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This is a sandbox area. It is a '''experimentation area''' and often contains '''disposable content'''. It's a place to practice editing.  
 
This is a sandbox area. It is a '''experimentation area''' and often contains '''disposable content'''. It's a place to practice editing.  
  
<br> .......................................................................
+
Title: '''Historical Maps of Sweden'''
  
While doing family history research it's common to search for the grave of an ancestor, hoping to get some birth or death date from the gravestone (especially in U.S. Research). Before you plan a trip to Sweden to travel around their cemeteries, you should consider some of the social and cultural differences. Here are a few things to consider:
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Whether you are working in Swedish church, taxation, or military records, there are lots of references to place names. These places names show where people lived. With this information, you can find the place on a historical map (a map that was created close to the time period that your ancestors lived in.)
  
==== Types of burial places  ====
+
It's really exciting to see the place where your ancestor lived on a map that was created about the same time they lived there. The information you see on the map can be used in your research strategy or to enhance your family history. A huge amount of historical maps have survived in Sweden. The maps were created for a variety of reasons including real estate maps for taxation, surveying boundaries, and road development.
  
Historically burial places around the world have had different forms for example, burial places in the forest. Ancient burial places outside of a city are called necropolis. Jewish and Muslim congregations in Christian countries may have their own burial places often near the larger christian burial areas. Some burial places were created at the time of a epidemic, usually mass graves. These mass graves might only have been used as a burial place for the duration of the epidemic. Due to war, sometimes there are cemeteries specifically for military use.  
+
The largest collection of historical maps was created to asses or move property boundaries that were associated to farming. Sometimes the property was owned; most often before the mid 1800's it was only leased. But this depends on where you are in the country. Sweden is slightly larger than the state of California and has a great diversity of land usage. The majority of arable land is in southern Sweden, with regional mining, and vast forests in the west and north. Historically, the good arable farm land was under the control of manorial estates (either by nobility or the crown.) Each owner of an estate would divide up the estate into smaller lots to maximize productivity. Then the lots would be leased. Each lease holder had financial obligations such as taxes and other fees associated to the lease agreement. These contracts were often transferred within a family, usually going to the oldest son. It was in the estate’s best interest to try to do this as fairly as possible (each lot having good land and poor land.)
  
A churchyard is the area around a church that is often used as a burial place. Churchyards are the most common place for burials in Sweden. Even Swedish cemeteries that do not have a church are called churchyards. &nbsp;Modern cemeteries in Sweden are often further out of a town and are equipped with a cemetery chapel.<br>  
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The problem was that over time trying to be fair, the transfer of contracts and the increase of population, only complicated the structure of boundaries. These reasons, combined with the ambitions of the king and government in the 1600’s set the stage for land usage reform beginning in the mid 1700's. The land reforms were supposed to streamline farm production which in turn increased tax revenue. <br>  
  
==== Ancient Burials in Sweden ====
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=== Lantmäteriet ===
  
Very few graveyards have been found in Sweden that date back to stone age cultures. By the Bronze Age, cremations and other forms of burial were praticed. By the early Iron Age grave fields became common. Late Iron Age burial grounds are often linked to villages that are traced into Medieval times. By the 900's the practice of cremation on a burial pyre was done. Afterwards the burnt bones and personal items in an earthern vessel were buried where older burials had already taken place (often among stone circles, rock formations, or burial mounds.) Early Christian burials in Sweden show the skeletal remains often laid with their feet towards the east and the head towards the west to prepare for the great resurrection.  
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The royal [http://www.lantmateriet.se/ lantmäteri] (land surveying office) was founded in 1628. Its duties included geometrical measurements, and the creation of maps. The maps were created by a Lantmätare (surveyor) and his team.  
  
<br>
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Find the time period you need on the table below to see what historical maps are available. Use the links in the Tools area when you do the actual searching.
  
