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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{Canadian Newspapers Course}}|Ryan Taylor}}  
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{{Infobox NIFGS|June 2012|{{US Migration Patterns}}|Beverly Whitaker, CG}} <br>
  
=== The Names of Newspapers ===
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=== Colonial America, 1607-1783 ===
  
One given in the history of newspapers is that their names change. Often the changes are minute, and equally often the changes go from one thing to another and back again. It may be that the proprietor wants to renew the paper’s appeal, or simply wants a change. When ownership changes, altering the title is an obvious choice but a delicate balance might be struck between complete change and continuity. At other times, two papers merge and so do their names.
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=== Coastal Settlement  ===
  
While all this happens, the populace will often not bother to change how they refer to the paper. The newspaper mentioned earlier, ''The Kitchener-Waterloo Record'', was originally the ''Kitchener Record'' until 1948 when the elevation of Waterloo to the status of a city caused the change to ''The Kitchener-Waterloo Record''. Recently the paper’s official name changed to ''The Record'' which is how everyone referred to it all along.  
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The earliest English and Dutch colonists came under the auspices of the great trading companies. They were here to expand the mercantile efforts of their mother countries. Their economy was based on what could be sold back to the home countries. Initially, they saw no reason to look beyond their eastern shores. A hundred years went by before they saw any need whatsoever to move on. By contrast, the 1700s influx of the Palatines and the Scots-Irish came to these shores for a different reason—to escape the persecution they had endured in the past. They had no intention of returning to their native lands or even to engage in commerce with them. They had the attitude, desire, and skills necessary to move on to frontier life which they saw as ''opportunity''. By 1749, about 12,000 German-speaking persons had come to Pennsylvania, and they were agreeable to moving away from the coast in order to obtain good land. Likewise, the Scots-Irish were ready to move on, usually staying in one place for only about seven years.  
  
The only difficulties which this might cause the researcher is, first, that they might not know exactly what paper is being referred to, and secondly, their own bibliographic reference (footnotes) in the family history might be affected.  
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Virginia has long been recognized as the seedbed of the nation. Before about 1730 settlements were primarily in the Atlantic coastal region. When persons wanted to travel between settlements they generally used the waterways or the old Indian paths. Although they constructed some crude roads, they usually found the water routes easier.  
  
Since local people refer to the paper by some shorthand, whatever its name (‘The Record’), published indexes or even listings in bibliographies might use this shorter form, ignoring the changes. The newspaper names in Gilchrist’s Ontario directory are like this. A variation of this is to use the current newspaper’s name to refer to past issues, or vice versa. The Bruce &amp; Grey Branch of the Ontario Genealogical Society has published numerous volumes of newspaper indexes of the Owen Sound ''Sun-Times''. All the volumes so far published are for a time before the''Sun-Times'' existed, when the paper was called the ''Times''.  
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During the 17th century the Tidewater colonies of Virginia and Maryland experienced rapid growth. Tobacco planters welcomed swarms of indentured servants who exchanged seven years of labor in return for their passage across the ocean. Fur traders and yeoman farmers were driving back Spaniards on the Southern frontier. In the 1700s coastal settlements in Georgia were encouraged in order to hold the colony for English colonists.  
  
The only sure way for a researcher to verify a newspaper name for bibliographic purposes is to look at the masthead personally to check it. When you have the microfilm for reading, be sure to note the correct masthead name with your extractions.  
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In the early 1700s people went from Virginia to Maryland, but in the late 1700s people returned to Virginia because of lack of fertile land. The tobacco economy of both colonies led to migration as the land became exhausted and unable to support a good yield and financial prosperity.  
  
==== Interpreting a Newspaper Bibliography  ====
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As Virginians moved away from the Atlantic seaboard and toward the Appalachian Mountains, they first veered north or south rather than continuing west. They settled along the mountain front and kept in communication with the coastal areas by means of the streams that emptied into the ocean. The area known at this time as Carolina was considered part of the Virginia claim by the British, but the Spanish regarded it as theirs. Even before the 1663 land grants, Virginians established a settlement there on Albemarle Sound. Those who moved into the surrounding backwoods country were usually thrifty, hardy farmers who opposed the power of large plantation owners, preferring to locate where, through hard work, they could thrive on their own land. Eventually the southern frontier burst through the mountain gaps to flood into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys.
  
