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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{Canadian Newspapers Course}}|Ryan Taylor}}  
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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{US Migration Patterns}}|Beverly Whitaker, CG}}  
  
== The Development of Newspapers ==
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=== Waves of American Migration ===
  
The first newspapers began in the early 18th century. They were painstakingly composed using handset type and hand-cranked presses, so the runs were small and issues appeared infrequently.  
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By comparison to 20th century rural-to-urban movement, the early migrations were largely rural-to-rural. Just prior to the American Revolution, about 95 percent farmed; by 1850 only 60 percent did. Moreover, the primary direction of migration was unquestionably west, to lands of lesser population and greater promise. The significance of America’s open land is highlighted by Robert E. Riegel and Robert G. Athearn, in their volume, ''America Moves West'' (5th edition, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), 1-2.  
  
Only a small percentage of the populace could read, so the audience was limited, but copies were shared among the readers.  
+
:For approximately three hundred years after the first English settlement at Jamestown the irresistible attraction of land somewhere “beyond” pulled Americans westward. As they conquered the frontier, plowed their fields, and built their cities, they wrote the American story... The American frontier movement was part of a much larger development, one that was launched from western Europe and fanned out across the entire western hemisphere. Just as the European impact influenced hemispheric development and was in turn affected by the flood of resources discovered in the new lands, so the vast and seemingly illimitable domain that lay before the colonists along the Atlantic seaboard molded the kind of nation that was to grow in the latitudes between the Rio Grande and the 49th parallel.<br>
  
They might also be read aloud to those who could not do so for themselves. Because of the nature of the papers—aiming for an elite and not being concerned with a quick series of events, but more opinions of a broader nature—there may be not as much concern for genealogists in these early newspapers.  
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<br>Chronologically, we should note that there were several periods of heavy migration within continental America. In a lecture entitled, “Migration Patterns to the Midwest,” (8 October 1983) Gary Boyd Roberts outlined six distinct migration waves prior to the twentieth century.  
  
Late in the century, newspapers began to take on the face we know better today, with advertising and local stories, and certainly in the early 19th century, the population of Canada exploded and so did the number of newspapers.  
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1. New England: filling up of western Massachusetts and Connecticut.<br>
  
As universal education became more common, there was a greater need for newspapers too, as they were one of the primary reading tools for the newly-literate.  
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2. Quakers in the 18th century: Southern New Jersey, Philadelphia, Virginia, North Carolina, later on to Ohio and California.<br>
  
Newspapers which began as weeklies might progress to twice-a-week, then daily as the population of their area grew. Some daily papers had a weekly digest version, in which a summary of events could be found for those who did not wish to read the dailies or did not wish to pay for them.  
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3. Pre- and Post-Revolutionary War: trek North to Vermont, inland New Hampshire, Maine, and Nova Scotia before crossing the mountains.<br>
  
By the 1920s the daily newspapers of even small cities across Canada included more international news, national politics and the various departments which are part of any modern paper—sports, cooking, ‘women’s pages’ with sewing and bridge instruction, comics and descriptions of current films.  
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4. Great 19th century western trek: began shortly after Revolutionary War, and especially in the period 1795-1820, then continued dramatically.<br>
  
Although they have altered in appearance with changes in printing technology, newspapers of the early 21st century are very similar to those of eighty years ago.  
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5. By way of Connecticut to New York: tycoons on Wall Street.<br>
  
The principal difference is that stories about the doings of Queen Marie of Romania have been replaced by stories about the doings of Britney Spears.  
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6. Post Civil War: to Texas and the Southwest to make money or to Charleston and Savannah for health reasons.  
  
=== Newspapers in Canada  ===
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Initially, the desire for land was what spurred a move to new frontiers. But as the importance of agriculture began to die out, people moved to booming cities where they could find jobs in industry. With this transition from a rural way of life to the more urbanized form came a change in timing of migration within the life and family cycle. As families became smaller, migration rates declined. Another characteristic was that decisions made early in the history of a family influenced the life-styles and fortunes of descendants, even in a society as mobile and as much in need of labor as America.
  
