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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{Canadian Newspapers Course}}|Ryan Taylor, revised by Susanna de Groot, PLCGS}}  
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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{US Migration Patterns}}|Beverly Whitaker, CG}}  
  
Newspapers - Obtaining & Viewing the Microfilm
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=== <br> Overland Travel, 1784-1839  ===
  
Once the researcher has located microfilm of the newspaper, they can begin looking at it. This may involve a trip to the library which holds it, or obtaining it on interlibrary loan.
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The demand for improved roads was great. The Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap was improved somewhat to allow wagon traffic. There was some improvement too in the old roads east of the Alleghenies, particularly across New York and Pennsylvania. New “roads” were constructed in the West, principal among them: Zane’s Trace; the Natchez Trace; the National Road; the Federal Road in the South; and the Chicago Road, reaching the tip of Lake Michigan.  
  
Interlibrary loan is one of the most underused of genealogical tools. For some reason, genealogists feel they must go to the library which owns a book or microfilm, or else buy them for their personal library. It is much easier, and cheaper, to bring them to your local public library for a short time, use them and then send them back.
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==== '''Zane’s Trace'''  ====
  
A second fallacy for many genealogists is that they have to find the library where the book is available first, before approaching their library to make the loan. It is your librarian’s task to find what library has the document, and then approach them for the loan. The patron has only to wait. The library has various online tools which help in locating the material and then placing the loan request.
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[[Image:Zane's Trace, Cumberland Gap.jpg|center|400px|Zane's Trace, Cumberland Gap.jpg]]This road was named after Ebenezer Zane, considered to be the founder of Wheeling (then in Virginia, now West Virginia). Zane was one of the first individuals to receive a land grant in Ohio, and Zane’s Trace became the first road in the Northwest Territory. In 1796, Congress awarded Colonel Ebenezer Zane a contract to complete a path between Wheeling and Limestone (now Maysville, Kentucky), the western end of the Great Wagon Road through Kentucky. Zane also established three ferries to cross the Muskingum, Hocking, and Scioto Rivers. In 1804, the Legislature appropriated about fifteen dollars a mile for making a new 20-foot-wide road over Zane’s route, but it was still a poor road because stumps of trees were left when under one foot high. <br> <br>
  
This being said, in the case of very obscure genealogical records, and unfortunately newspaper microfilm falls in this category, it can be better for the genealogist to inform the library of a possible source for the loan. One reason for this is the fact that many microforms are not included in library catalogues, as we have observed earlier. This makes locating them for loan purposes more difficult. So, adding this information to your loan request may be advisable.
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Zane’s makeshift road was the main land route in early Ohio. It ran west from Wheeling as does today’s Interstate 70 to the town of Zanesville. Then it cut southward through a dense forest, passing Lancaster and Chillicothe to reach Limestone. There a road led to the bluegrass country or a boat could be floated down to Cincinnati. <br>
  
This is how interlibrary loan operates: Knowing that every library cannot own everything their patrons might want, libraries agree to share their collections. This programme began decades ago, but it has grown into a substantial part of library operations.  
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This road was both an aid to western travelers and a commercial boon for shipping western produce to the east. Between 1825 and 1830, the section from Wheeling to Zanesville became part of the National Road.
Here are some points to remember about interlibrary loan:
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 Not all materials can be lent. Rare materials, or those for reference only, cannot leave their own library.
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==== Natchez Trace ====
 It may be possible to have a limited number of pages photocopied in place of sending the item through the mail. Consider whether this would suit your needs better.
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 Charges for this service vary. In most cases, there is no charge, but you may be expected to pay postage costs. Some academic libraries make hefty per-item charges for the service. You will be asked whether you are willing to pay them before the loan goes through.
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 One reason for the patron leaving the choice of lending institution to their own library is that it might be easier to obtain it from one place rather than another.
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 Try to provide your librarian with proof that the item you are requesting actually exists in the form you want. The best possibility is a printout from a catalogue, or an identification number from a large online catalogue (such as AMICUS at the Library and Archives Canada, or WorldCat).
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Once the microfilm arrives at your library, you will have it available for a limited time only. Be sure to note the due date and pursue your research in the period given.
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Genealogists who hope to use interlibrary loan more extensively might want to examine Newspapers: a guide to interlibrary loan, a researcher’s handbook, compiled by Rhonda Marty (Revised edition, Arlington, Wash.: Stillaguamish Valley Genealogical Society, 1993).
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[[Image:Natchez Trace.jpg|center|350px|Natchez Trace.jpg]]
  
Before visiting a library or archives to view microfilm, be sure to contact them to discuss their hours, rules for use, whether the microfilm is still available and whether it is necessary to reserve either a seat or a microfilm reader on the intended day. If you intend to make copies from the microfilm, ask about any special circumstances which might govern use of the reader-printers. For example, it is necessary to have a supply of quarters to make these copies at the Archives of Ontario, and quarters are not available from AO staff.
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<br>The Natchez Trace began as an early native Indian trail and was followed also by early explorers. Later it was used by Kentucky boatmen, post riders, and military men, including General Andrew Jackson after his victory at the Battle of New Orleans.  
The most recent technological development in the use of newspapers is the production of digitised images online. This makes the entire newspaper available to us at home via our computers, without waiting. The advantage for genealogists is that the exact image—that is, the newspaper itself, as printed—is available for us to use, and that no intervening indexer will be required. The digitised images are searchable, so we can discover every mention of a family name in a matter of minutes. You can then download the news items you wish.
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Most of the digitized newspaper projects are fee-based, that is, you must pay to use them. The digitising process is very expensive, and this allows the sites to pay their own way. Not all genealogists are in the position to afford this, so the inexpensive (or free) public library/microfilm route may be the only alternative.
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President Thomas Jefferson had made a treaty with the Chicasaw and Choctaw tribes so that a road could be opened along the old Indian Trace. The road was initially conceived with strategic military purpose due to possible hostilities with Spain over the restrictions they placed over use of the port of New Orleans. The military road was completed in 1803. Then, in 1806, Congress authorized construction of a 12-foot-wide road on the route, from Nashville to Natchez, a distance of 500 miles. It still wasn’t a carriage road because stumps up to 16 inches high were allowed to remain. The Natchez Trace passed through dense forests, 100 miles in Tennessee, 40 miles in Alabama and 300 in Mississippi. A more direct 40-foot-wide military road along the same route was completed in 1820—the Jackson Military Road. But by 1824, most of this road south of Columbus, Mississippi, was overgrown and abandoned. The trace was rapidly displaced by the fast-moving steamboats that came into general use by the 1830s.  
 
