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The Old Style Calendar began on Lady Day, 25th March, thus in 1750 and before, the year ran as follows:  
 
The Old Style Calendar began on Lady Day, 25th March, thus in 1750 and before, the year ran as follows:  
  
:25-31 March, April-December, January-24 March<br>Month 1 was March<br>7ber was September<br>8ber was October<br>9ber was November<br>10ber was December<br>
+
:25-31 March, April-December, January-24 March<br>Month 1 was March<br>''7ber'' was September<br>''8ber'' was October<br>''9ber'' was November<br>''10ber'' was December<br>
  
<br>In 1752 Britain changed to the New Style Calendar with 1st January as New Year's Day, but this change had taken place earlier in other countries such as Scotland in 1600.  
+
<span style="line-height: 1.5em;">In 1752 Britain changed to the New Style Calendar with 1</span><sup style="line-height: 1.5em;">st</sup><span style="line-height: 1.5em;"> January as New Year's Day, but this change had taken place earlier in other countries such as Scotland in 1600.</span>
  
1751 was a short year running from 25 March to 31 December only, because 1752 started on 1st January.  
+
1751 was a short year running from 25 March to 31 December only, because 1752 started on 1<sup>st</sup> January.  
  
 
The correct way to describe a date in the 'overlap' period of 1 January to 24 March in any year before 1751 is to state the Old Style/New Style e.g. 1712/13 which means: ''24 January 1712 in the register is what we would now call 24 January 1713.''  
 
The correct way to describe a date in the 'overlap' period of 1 January to 24 March in any year before 1751 is to state the Old Style/New Style e.g. 1712/13 which means: ''24 January 1712 in the register is what we would now call 24 January 1713.''  
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The Julian Calendar used from Roman Times was based on a 365.25-day year, there being an extra day every 4th year to account for the 0.25 factor.  
 
The Julian Calendar used from Roman Times was based on a 365.25-day year, there being an extra day every 4th year to account for the 0.25 factor.  
  
However, astronomically the year is actually 365.2422 days long. This meant that by 1582 the Julian Calendar was 10 days out of synchronism with the seasons. This was beginning to make life difficult in an agricultural economy. Hence Pope Gregory instituted two reforms: firstly 10 days were omitted (coping with past errors), and secondly, in future the last years of centuries (i.e. 1600, 1700 etc.) would only be Leap Years if their first two digits were divisible by four (hence ensuring accuracy from that time forward.)<br> The Catholic countries all changed around 1582, Protestant ones were reluctant to follow suit because it was a Catholic innovation. Britain (including Ireland &amp; colonies) eventually changed over in 1752; some countries held out longer, for example Russia until 1917.  
+
However, astronomically the year is actually 365.2422 days long. This meant that by 1582 the Julian Calendar was 10 days out of synchronism with the seasons. This was beginning to make life difficult in an agricultural economy. Hence Pope Gregory instituted two reforms: firstly 10 days were omitted (coping with past errors), and secondly, in future the last years of centuries (i.e. 1600, 1700 etc.) would only be Leap Years if their first two digits were divisible by four (hence ensuring accuracy from that time forward.)<br> The Catholic countries all changed around 1582, Protestant ones were reluctant to follow suit because it was a Catholic innovation. Britain (including Ireland and colonies) eventually changed over in 1752; some countries held out longer, for example Russia until 1917.  
  
 
As Europe had changed over much earlier, Britain was now 11 days out of sync, thus it was pronounced that September 2 would be followed by September 14. According to popular legend, this caused riots in the streets because the church had taught of a pre-ordained date of death. People shouted, "Give us back our 11 days!"  
 
As Europe had changed over much earlier, Britain was now 11 days out of sync, thus it was pronounced that September 2 would be followed by September 14. According to popular legend, this caused riots in the streets because the church had taught of a pre-ordained date of death. People shouted, "Give us back our 11 days!"  
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=== Genealogical Surprises<br>  ===
 
=== Genealogical Surprises<br>  ===
  
:*It was quite possible, and in fact common, for this situation to occur:John SMITH married Jemima TADPOLE on 6 Apr 1721<br> Jemima, wife of John SMITH was buried on 2 Feb 1721.<br> (Because February came after April in those days, and she likely died in childbirth.)<br>  
+
:*It was quite possible, and in fact common, for this situation to occur:
 +
:*&nbsp; John SMITH married Jemima TADPOLE on 6 Apr 1721<br>&nbsp; Jemima, wife of John SMITH was buried on 2 Feb 1721.<br>&nbsp;(Because February came after April in those days, and she likely died in childbirth.)<br>  
 
:*In Rusper, Sussex on 26 Mar 1652 they buried Robert Chatfield who had died on 24 Mar 1651. No, he was not excessively decayed because he only died two days before, that date being in the previous year.  
 