Naturally the first newspapers were in the earliest settled areas in Canada. Settlers in the interior might not see any newspapers, or would receive those from the principal cities. Since their points of interest might still lie back in the old country, many pioneers were happy to receive packets of newspapers from home, sent by relations, and did not bother with domestic news at all.  
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In the 1920s many blacks from the South took advantage of job opportunities in Northern factories; this was brought about by the National Origins Acts which effectively reduced the number of foreign immigrants, causing a labor shortage.  
  
Thus we find that the letters of the Scottish community in Ayr, Ontario in the 1870s are full of references to political and social events in Greenock and Edinburgh, Scotland, gleaned from newspapers sent by brothers at home and shared with everyone in town. There are few, if any references to political events in Toronto or Ottawa.<ref>These letters are in the collection of the Waterloo Historical Society, Kitchener Public Library, Kitchener, Ontario.</ref>
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Since the 1960s there have been significant migrations to the South and to the West. Retirees have flocked to the South, seeking a lower cost of living and preferring the more temperate climates. People went West for the climate and quality of life.  
  
Many settlers in remote areas might subscribe to big-city newspapers specifically hoping to obtain world news, or to ‘remain in touch’ despite their location. Thus we find displaced Englishmen who would have subscriptions to London newspapers, people in the Maritimes reading Boston papers or those in Ontario receiving New York publications. Obviously, although these people regarded those far-off newspapers as their source of news, there is no point in genealogical researchers looking in them for information about their ancestors. Their Canadian readers were looking for international information, not local, by reading them.  
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During the last decade, a contrasting population shift has begun to take place—rural counties are attracting families from urban areas. Whereas in most of the 20th century, families in rural America were larger than those in cities, today fewer rural counties are raising large families. (Brad Edmondson and Matthew Klein, “A New Era for Rural America,” ''Encyclopedia Britannica'', read online 3 December 2001.) Previously published in hard copy (September 1997).  
  
As cities developed within Canada, their newspapers would become the resource for distant readers to obtain national and international information, but again, readers in Parry Sound would be unlikely to insert their birth announcements in Montréal or Toronto publications. (We should note that families with more elevated social connections, and consequently with friends in Toronto or scattered throughout Ontario, might well have a birth announcement placed in the newspaper there for general distribution. Again, this would not apply to most people’s families.)  
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A second article from ''American Demographics ''suggests that economics was the driving force that caused young rural adults to flee to the cities. Today’s motivation for leaving the cities seems to be based on a desire to be surrounded by natural beauty and the wish for a good and peaceful life, although hopefully within the bounds of economic safety. This trend now crosses age lines with its appeal. It is also interesting to note that virtually all of the growing rural counties are located in western states. (Glenn Thrush, “Something in the Way We Move,” ''American Demographics,'' read 3 December 2001. Previously published in hard copy (November 1999).
  
For some, religious newspapers, which were sources of general news as well as spiritual materials, would take the place of a geographically-oriented newspaper, because it contained the information needed from a paper and also connected them with others of a similar bent elsewhere in the province.
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=== Roots and Routes ― An Overview  ===
  
Today, most people receive their newspapers delivered at home or they pick them up at a news stand. It is important to be aware that in the past the usual way to receive the newspaper was through the mail.  
+
“Thanks to the Interstate Highway System, it is now possible to travel from coast to coast without seeing anything.” This statement, attributed to Charles Kuralt, causes us to pause and consider paths previously taken! The roads of yesteryear left so much to be desired; they were either muddy, swampy, or dusty, narrow with stumps reaching up to hinder the way. But over those roads and up and down the rivers, came our ancestors either singly or as a family or in groups. Always, as we find them settling in their final homes, we wonder from whence they came!
  
There were special, low rates for sending newspapers (not only as new publications, but also those packets of gift papers sent from brother to brother or friend to friend, mentioned above). Thus, a subscription to a newspaper, local or faraway, was very similar to magazine subscriptions now.  
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The earliest European settlements in America were concentrated on the Eastern shore. As the population grew, people migrated westward in pursuit of available land. The transportation routes they took were determined by a combination of geography and historical events.<br><br>The process of white expansion followed an almost stereotypical historic process—whites entering Indian country, racial friction, war, Indian land cessions, and finally white land acquisition under federal land laws.  
  
