to Find Your Ancestor?  ===
*Name of the freedman’s former owner
+
*Date of the record
+
*Birthplace
+
*Residence
+
*Age
+
*Bride and groom
+
*Marriage date and place
+
  
== How to Use the Records  ==
+
*Look for variant spellings of the names. You should also look for nicknames and abbreviated names.
 +
*Try alternative search methods such as only filling in the surname search box (or the given name search box) on the landing page leaving the other box empty and then click on search. This should return a list of everyone with that particular name. You could then browse the list for individuals with the same family number.
  
The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. They are also&nbsp;a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence, age,&nbsp;and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.
+
=== Additional Information About These Records  ===
  
== Known Issues with This Collection  ==
+
The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. They are also a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence, age, and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.
  
{{HR Known Issues}}For a full list of all known issues associated with this collection see the attached [[United States Freedmen’s Bureau Letters (FamilySearch Historical Records)/Known Issues|Wiki article]]. If you encounter additional problems, please email them to [mailto:support@familysearch.org support@familysearch.org]. Please include the full path to the link and a description of the problem in your e-mail. Your assistance will help ensure that future reworks will be considered.  
+
The [[African American Freedman's Savings and Trust Company Records|Freedmen’s Bank Records]] are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.  
 +
 
 +
The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001 the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.
 +
 
 +
The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.
 +
 
 +
The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.
 +
 
 +
The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America.  
 +
 
 +
The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau.
 +
 
 +
Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.
 +
 
 +
== Related FamilySearch Historical Records Collection Articles  ==
 +
 
 +
*[[Alabama, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Arkansas, Field Offices Records of the Freedmen's Bureau (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[District of Columbia, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Georgia, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Kentucky, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Louisiana, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Mississippi, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Missouri, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[North Carolina, Freedmen Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[South Carolina, Freedmen Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Tennessee, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Texas, Freedmen's Bureau Field Office Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Records (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Assistant Commissioner (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Commissioner (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
 +
*[[United States, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education (FamilySearch Historical Records)]]
  
 
== Related Websites  ==
 
== Related Websites  ==
  
 +
*[http://www.archives.gov/research/genealogy/index.html National Archives Resources for Genealogists]
 +
*[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]
 
*[http://freedmensbureau.com/ The Freedmen's Bureau Online]. Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands.  
 
*[http://freedmensbureau.com/ The Freedmen's Bureau Online]. Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands.  
*[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]
+
*[http://www.history.umd.edu/Freedmen/fssppubs.htm Publications of the Freedmen and Southern Society Project]
 +
*[http://suffolk.libguides.com/content.php?pid=117960&sid=1828859 Suffolk University]
  
 
== Related Wiki Articles  ==
 
== Related Wiki Articles  ==
  
*[[Virginia African Americans|Virginia African Americans]]
+
*[[African American Freedmen's Bureau Records]]  
*[[African American Freedmen's Bureau Records|African American Freedmen’s Bureau Records]]  
+
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
*[[Quick Guide to African American Records|Quick Guide to African American Records]]  
+
*[[African American Research]]
*[[African American Research|African American Research]]  
+
*[[Virginia]]
+
 
+
== Contributions to This Article  ==
+
 
+
{{Contributor_invite}}
+
  
== Citing FamilySearch Historical Collections  ==
+
== How You Can Contribute ==
  
When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information. This will help you or others to find the record again. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records.
+
{{Contributor_invite}}
  
A suggested format for keeping track of records that you have searched is found in the wiki article [[Help:How to Cite FamilySearch Collections]].
+
== Citations for This Collection  ==
  
=== Citation Example for a Record Found in This Collection  ===
+
When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information; that is, cite your sources. This will help people find the record again and evaluate the reliability of the source. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records. Citations are available for the collection as a whole and each record or image individually.
  
"Virginia, Freedmen's Bureau Letters or Correspondence, 1865-1872," index and images, ''FamilySearch'' (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/FPGC-YP5&nbsp;: accessed 10 May 2012), Henry Dillen; citing Bureau Letters, National Archives and Records Administration, National Archives, Washington, D.C.  
+
'''Collection citation''':<br> {{Collection citation | text= "United States,Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878." Index and Images. <i>FamilySearch</i>. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2015. Citing NARA microfilm publication M2029. College Park, Maryland: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.}}<br><br>
  
[[Category:African_Americans]]
+
'''Image citation''':<br> {{Image_Citation_Link
 +
|CID=CID2333780
 +
|title=United States, Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878
 +
}}

Latest revision as of 05:58, 21 May 2015

FamilySearch Record Search This article describes a collection of historical records available at FamilySearch.org.

Contents

Record Description

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (often called the Freedmen’s Bureau) was created in 1865 at the end of the American Civil War to supervise relief efforts including education, health care, food and clothing, refugee camps, legalization of marriages, employment, labor contracts, and securing back pay, bounty payments and pensions. These records include letters and endorsements sent and received, account books, applications for rations, applications for relief, court records, labor contracts, registers of bounty claimants, registers of complaints, registers of contracts, registers of disbursements, registers of freedmen issued rations, registers of patients, reports, rosters of officers and employees, special and general orders and circulars received, special orders and circulars issued, records relating to claims, court trials, property restoration, and homesteads. This collection corresponds with NARA microfilm publication M2029, The records of the Freedmen’s Branch in the Office of the Adjutant General are part of Records of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands.