Entries in the bibliographies will be in a coded format to save space. The format should be explained in the introduction to the volume. Check it first to understand the format and the criteria used for inclusion of titles. For instance, if you are looking for a religious newspaper in a certain area, ask yourself if the compiler included religious titles. Are they in volume 3 instead of the one you have? Another advantage to reading the introduction is that it might well contain ideas which you have not considered and which will help you in your research.  
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North Carolina was settled originally by Virginians along with a few Englishmen by way of Albemarle Sound. South Carolina was made up of a more aristocratic population from England and Barbados who established large plantations.  
  
Example of a Catalogue Entry from Guide to British Columbia Newspaper Collections (1988)
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Meanwhile, the coastal lowlands and river bottoms of the Northeast had been filled by colonists who transformed their wilderness into a new civilization considerably different from that of the Southern colonists.
  
<br> Notice that the original paper and microform versions of the newspaper are catalogued separately. They are often catalogued in a single entry, so researchers must be prepared to watch for them together.
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=== Early Contact with the Indians  ===
  
Here are the contents of the entry:
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As early as 1637 the Pequot Indians tried to rid itself of white newcomers. The initial conflict was defused, and for about forty years, they posed no threat to the white villages in Massachusetts and Connecticut. But the time came when Indian insurrection in this area was put down without mercy.
  
w Title
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In 1675 the King Philip’s War broke out due to white encroachment when “King” Philip convinced the Indians that the new frontier had to be rolled back. Of the 120,000 white residents in New England at this time, 16,000 were fighting men, and they were called upon to put down the threat.
  
w Numbering (volume 1 to volume 2) and dates (1907-1908)
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By 1680 Indians in the South were in open warfare with whites in the backcountry, in large part due to the recklessness with which traders had dealt with the Indians which included capturing natives for sale as slaves.
  
w Not all newspapers are numbered, and not all have volumes. Some have individually numbered issues.
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=== Migration to the Connecticut River Valley  ===
  
w Place of publication, publisher and dates (repeated), given in a library format.  
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Land-hungry pioneers from coastal Massachusetts, attracted to the fertile valleys of the Connecticut River, had to travel through dense virgin forests. Such an expedition took two long weeks, over a route modern travelers on the Massachusetts Turnpike can cover in just over an hour. The Old Connecticut Path started at Cambridge and continued west through Waltham, then branched off just beyond Weston and past Westboro and Oxford to Springfield. Later a second trail, slightly shorter, was blazed to Springfield by way of South Sudbury and Worcester and became known as the New Connecticut Path. Before long, the villages of Windsor, Wethersfield, and Hartford sprang up in the Connecticut Valley. Trails also connected New Haven and the villages of her short-lived colony which extended along the coast to Stamford. Douglas Waitley, describes this migration route in ''Roads of Destiny; the Trails that Shaped a Nation'', (Washington: R. B. Luce, 1970), 77-78.  
  
w Frequency (d: daily; w: weekly; m: monthly)
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=== Migration Out of Boston  ===
  
w Note concerning changed place of publication
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The earliest migration patterns developed out of Boston. They went north along the coast to the Merrimac, also southwest to the Providence Plantation and the Connecticut Valley. Movement from Plymouth was both north and south and to a lesser degree west to Rhode Island and Connecticut.
  
w Name of publisher
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By about 1740, movement patterns were developing northwest from Boston to Vermont country, and settlers were moving north along the Connecticut River from as far south as New Jersey. Movement remained strong from Boston north to New Hampshire and Maine. Three major roads developed to the south and west: the “lower road” which dropped almost south from Boston to Providence and then west along the Connecticut coast; the “middle road” which nearly followed the Great Trail to Windsor and Hartford and then dropped south along the Connecticut River and west along the coast to New York; and the “upper road” which went almost west from Boston with a little southerly movement to Springfield on the Connecticut River and then south along that river, joining the other roads.”
  