It was customary for it to come through the post and was also affordable. Few people nowadays could afford the several hundred dollars a year it would take to subscribe to a faraway daily.  
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Originally, travel was by boat along the ocean shore or on the rivers and lakes. Trails made first by buffalo and Indians evolved into well-traveled primitive roads, usually suitable only for pedestrian traffic or pack animals. Over time, roads were constructed, often for either postal or military use, then improved for wagon traffic for commerce and the transport of migrating pioneers. Road and river travel improved throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.  
  
As recently as the 1970s, weekly newspapers in small towns were distributed this way, even to local subscribers. The current writer received copies of ''The Russell Banner'' of Russell, Manitoba this way, first while living in town and later in Ontario.  
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In colonial days, the Boston Post Road was the lifeline of the colonies. It extended from the New England states to New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and then into the South. Additional north-south roads came into being plus a few east-west connecting links.  
  
This fact is important for genealogists because, when we consider the question, “What newspaper did our ancestor subscribe to?” we may wonder if it is a paper much farther afield than the nearest town, for reasons of religion, political bias, or because of it containing specialised information.  
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The Indian threat west of the Appalachian Mountains posed a major barrier to pioneers leaving the original thirteen colonies. After the French and Indian War, the British attempted to restrict settlement west of the mountains with the Proclamation of 1763. It set a line beyond which colonists were not to move, but in reality, the Indians and the British occupied the west side of the line along with many premature settlers who, desirous of new land and opportunity, crossed over at several locations. Two passes led directly into this desirable interior—at the northern Mohawk River valley and at the Cumberland Pass into Kentucky in the South.  
  
An emigrant from Aberdeen living in rural British Columbia might discover that the editor of a newspaper in Halifax was also an Aberdonian, who consequently included a lot of Aberdeen news in his paper. The British Columbian might subscribe to the Halifax newspaper simply because of that. Whether he would place his own news items in that paper is another matter (but he might, as a way of reaching other old friends resident in Canada).  
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After the American Revolution, new settlers in the Ohio/Mississippi Valleys sought improved transportation to enable them to ship their goods to market. In the early 1800s, the federal government launched the building of a National Road which eventually spanned the distance from the East almost to the Mississippi River.  
  
=== Which Newspaper?  ===
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By 1825 the entire area east of the Mississippi River had been carved into states except for the territories of Wisconsin and Michigan.
  
If your relations lived in a town with a newspaper, then the choice of what paper to consult is clear. If they lived in the country, particularly in a remote place, the choice might be more difficult. This is especially true on the Prairies or in the interior of British Columbia, where distances between towns can be great. Here are some suggestions:
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Due to improvements in transportation, travel time was cut in half between 1800 and 1830. One of the most significant early routes to the Old Northwest was New York’s Erie Canal. It opened in 1825, extended from Albany to Buffalo, New York, linking the Hudson River with Lake Erie. Its success set off a canal building era in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and to a lesser extent some other states. The arrival of the railroads in the period 1860 to 1880 brought an end to the canal era.  
  
*&nbsp;Look at a contemporary map, to see where the roads and rivers run. The most likely publication place for the newspaper is the place where the family did its shopping and picked up its mail.  
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Meanwhile, in the early South, desire for large plantations moved persons into what is now Alabama and Mississippi. War with Mexico led to a surge into the Southwest from several directions. Then came the Overland Trails to the Far West, spurred on by the California Gold Rush and other events. Sailing ships became alternate routes to California at the height of the Gold Rush.  
*&nbsp;Consult a local directory. Farmers’ directories told the post office associated with people, and it may be surprising. The six Lunn brothers living in the Sandy Hook area of Durham County, Ontario in the 1890s all lived within a mile of one another on the same road which divides Manvers and Clarke townships, but some had their mailbox at Kendal and some at Pontypool. To find what directories might help you, consult Mary Bond’s ''Canadian directorie''s, 1790-1987:''A Bibliography and Place-Name Index ''(National Library of Canada, 1989). This is a listing of the directories in the collections of NLC and the National Archives of Canada library at that time. It can be used as a guide (not a definitive list) to what directories are extant. A most useful feature for family historians is the place-name index, which runs to 23,000 entries, which will assist you in determining which directories include the smaller place which interests you.
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*See where the railways went. Since the railways carried the mail, the easiest newspaper to obtain may have come from slightly farther away, but on the train. This may also have affected where people shopped.
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*Consider where people came from. If they had moved a short distance they might continue to subscribe to the newspaper from the former home. An example of this is a community of people who lived north of Listowel in Perth County, Ontario. Listowel had a healthy newspaper, but these people’s birth and death notices did not appear in it. Instead, they published in the Elora newspaper, to the east. The reason was that they had all come from the Elora-Fergus area initially, and their friends and family lived there, so that paper would have been filled with news of interest to them. Even if they had moved far away, their notices might well continue to appear in the home town newspaper for a while, since they would want to inform people there of events in their lives
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=== References ===
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Throughout this course, we will note specific trails, roads, rivers, canals, and railroads. We’ll also given attention to the composition of distinctive groups who traveled those transportation routes.<br>
  