==== Christian Burials ====
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=== Tools ===
  
Decades after Christianity arrived in the 1000's, people founded common graves around the church buildings and the old farm cemeteries were abandoned. Over time the churchyards were organized by community or family. Graves were marked with planks or crosses made of wood. Up until the early 1800's the practice of having a family burial place in the churchyard, often as a low mound covered in deep grass with a modest wooden cross was common. Very few graves, usually in the cathedral churchyards or in cities, had a flat or standing marker of stone (often sandstone or limestone), or of iron.
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*Scales on Maps
 +
*Linear Measurments in Sweden
 +
*Word List for Historical Maps
 +
*Lantmäteriet Website (direct link)
 +
*Krigsarkivet Website (direct link)  
 +
*&nbsp;? SVAR Historical Maps
  
==== Churchyards in Older times  ====
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<br>
  
In older times, a stone wall was built around churchyards to protect the grounds from larger wildlife. The wall would have one or more openings, often with a small wooden staircase, with wooden walls built up on the sides and a roof over the top. The churchyard of Täby has a good example of these portal structures. The southern and eastern parts of the churchyard were the most used for burials. In many places the northern part of the church yard was believed to be a unsuitable place for burials.
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== Types of Historical Maps  ==
  
Unlike modern times, the graves were not placed in organized rows. At times the churchyards were used for grazing. They were used for public gatherings, public announcements, court sessions, markets, or even outdoor plays.
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{| border="1" width="90%" class="wikitable"
 +
|-
 +
! scope="col" | Name
 +
! scope="col" | Time Period
 +
! scope="col" | Number of Maps
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Äldre geometriska kartor'''
  
Martin Luther spoke out in disapproval of the misuse of churchyards which was supported by the Swedish Lutheran church leadership. There are witnessed accounts of graves that were opened for use during the 1600 and 1700's where bones from previously buried people were left on the surface rather than reburied in the new grave. For this reason the benhus (literally meaning the bone house) was built, where one could deposit them. Åker church and Strängnäs cathedral have examples of surviving benhus.  
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*Also called Geometriska jordeböcker. These maps are visual tax records. See the [[Äldre Geometriska Historical Maps of Sweden|Äldre Geometriska Historical Maps]] page.
  
==== Status  ====
+
| 1600's
 +
| 12,000
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Geometriska kartor'''
  
The burial place of the nobility or clergy was often in the church, under the floor with flat stone markers, in built up monuments, tombs, or even family chapels. In 1633 a burial chapel was built for King Gusaf II Adolf in Riddarholms church in Stockholm which became the pattern for the nobility. For the rest of the 1600’s and 1700’s many parish churches had a burial chapels built. Another tradition was the creation of burial shields (for the nobility) that were carried during the funeral services and eventually mounted on the wall in the parish church. The burial shield might include an epitaph with the design of the deceased persons nobility shield, or even a sculpture carved out of wood which was painted. This practice was even done in rural parish buildings where the noble family had prominence. By 1779 the ecclesiastical government body (prästståndet) began to question the value of burials in the church buildings. In 1815 the practice of burial in the church buildings was forbidden. The nobility or the clergy were given a prominent place in the churchyard instead, often with a little iron fence or a stone edging around the grave.  
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*Arial views of residential and cultivation areas. See the [[Geometriska Historical Maps of Sweden|Geometriska Historical Maps]] page.
  
==== The Sanctity of Burial Places  ====
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| early 1700's - 1750
 +
| Unknown
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Storskifte'''
  