:*In Rusper, Sussex on 26 Mar 1652 they buried Robert Chatfield who had died on 24 Mar 1651. No, he was not excessively decayed because he only died two days before, that date being in the previous year.  
:*However, be very wary of any research that quotes, for example:<br>James WHITE married Phillis BLACK on 27 Feb 1751 <br> or<br>Simon BLOGGS buried 5 Sep 1752 <br> as there were no such dates due to the short year in 1751 and the lost 11 days in 1752!
+
:*However, be very wary of any research that quotes, for example:<br>&nbsp; James WHITE married Phillis BLACK on 27 Feb 1751 <br> or<br>&nbsp; Simon BLOGGS buried 5 Sep 1752 <br> as there were no such dates due to the short year in 1751 and the lost 11 days in 1752!
  
 
=== Phonetic Spellings  ===
 
=== Phonetic Spellings  ===
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The Irish Family and Local History Societies have done a grand job of recording tombstones in churchyards, cemeteries and burial grounds. They may also be referred to as memorial transcriptions, graveyard or cemetery records. Obviously only the more affluent could afford tombstones and this would seem to rule out many emigrants’ ancestors. Many of the websites listed at the end of the course material give you access to these databases, for example:  
 
The Irish Family and Local History Societies have done a grand job of recording tombstones in churchyards, cemeteries and burial grounds. They may also be referred to as memorial transcriptions, graveyard or cemetery records. Obviously only the more affluent could afford tombstones and this would seem to rule out many emigrants’ ancestors. Many of the websites listed at the end of the course material give you access to these databases, for example:  
  
*&nbsp;'''http://www.irishgenealogy.ie''' has over 400,000 MIs from 10 counties.
+
*[[ http://www.irishgenealogy.ie |''&nbsp;Irish Genealogy'']]''has over 400,000 MIs from 10 counties.''
*&nbsp;[http://www.eneclann.ie/acatalog/index.html Brian Cantwell’s Memorials of the Dead], the Collected Works which has over 67,000 people has now been issued on CD.
+
*''&nbsp;''[http://www.eneclann.ie/acatalog/index.html ''Brian Cantwell’s Memorials of the Dead'']'', the Collected Works'' which has over 67,000 people has now been issued on CD.
  
 
________________________________________  
 
________________________________________  

Revision as of 21:48, 9 September 2013

Contents


Calendar Changes in 1752

Changes that were made in England & her colonies in 1752.

Old Style and New Style

The Old Style Calendar began on Lady Day, 25th March, thus in 1750 and before, the year ran as follows:

25-31 March, April-December, January-24 March
Month 1 was March
7ber was September
8ber was October
9ber was November
10ber was December

In 1752 Britain changed to the New Style Calendar with 1st January as New Year's Day, but this change had taken place earlier in other countries such as Scotland in 1600.

1751 was a short year running from 25 March to 31 December only, because 1752 started on 1st January.

The correct way to describe a date in the 'overlap' period of 1 January to 24 March in any year before 1751 is to state the Old Style/New Style e.g. 1712/13 which means: 24 January 1712 in the register is what we would now call 24 January 1713.

Julian and Gregorian Calendars and the Lost 11 days

The Julian Calendar used from Roman Times was based on a 365.25-day year, there being an extra day every 4th year to account for the 0.25 factor.

However, astronomically the year is actually 365.2422 days long. This meant that by 1582 the Julian Calendar was 10 days out of synchronism with the seasons. This was beginning to make life difficult in an agricultural economy. Hence Pope Gregory instituted two reforms: firstly 10 days were omitted (coping with past errors), and secondly, in future the last years of centuries (i.e. 1600, 1700 etc.) would only be Leap Years if their first two digits were divisible by four (hence ensuring accuracy from that time forward.)
The Catholic countries all changed around 1582, Protestant ones were reluctant to follow suit because it was a Catholic innovation. Britain (including Ireland and colonies) eventually changed over in 1752; some countries held out longer, for example Russia until 1917.

As Europe had changed over much earlier, Britain was now 11 days out of sync, thus it was pronounced that September 2 would be followed by September 14. According to popular legend, this caused riots in the streets because the church had taught of a pre-ordained date of death. People shouted, "Give us back our 11 days!"