<references />
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Persons who want a marvelous in-depth historical study of America’s Westward expansion are directed to a classic volume on the subject, available in many libraries. This account covers frontiers in America from early settlement through the 19th century. It includes an extensive bibliography. Ray Allen Billington and Martin Ridge,''Westward Expansion, A History of the American Frontier'', 5th edition (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.,) 1982.
  
<br> ____________________________________________________________
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=== Was There a ‘Typical’ Migrant?  ===
  
Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course {{Canadian Newspapers Course}} offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
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Today, people often leave home before marriage or move when their children are young. Early New England families who moved were most often in middle and old age. The rural middle class rate of migration was three times that of the rich, and poor persons rarely traveled more than 100 miles. Among farm families, migration didn’t destroy the nuclear family; rather, long-distance moves seemed frequently to come after the grandfather’s death. What often happened then was that a middle-aged farmer would put his share of his father’s estate together with proceeds from the sale of his first farm and then seek cheaper frontier land that he and his sons could then develop as a source of future financial gain. This pattern changed somewhat as families began to rely less on the sale of land at home and more on the ability to make a living based on education or an apprenticeship to a trade.
 +
 
 +
Pioneers moving to the West were of all ages and both sexes, but in the opinion of Riegel and Athearn, ''(America Moves West, ''110), the greatest single element was young men, traveling alone or in small groups.
 +
 
 +
:Such a man might be sufficiently lucky to be able to buy a farm immediately, after no more than a brief exploratory trip. More likely he possessed only a few dollars and planned to do farm work, storekeeping, boating, trapping, surveying, schoolteaching, or some other work until he acquired needed capital. Although he might squat on unsurveyed land, he still needed capital to purchase supplies, animals, implements, and seed. Before setting up as an independent farmer, he might well return to the East to marry his boyhood sweetheart. A frontier farmer’s wife was a person to love and cherish, but also a needed companion and co-worker on the farm.
 +
 
 +
<br>John W. Adams and Alice Bee Kasakoff reported in one of their studies, “The hopes and energy of youth provide the impetus to move early in life; wealth is the motivator in middle age. But in all cases, the likeliest moments to move seem to come at those times in the life cycle when the dependency relationships change in a person’s family. If there is a destiny in history, it takes shape at these moments.” “Anthropology, Genealogy, and History: A Research Log,” in ''Generations and Change: Genealogical Perspectives in Social History,'' Robert M. Taylor, Jr. and Ralph J. Crandall, editors. (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press), 1986. <br>
 +
 
 +
----
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Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com/eng/courses.asp?courseID=211 United States Migration Patterns] offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
  
[[Category:Canada]]
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[[Category:United_States]]

Latest revision as of 17:55, 5 August 2013

 
National Institute for Genealogical StudiesNational Institute for Genealogical Studies.gif

The original content for this article was contributed by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course United States Migration Patterns  by Beverly Whitaker, CG. The Institute offers over 200 comprehensive genealogy courses for a fee ($).

Waves of American Migration

By comparison to 20th century rural-to-urban movement, the early migrations were largely rural-to-rural. Just prior to the American Revolution, about 95 percent farmed; by 1850 only 60 percent did. Moreover, the primary direction of migration was unquestionably west, to lands of lesser population and greater promise. The significance of America’s open land is highlighted by Robert E. Riegel and Robert G. Athearn, in their volume, America Moves West (5th edition, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971), 1-2.