You can browse through images in this collection by visiting the browse page for United States, Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878.

Record Content

The information varies between records. You may find any of the following:

  • Name(s) of the primary individual(s)
  • Name of the freedman’s former owner
  • Names of family members
  • Residence
  • Age
  • Date of the record
  • Birth, marriage or death dates and places

How to Use the Records

To begin your search it is helpful to know

  • The name of your ancestor
  • Identifying information such as name of spouse, age birthplace or residence

Search the Collection

To search the collection:
⇒Select "Browse through images" on the initial collection page
⇒Select the appropriate "Freedmen's Bureau Office or Subordinate Field Office Location"
⇒Select the appropriate "NARA Roll Number-Contents" which takes you to the images.

Look at each image comparing the information with what you already know about your ancestors to determine if the image relates to them. You may need to look at several images and compare the information about the individuals listed in those images to your ancestors to make this determination. Keep in mind:

  • There may be more than one person in the records with the same name.
  • You may not be sure of your own ancestor’s name.
  • Your ancestor may have used different names or variations of their name throughout their life.

Using the Information

When you have located your ancestor’s record, carefully evaluate each piece of information given. Download a copy of the record, or extract the genealogical information needed. These pieces of information may give you new biographical details. Add this new information to your records of each family. The information may also lead you to other records about your ancestors. The following examples show ways you can use the information:

  • Use the estimated age to calculate a birth date.
  • Use the names, ages, and residence to search the census records after 1965, land records and church records

Tips to Keep in Mind

  • Continue to search the records to identify children, siblings, parents, and other relatives.
  • When looking for a person who had a common name, look at all the entries for the name before deciding which is correct.
  • You may need to compare the information of more than one family or person to make this determination.
  • Be aware that your ancestor may have used more than one name during their lifetime.
  • Remember that there may be more than one person in the records with the same name as your ancestor and that your ancestor may have used nicknames or different names at different times.

Unable to Find Your Ancestor?

  • Look for variant spellings of the names. You should also look for nicknames and abbreviated names.
  • Try alternative search methods such as only filling in the surname search box (or the given name search box) on the landing page leaving the other box empty and then click on search. This should return a list of everyone with that particular name. You could then browse the list for individuals with the same family number.

Additional Information About These Records

The Freedmen’s Bureau records are a major source of genealogical information about post Civil War African Americans. They are also a good source to quickly identify a family group and residence. Use the place of residence, age, and other information for each person to search for the individuals in census records and other types of records.

The Freedmen’s Bank Records are the most commonly known records created by the Freedmen’s Bureau and have also been described separately.

The original records are preserved at the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. Copies of the original records are available at the National Archives Building in Washington D.C. and the regional archives located in Alaska, California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, Texas and Washington State. The records were microfilmed in 2001 the microfilms are available at the Family History Library.

The Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands was established in the War Department in March of 1865. It was commonly called the Freedman’s Bureau and was responsible for the management and supervision of matters relating to refuges, freedmen, and abandoned lands. The Bureau assisted disenfranchised Americans, primarily African Americans, with temporal, legal and financial matters, with the intent of helping people to become self-sufficient. Matters handled included the distributing of food and clothing; operating temporary medical facilities; acquiring back pay, bounty payments, and pensions; facilitating the creation of schools, including the founding of Howard University; reuniting family members; handling marriages; and providing banking services. Banking services were provided by the establishment of the Freedman’s Saving and Trust Company, or Freedman’s Bank.

The Bureau functioned as an agency of the War Department from approximately June 1865 until December 1868. In 1872, the functions of the Bureau were transferred to the Freedmen’s Branch of the Adjutant General’s Office.

The Bureau assisted over one million African Americans, including many of the nearly four million emancipated slaves, which was over 25% of the population of former slaves in America.

The records identify those who sought help from the Bureau at the end of the Civil War. Most supplicants were freed slaves, some of which were military veterans. In addition, a few veterans who were not African Americans also sought help from the Bureau.

Freedmen’s Bureau records are usually reliable, because the records were supplied through first-person correspondence or the recording of a marriage.

Related FamilySearch Historical Records Collection Articles

Related Websites

Related Wiki Articles

How You Can Contribute

We welcome user additions to FamilySearch Historical Records wiki articles. We are looking for additional information that will help readers understand the topic and better use the available records. We especially need language translations for both content and images. For specific needs, please look for callout boxes throughout the article or visit WikiProject FamilySearch Records.

Please follow these guidelines as you make changes. Thank you for any contributions you may provide.


Citations for This Collection

When you copy information from a record, you should list where you found the information; that is, cite your sources. This will help people find the record again and evaluate the reliability of the source. It is also good to keep track of records where you did not find information, including the names of the people you looked for in the records. Citations are available for the collection as a whole and each record or image individually.

Collection citation:

"United States,Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878." Index and Images. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2015. Citing NARA microfilm publication M2029. College Park, Maryland: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.

Image citation:

The citation for an image is available on each image in this collection by clicking Show Citation at the bottom left of the image screen. You can browse through images in this collection by visiting the browse page for United States, Freedmen's Branch Records, 1872-1878.

 

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  • This page was last modified on 21 May 2015, at 05:58.
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