Toward the end of the 1700’s the churchyards became enclosed. In 1776 an official communication was sent out to the parishes stating that the walls around the churchyards should be of stone replacing other constructions that were not as stabile. During the 1700’s there were efforts to plant trees in the churchyards. The hope was that the trees would help improve the smell of the churchyards, especially in overpopulated larger cities. As the population increased during the 1800’s (largely due to peacetime, vaccinations, and potato’s) society had a greater need for additional cemeteries’. This became an acute problem in the cities because of concerns with sanitation. A government ordinance was passed in 1810 to create new cemeteries’ outside of the cities. The first cemetery created to meet this need is part of the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm city that was dedicated in 1827 by Bishop Johan Olof Wallin. As a consequence to epidemics additional cemeteries were created in the 1800’s such as the Kolerakyrkogårdar (Cholera cemeteries’) around the country. These newer cemeteries had a more modern plan, with consistent lot structure, and individual burial places. Even the inscriptions on grave markers from this time period have a greater consistency with birth and death dates, or even scriptural quotations. These markers vary according to social class ranging from the anonymous to the grandiose. Many family graves are from this time period, where the associated lots continued to be reused by family members only. People of different religious beliefs (other than the Swedish state church) have also had their own cemeteries in Sweden. The first Jewish cemetery was created on the island of Kungsholm in Stockholm in 1776. The first Catholic cemetery since the reformation was created within the Norra begravningsplaten in Stockholm in 1847. Immigration to Sweden after the Second World War led to the creation of cemeteries for Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Historically Stockholm has had the highest rate of cremation. The first crematorium in Sweden was built in the Norra begravningsplatsen in Stockholm in 1909. As the preference for cremation has increased, the cemeteries have created places for the placement of urns in the ground, columbarium’s, and memory groves. The urnlunder are places where the urn has been buried and a grave marker has been placed. Columbarium’s are places where the urns have been placed in a structure built onto the church or even a separate building for that purpose. The memory groves are places where the urn has been buried without a grave marker, or in some cases spread in a designated area.  
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*Maps from the 1st land reform. See the [[Storskifte Historical Maps of Sweden|Storskifte Historical Maps]] page.
  
==== Well known Cemeteries’ in Sweden  ====
+
| 1750's - 1820
 +
| 40,000
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Enskifte'''
  
Galärvarvskyrkogården Stockholm Katarina kyrkogård Stockholm Kungliga begravningsplatsen Solna Kvibergs kyrkogård Göteborg Maria Magdalena kyrkogård Stockholm Norra begravningsplatsen Stockholm Ravlunda kyrkogård Sandsborgskyrkogården Stockholm Skogskyrkogården Stockholm Södra kyrkogården Nacka Uppsala gamla kyrkogård Väskinde kyrkogård Gotland Östra kyrkogården Göteborg
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*Maps from the 2nd land reform. See the [[Enskifte Historical Maps of Sweden|Enskifte Historical Maps]] page.
  
==== References  ====
+
| 1803 - 1827
 +
| Unknown
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Lagaskifte '''
  
*Wikipedia Community, [http://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Begravningsplats Begravningsplats], Swedish Wikipedia 2012
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*Maps from the 3rd land reform. See the [[Laga Skifte Historical Maps of Sweden|Lagaskifte Historical Maps]] page.
*Edvard Lehmann, ”Begravning”, Svensk uppslagsbok, 3. Malmö 1930
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*Göran Malmstedt, Bondetro och kyrkoro. Religiös mentalitet i stormaktstidens Sverige. Lund * 2002
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*Ewert Wrangel, ”Gravkonst”, Svensk uppslagsbok, 11. Malmö 1932
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*Ewert Wrangel, ”Kyrkogård”, Svensk uppslagsbok, 16. Malmö 1933
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*Göran Åstrand, Känt och okänt på Stockholms kyrkogårdar. Stockholm 1998
+
  
<br>
+
| 1828 - 1926
 +
| Unknown
 +
|-
 +
|
 +
'''Krigsarkivets Maps'''
  
<br> ........................................................................  
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*Maps in the Krigsarkivets collection. See the [[Krigsarkivets_Historical_Maps_of_Sweden|Krigsarkivets Historical Maps]] page.
  