For approximately three hundred years after the first English settlement at Jamestown the irresistible attraction of land somewhere “beyond” pulled Americans westward. As they conquered the frontier, plowed their fields, and built their cities, they wrote the American story... The American frontier movement was part of a much larger development, one that was launched from western Europe and fanned out across the entire western hemisphere. Just as the European impact influenced hemispheric development and was in turn affected by the flood of resources discovered in the new lands, so the vast and seemingly illimitable domain that lay before the colonists along the Atlantic seaboard molded the kind of nation that was to grow in the latitudes between the Rio Grande and the 49th parallel.


Chronologically, we should note that there were several periods of heavy migration within continental America. In a lecture entitled, “Migration Patterns to the Midwest,” (8 October 1983) Gary Boyd Roberts outlined six distinct migration waves prior to the twentieth century.

1. New England: filling up of western Massachusetts and Connecticut.

2. Quakers in the 18th century: Southern New Jersey, Philadelphia, Virginia, North Carolina, later on to Ohio and California.

3. Pre- and Post-Revolutionary War: trek North to Vermont, inland New Hampshire, Maine, and Nova Scotia before crossing the mountains.

4. Great 19th century western trek: began shortly after Revolutionary War, and especially in the period 1795-1820, then continued dramatically.

5. By way of Connecticut to New York: tycoons on Wall Street.

6. Post Civil War: to Texas and the Southwest to make money or to Charleston and Savannah for health reasons.

Initially, the desire for land was what spurred a move to new frontiers. But as the importance of agriculture began to die out, people moved to booming cities where they could find jobs in industry. With this transition from a rural way of life to the more urbanized form came a change in timing of migration within the life and family cycle. As families became smaller, migration rates declined. Another characteristic was that decisions made early in the history of a family influenced the life-styles and fortunes of descendants, even in a society as mobile and as much in need of labor as America.

In the 1920s many blacks from the South took advantage of job opportunities in Northern factories; this was brought about by the National Origins Acts which effectively reduced the number of foreign immigrants, causing a labor shortage.

Since the 1960s there have been significant migrations to the South and to the West. Retirees have flocked to the South, seeking a lower cost of living and preferring the more temperate climates. People went West for the climate and quality of life.

During the last decade, a contrasting population shift has begun to take place—rural counties are attracting families from urban areas. Whereas in most of the 20th century, families in rural America were larger than those in cities, today fewer rural counties are raising large families. (Brad Edmondson and Matthew Klein, “A New Era for Rural America,” Encyclopedia Britannica, read online 3 December 2001.) Previously published in hard copy (September 1997).

A second article from American Demographics suggests that economics was the driving force that caused young rural adults to flee to the cities. Today’s motivation for leaving the cities seems to be based on a desire to be surrounded by natural beauty and the wish for a good and peaceful life, although hopefully within the bounds of economic safety. This trend now crosses age lines with its appeal. It is also interesting to note that virtually all of the growing rural counties are located in western states. (Glenn Thrush, “Something in the Way We Move,” American Demographics, read 3 December 2001. Previously published in hard copy (November 1999).

Roots and Routes ― An Overview

“Thanks to the Interstate Highway System, it is now possible to travel from coast to coast without seeing anything.” This statement, attributed to Charles Kuralt, causes us to pause and consider paths previously taken! The roads of yesteryear left so much to be desired; they were either muddy, swampy, or dusty, narrow with stumps reaching up to hinder the way. But over those roads and up and down the rivers, came our ancestors either singly or as a family or in groups. Always, as we find them settling in their final homes, we wonder from whence they came!

The earliest European settlements in America were concentrated on the Eastern shore. As the population grew, people migrated westward in pursuit of available land. The transportation routes they took were determined by a combination of geography and historical events.

The process of white expansion followed an almost stereotypical historic process—whites entering Indian country, racial friction, war, Indian land cessions, and finally white land acquisition under federal land laws.

Originally, travel was by boat along the ocean shore or on the rivers and lakes. Trails made first by buffalo and Indians evolved into well-traveled primitive roads, usually suitable only for pedestrian traffic or pack animals. Over time, roads were constructed, often for either postal or military use, then improved for wagon traffic for commerce and the transport of migrating pioneers. Road and river travel improved throughout the 18th and 19th centuries.