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As an example of a digitised site, the Alberta Heritage Digitization Project based at the University of Calgary is interesting. It has the advantage of being available without cost, since it is publicly sponsored.
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An enthusiastic article in a genealogical newsletter told of reading the Sexsmith Sentinel 1949-1954 online. The site is located at website: http://www.ourfutureourpast.ca/newspapr/brwsindx.asp?code=n41.
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The online sites of individual newspapers, many of which also require payment to use, are usually for current issues only. The archive of articles which they keep may not reflect the entire newspaper as it was published and are not in digitised format. While it is possible to find recent family materials in these archived newspapers, it is important that researchers make a distinction between the temporary archive reflected on the newspaper websites and the permanent record reflected in the microfilm or digitised versions of the paper publication.
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Online sites, even those with digitised images, must still be regarded as having a short life, since they change often and are dependent on constant maintenance to survive.
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The city of Natchez benefited by booming cotton production; roads webbed out over the countryside, accommodating endless wagons heaped high with cotton. Farmers would float their produce down the Mississippi River, sell their flatboats for lumber, then walk home in the direction of Nashville via the trace. For a time, this was the busiest trail in the “Old Southwest.” <br>
  
 
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Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course {{Canadian Newspapers Course}} offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
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Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com/eng/courses.asp?courseID=211 United States Migration Patterns] offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
  
[[Category:Canada]]
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[[Category:United_States]]

Latest revision as of 17:38, 7 August 2013

 
National Institute for Genealogical StudiesNational Institute for Genealogical Studies.gif

The original content for this article was contributed by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course United States Migration Patterns  by Beverly Whitaker, CG. The Institute offers over 200 comprehensive genealogy courses for a fee ($).


Overland Travel, 1784-1839

The demand for improved roads was great. The Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap was improved somewhat to allow wagon traffic. There was some improvement too in the old roads east of the Alleghenies, particularly across New York and Pennsylvania. New “roads” were constructed in the West, principal among them: Zane’s Trace; the Natchez Trace; the National Road; the Federal Road in the South; and the Chicago Road, reaching the tip of Lake Michigan.

Zane’s Trace

Zane's Trace, Cumberland Gap.jpg
This road was named after Ebenezer Zane, considered to be the founder of Wheeling (then in Virginia, now West Virginia). Zane was one of the first individuals to receive a land grant in Ohio, and Zane’s Trace became the first road in the Northwest Territory. In 1796, Congress awarded Colonel Ebenezer Zane a contract to complete a path between Wheeling and Limestone (now Maysville, Kentucky), the western end of the Great Wagon Road through Kentucky. Zane also established three ferries to cross the Muskingum, Hocking, and Scioto Rivers. In 1804, the Legislature appropriated about fifteen dollars a mile for making a new 20-foot-wide road over Zane’s route, but it was still a poor road because stumps of trees were left when under one foot high.

Zane’s makeshift road was the main land route in early Ohio. It ran west from Wheeling as does today’s Interstate 70 to the town of Zanesville. Then it cut southward through a dense forest, passing Lancaster and Chillicothe to reach Limestone. There a road led to the bluegrass country or a boat could be floated down to Cincinnati.

This road was both an aid to western travelers and a commercial boon for shipping western produce to the east. Between 1825 and 1830, the section from Wheeling to Zanesville became part of the National Road.

Natchez Trace

Natchez Trace.jpg


The Natchez Trace began as an early native Indian trail and was followed also by early explorers. Later it was used by Kentucky boatmen, post riders, and military men, including General Andrew Jackson after his victory at the Battle of New Orleans.

President Thomas Jefferson had made a treaty with the Chicasaw and Choctaw tribes so that a road could be opened along the old Indian Trace. The road was initially conceived with strategic military purpose due to possible hostilities with Spain over the restrictions they placed over use of the port of New Orleans. The military road was completed in 1803. Then, in 1806, Congress authorized construction of a 12-foot-wide road on the route, from Nashville to Natchez, a distance of 500 miles. It still wasn’t a carriage road because stumps up to 16 inches high were allowed to remain. The Natchez Trace passed through dense forests, 100 miles in Tennessee, 40 miles in Alabama and 300 in Mississippi. A more direct 40-foot-wide military road along the same route was completed in 1820—the Jackson Military Road. But by 1824, most of this road south of Columbus, Mississippi, was overgrown and abandoned. The trace was rapidly displaced by the fast-moving steamboats that came into general use by the 1830s.

The city of Natchez benefited by booming cotton production; roads webbed out over the countryside, accommodating endless wagons heaped high with cotton. Farmers would float their produce down the Mississippi River, sell their flatboats for lumber, then walk home in the direction of Nashville via the trace. For a time, this was the busiest trail in the “Old Southwest.”

____________________________________________________________

Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course United States Migration Patterns offered by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.

  • This page was last modified on 7 August 2013, at 17:38.
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