Genealogical Surprises

  • It was quite possible, and in fact common, for this situation to occur:
  •   John SMITH married Jemima TADPOLE on 6 Apr 1721
      Jemima, wife of John SMITH was buried on 2 Feb 1721.
     (Because February came after April in those days, and she likely died in childbirth.)
  • In Rusper, Sussex on 26 Mar 1652 they buried Robert Chatfield who had died on 24 Mar 1651. No, he was not excessively decayed because he only died two days before, that date being in the previous year.
  • However, be very wary of any research that quotes, for example:
      James WHITE married Phillis BLACK on 27 Feb 1751
    or
      Simon BLOGGS buried 5 Sep 1752
    as there were no such dates due to the short year in 1751 and the lost 11 days in 1752!

Phonetic Spellings

The family historian needs to learn to read phonetically. These examples will provide some practice for what you will find before 1900.

Examples of given names

Ellinnorah Elinora
Ezellebet
Elizabeth
Febe
Phoebe
Gorg
George
Hanaritameria
Henrietta Maria
Haner
Hannah
Jno
John
Lusy

Chart: Learn to Read Phonetically
A mont of lenin
a month of lying in
a nabstrak
an abstract
a nomely
a homily
and settere
Etcetera
arter david
Affidavit
asarvant
a servant
asingel wumen
a single woman
at the cinges aremes
at the King"s Arms
auncient mayd
ancient maid [elderly spinster]
awido
awido a widow
berryed, buride
buried
born on the bear
borne on the bier
carvaers
surveyors
cilling a notter
killing an otter
disses
decease
double cats
duplicates
feyseytashyn
visitation
frant and sens
frankincense
goynge to plemoth
going to Plymouth
he did tech scoole
[obviously not successfully!]
hed stuard of thes sitty
head steward of this city
inmetary
inventory
jelan orspitle rate
jail and hospital rate (tax)
jenewery
January
labrin mane
labouring man
mariegess, mariegs
marriages
melisha
militia
onerabl leady
onerabl leady
phes
fees
possessioning, pashon
processioning i.e. perambulation
Shentelman of whales
gentleman of Wales
Sillister
solicitor
stivacate, cirstoviate
certificate
vaganbonchile
vagabond child
waichin ye sorples
washing the surplice
wif of wellam
wife of William
wose
was
yngeounseon
injunction

 
Chart: Abbreviations Used in Registers

B
birth, baptism, banns, bachelor or burial
botp
both of this parish
c
christening, or circa
d
died, or denarius (penny)
d.s.p
decessit sine parole = died without issue surviving
d.s.p.leg.
died without legitimate issue
d.v.p
decessit vita patris = died in father’s lifetime
f or fo.
Folia (page) number
F.P.
foreign parts
f.s.
female servant
gent
gentleman
HEIC
Honourable East India Company
Ind.
of independent means
k
killed
L
Licence
M.I.
monumental (gravestone) inscription
M.L.
marriage licence
m.s.
male servant
Ms
manuscript
N.S.
New Style (Dates)
ob., obiit
died
O.S.
Old Style (Dates)
o.t.p.
of this parish
P
Pauper or Parish
PR
Parish Register
S
spinster
s and h
son and heir
Ts
typescript
unm
unmarried
WH
Workhouse


Chart: Terms used for illegitimacy

Latin
Filius adulterinus
Filius/filia populi
Filius fornicatoris
Incerti vero patis
Filius meretricius
Natus ex fornicatione
Filius scorti
Nothus
Filius terrae
Spuriosus
Filius unicuscujusque
Viciatus
Filius vulgi

English
Base
Lanebegot
Base Born (BB)
Love child
Basely Begott
Merrybegot
Bastard
Natural child
Begotten in adultery
Scape begotten child
Begotten in fornication
Scapebegot
Begotten on the body of ….
Son of an harlot
Byeblow
Son of the people
Chanceling
Spurious
Dratsab
The true father is uncertain


Monumental Inscriptions (MIs)

The Irish Family and Local History Societies have done a grand job of recording tombstones in churchyards, cemeteries and burial grounds. They may also be referred to as memorial transcriptions, graveyard or cemetery records. Obviously only the more affluent could afford tombstones and this would seem to rule out many emigrants’ ancestors. Many of the websites listed at the end of the course material give you access to these databases, for example:

________________________________________

Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course Research: Irish Ancestor offered by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.