In colonial days, the Boston Post Road was the lifeline of the colonies. It extended from the New England states to New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Delaware, and then into the South. Additional north-south roads came into being plus a few east-west connecting links.

The Indian threat west of the Appalachian Mountains posed a major barrier to pioneers leaving the original thirteen colonies. After the French and Indian War, the British attempted to restrict settlement west of the mountains with the Proclamation of 1763. It set a line beyond which colonists were not to move, but in reality, the Indians and the British occupied the west side of the line along with many premature settlers who, desirous of new land and opportunity, crossed over at several locations. Two passes led directly into this desirable interior—at the northern Mohawk River valley and at the Cumberland Pass into Kentucky in the South.

After the American Revolution, new settlers in the Ohio/Mississippi Valleys sought improved transportation to enable them to ship their goods to market. In the early 1800s, the federal government launched the building of a National Road which eventually spanned the distance from the East almost to the Mississippi River.

By 1825 the entire area east of the Mississippi River had been carved into states except for the territories of Wisconsin and Michigan.

Due to improvements in transportation, travel time was cut in half between 1800 and 1830. One of the most significant early routes to the Old Northwest was New York’s Erie Canal. It opened in 1825, extended from Albany to Buffalo, New York, linking the Hudson River with Lake Erie. Its success set off a canal building era in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and to a lesser extent some other states. The arrival of the railroads in the period 1860 to 1880 brought an end to the canal era.

Meanwhile, in the early South, desire for large plantations moved persons into what is now Alabama and Mississippi. War with Mexico led to a surge into the Southwest from several directions. Then came the Overland Trails to the Far West, spurred on by the California Gold Rush and other events. Sailing ships became alternate routes to California at the height of the Gold Rush.

Throughout this course, we will note specific trails, roads, rivers, canals, and railroads. We’ll also given attention to the composition of distinctive groups who traveled those transportation routes.

Persons who want a marvelous in-depth historical study of America’s Westward expansion are directed to a classic volume on the subject, available in many libraries. This account covers frontiers in America from early settlement through the 19th century. It includes an extensive bibliography. Ray Allen Billington and Martin Ridge,Westward Expansion, A History of the American Frontier, 5th edition (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.,) 1982.

Was There a ‘Typical’ Migrant?

Today, people often leave home before marriage or move when their children are young. Early New England families who moved were most often in middle and old age. The rural middle class rate of migration was three times that of the rich, and poor persons rarely traveled more than 100 miles. Among farm families, migration didn’t destroy the nuclear family; rather, long-distance moves seemed frequently to come after the grandfather’s death. What often happened then was that a middle-aged farmer would put his share of his father’s estate together with proceeds from the sale of his first farm and then seek cheaper frontier land that he and his sons could then develop as a source of future financial gain. This pattern changed somewhat as families began to rely less on the sale of land at home and more on the ability to make a living based on education or an apprenticeship to a trade.

Pioneers moving to the West were of all ages and both sexes, but in the opinion of Riegel and Athearn, (America Moves West, 110), the greatest single element was young men, traveling alone or in small groups.

Such a man might be sufficiently lucky to be able to buy a farm immediately, after no more than a brief exploratory trip. More likely he possessed only a few dollars and planned to do farm work, storekeeping, boating, trapping, surveying, schoolteaching, or some other work until he acquired needed capital. Although he might squat on unsurveyed land, he still needed capital to purchase supplies, animals, implements, and seed. Before setting up as an independent farmer, he might well return to the East to marry his boyhood sweetheart. A frontier farmer’s wife was a person to love and cherish, but also a needed companion and co-worker on the farm.


John W. Adams and Alice Bee Kasakoff reported in one of their studies, “The hopes and energy of youth provide the impetus to move early in life; wealth is the motivator in middle age. But in all cases, the likeliest moments to move seem to come at those times in the life cycle when the dependency relationships change in a person’s family. If there is a destiny in history, it takes shape at these moments.” “Anthropology, Genealogy, and History: A Research Log,” in Generations and Change: Genealogical Perspectives in Social History, Robert M. Taylor, Jr. and Ralph J. Crandall, editors. (Macon, Georgia: Mercer University Press), 1986.


Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course United States Migration Patterns offered by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.

  • This page was last modified on 5 August 2013, at 17:55.
  • This page has been accessed 520 times.