w Subtitle: many newspapers have a subtitle, declaration of philosophy or area of interest stated in the masthead.  
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Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, “''Migration Trails of the Eastern United States'',” The Palatine Immigrant,” Vol. VI, No. 2, 1980, pp 51-52.  
  
w Name of editor: note the difference between ‘publisher’ and ‘editor’—one is the executive in charge (the publisher), the other does the work of determining what appears in the paper and its appearance (the editor). They may be the same person on a small newspaper, and the publisher may also be the owner.
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=== Early Migrations Out of Pennsylvania  ===
  
w Note on related title, in this case the succeeding title to this short-lived newspaper. This note may indicate a title ''continued'' ''by'' this one or a title which it ''continues''.  
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After 1682, English and Welsh settlers from Pennsylvania moved into Maryland and Virginia.  
  
w Codes with years at the end are indications of ''holdings'', that is, what libraries or archives own the title and how much of it they have. In this case, one (BVIP) has all the originals and the other (BVIPA) holds only a single issue, for 13 April 1907. The library codes will be listed in the front of the volume.  
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By 1685 the population of Philadelphia had reached 2500, and other towns had begun to spring up along the coastal north-south Post Road which was already being referred to as the King’s Road.  
  
The only addition in the microform entry is the technical information for the microform itself, showing who did the filming and when (no date is given in this example), how many reels or fiche, whether positive or negative and the size. The size might be important if your library (where you will be reading the film on interlibrary loan) cannot accommodate the size involved. There are usually only two, 35mm and 16mm, and the smaller is less common. Notice that only one library is listed as holding the microfilm, and it is the same one which holds a single copy of the original paper. A researcher looking only at the first entry might think that BVIPA (the provincial archives) has that one copy and no more, but actually they own the whole run of the newspaper.  
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From Philadelphia, the Lancaster Road, the first overland road, began as early as 1725 to what would become Lancaster, and then it went on to Harrisburg. In 1733 money was approved for the Great Conestoga Road.  
  
Some of the directories provide more details about the publication history of the newspapers, indicating when they were suspended or did not publish, and also list titles which are known to have existed, but for which no surviving copies are known. Here is an example from Gloria M. Strathern’s ''Alberta newspapers, 1880-1982'':
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After 1740 three major migration routes crossed Pennsylvania. One coming out of Philadelphia by the west branch of the Susquehanna River reached the Allegheny River at Kittanning. The Forbes’ Road was further south. Still a third followed the Potomac to Fort Cumberland and subsequently by Braddock’s Road crossed the divide to the Youghiogeny and Monongahela Rivers; many Virginians traveled this route. (Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, “''Migration Trails of the Eastern United States'',” 53.)
  
{{Note | '' Taber Free Press''. F 21, 1907-Ag 25, 1910?
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By 1760 Philadelphia’s population had soared to 20,000. As Philadelphia expanded, it drew commerce from both the interior of Pennsylvania and the newly emerging New Jersey farms. (Douglas Waitley, ''Roads of Destiny''..., 94-96.)
  
*—Suspended pub. D 9, 1909-F 3, 1910. Pub. and ed. by W. A. M. Bellwood, 1907-D 9, 1909; A.N. Mowat, lessee, F3-Ag1910 (Ref: ''Taber Times'' Je 25, 1980; CAN 1911). AEP mf S 5, 1907-Ag25, 1910
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As eastern Pennsylvania filled with Palatinate and Scots-Irish immigrants, many sought opportunities apart from their English neighbors. “These settlers, along with a few from New Jersey and the northern colonies, formed the backbone for the great western and southern migration which took place just before the Revolutionary War and shortly afterwards.” (Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, ''Migration Trails of the Eastern United States'',” 54.)  
  