{| border="1" class="sortable"
+
| 1600's - early 1800's
|-
+
| 35,000
! DGS Number
+
! Name of Parish
+
! Record Type
+
! Volume and Year
+
! Remarks
+
|-
+
| 4015751
+
| Nora Bergs församling
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| B Flyttningslängder
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| 1, 1746-
+
| <br>
+
|-
+
| 4015751
+
| Nora Bergs församling
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| C Födelse- och dopböcker
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| 1, 1737-1756
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| Särskild förteckning över oäkta barn. Innehåller även kyrkopliktslängd 1744-1751.
+
|-
+
| 4015751
+
| Nora Bergs församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
+
| 2, 1756-1770
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| Särskild förteckning över oäkta barn.
+
|-
+
| 4015751
+
| Nora Bergs församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
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| 3, 1770-1788
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| Särskild förteckning över oäkta barn.
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| B Flyttningslängder
+
| 1, 1746-1799
+
| Innehåller även utflyttningslängd för Norrbyås.
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
+
| 1, 1660-1684
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| Innehåller även vigselbok 1660-1684, dödbok 1660-1688, gåvolängd 1679, series pastorum 1572-1739, inventarium 1666-1693.
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
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| 2, 1688-1704
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| Innehåller även lysnings- och vigselbok 1688-1704, död- och begravningsbok 1688-1704, gåvolängd 1688-1689, inventarium 1695.
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
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| 3, 1705-1746
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| <br>
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
+
| 4, 1747-1780
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| 1747-1779(1780).
+
|-
+
| 4015752
+
| Stora Mellösa församling
+
| C Födelse- och dopböcker
+
| 5, 1780-1805
+
| <br>
+
|-
+
| 4115876
+
| Almby församling
+
| A I Husförhörslängder
+
| 1, 1765-1777
+
| <br>
+
 
|}
 
|}
  
<br>
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Category: Sweden, Category Historical Maps in Sweden
 
+
<br>
+
  
 
[[Category:Sandbox]]
 
[[Category:Sandbox]]

Revision as of 16:03, 19 March 2013

This is a sandbox area. It is a experimentation area and often contains disposable content. It's a place to practice editing.

Title: Historical Maps of Sweden

Whether you are working in Swedish church, taxation, or military records, there are lots of references to place names. These places names show where people lived. With this information, you can find the place on a historical map (a map that was created close to the time period that your ancestors lived in.)

It's really exciting to see the place where your ancestor lived on a map that was created about the same time they lived there. The information you see on the map can be used in your research strategy or to enhance your family history. A huge amount of historical maps have survived in Sweden. The maps were created for a variety of reasons including real estate maps for taxation, surveying boundaries, and road development.

The largest collection of historical maps was created to asses or move property boundaries that were associated to farming. Sometimes the property was owned; most often before the mid 1800's it was only leased. But this depends on where you are in the country. Sweden is slightly larger than the state of California and has a great diversity of land usage. The majority of arable land is in southern Sweden, with regional mining, and vast forests in the west and north. Historically, the good arable farm land was under the control of manorial estates (either by nobility or the crown.) Each owner of an estate would divide up the estate into smaller lots to maximize productivity. Then the lots would be leased. Each lease holder had financial obligations such as taxes and other fees associated to the lease agreement. These contracts were often transferred within a family, usually going to the oldest son. It was in the estate’s best interest to try to do this as fairly as possible (each lot having good land and poor land.)

The problem was that over time trying to be fair, the transfer of contracts and the increase of population, only complicated the structure of boundaries. These reasons, combined with the ambitions of the king and government in the 1600’s set the stage for land usage reform beginning in the mid 1700's. The land reforms were supposed to streamline farm production which in turn increased tax revenue.

Lantmäteriet

The royal lantmäteri (land surveying office) was founded in 1628. Its duties included geometrical measurements, and the creation of maps. The maps were created by a Lantmätare (surveyor) and his team.

Find the time period you need on the table below to see what historical maps are available. Use the links in the Tools area when you do the actual searching.

Tools

  • Scales on Maps
  • Linear Measurments in Sweden
  • Word List for Historical Maps
  • Lantmäteriet Website (direct link)
  • Krigsarkivet Website (direct link)
  •  ? SVAR Historical Maps


Types of Historical Maps

Name Time Period Number of Maps

Äldre geometriska kartor

1600's 12,000

Geometriska kartor

early 1700's - 1750 Unknown

Storskifte

1750's - 1820 40,000

Enskifte

1803 - 1827 Unknown

Lagaskifte

1828 - 1926 Unknown

Krigsarkivets Maps

1600's - early 1800's 35,000

Category: Sweden, Category Historical Maps in Sweden