''Taber Advertiser`''. Mr 31? 1910-Oct? 1911//
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=== German Migrations ===
  
*—Pub. by Ernest Cook, Advertiser Pub. Co. (Ref: ''Taber Times'' Je 25, 1980; TAB p. 86). no issues located.''}}<br>
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After 1700, German and Swiss-German immigrants to Pennsylvania began making their way west and south. They moved along four routes, three to the west, one south:  
  
From these two entries we learn that the Taber Free Press was published from 21 February 1907 to 25 August 1910, although the last date is uncertain. The double-slash (//) is a conventional symbol for the end of the run. It was a weekly (w.). It was run by W. A. M. Bellwood from its beginnings to 9 December 1909, when it stopped publishing until 3 February 1910, when A. N. Mowat took it on, but in August it failed and stopped publishing. The information came from an article in the successor paper, Taber Times, published in 1980, and the Canadian Almanac and Directory for 1911. The Alberta Legislature Library (AEP) has a full run of existing issues on microfilm.
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1. west to Pittsburgh, then down the Ohio River to Kentucky and southern Ohio, or directly to Ohio&nbsp;&nbsp; overland on roads from the western sections of Maryland and Virginia<br>
  
The Taber Advertiser, which co-existed with the Free Press for a few months in 1910, lasted until 1911 as a weekly publication. It is mentioned in the same historical article in the Taber Times and also in a history of the town published by the Taber Women’s Institute in 1953. There are no surviving issues known. Interpretation of these two entries was accomplished by reference to the introduction to the book, where all the abbreviations and the format are explained, to the bibliography, where the source reference codes are given and to the list of libraries whose holdings are listed. An experienced researcher could probably interpret the entries on their own save for the bibliographical and holdings codes. As for newspapers where no surviving copies are known to exist, it is still possible that issues will surface from private collections, although as time passes the likelihood of this for century-old papers becomes more remote.
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2. west from North Carolina into Kentucky or Tennessee <br>
  
<br>  
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3. west along the Mohawk Valley, along shores of Lake Erie to northern Ohio <br>  
  
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4. south through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and then on into Tennessee and Kentucky and from there north to southern Ohio.
  
<br>
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By 1730 land-hungry Germans and Scots-Irish began to fill up the Shenandoah Valley. By mid-century, thousands more Germans were arriving into colonial America, and they spread throughout the areas where the farm land was reminiscent of what they had left behind, but without the restrictions from which they had departed.
  
<br>
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=== Scots-Irish Migrations  ===
  
<br>
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The heavy German migration south was followed about twenty years later by many Scots-Irish families. Most pre-Revolutionary Scots-Irish had come to Pennsylvania. They moved first, north, along the Susquehanna River Valley, around 1720. After about ten more years, they moved southwest into Pennsylvania’s Cumberland Valley and on West as far as Indians and the French would allow. At about this same time, other Scots-Irish families from the Cumberland Valley began the trek through the Shenandoah Valley to Roanoke. Around 1740 some of these migrants chose to go west out of the Valley into what is now northern West Virginia. Between 1740 and 1755, others of the Scots-Irish chose to go east out of the Valley into the back country of Virginia, central North Carolina, or northwestern South Carolina. Just prior to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Scots-Irish from Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania began to move through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. At about that same time, many who had stayed in Pennsylvania moved over the Appalachians into southwestern Pennsylvania and northwestern Virginia. By the time of the Revolutionary War, more than a quarter million Scots-Irish were located in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and the colonies to the south.<br>  
 
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____________________________________________________________ <br>  
 
____________________________________________________________ <br>  
  
Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course {{Canadian Newspapers Course}} offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
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Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course US Migration Patterns offered by [http://www.genealogicalstudies.com The National Institute for Genealogical Studies]. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at [mailto:wiki@genealogicalstudies.com wiki@genealogicalstudies.com] <br>  
  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
 
We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.  
  
[[Category:Canada]]
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[[Category:United_States]]

Revision as of 13:20, 27 June 2013

 
National Institute for Genealogical StudiesNational Institute for Genealogical Studies.gif

The original content for this article was contributed by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies in June 2012. It is an excerpt from their course United States Migration Patterns  by Beverly Whitaker, CG. The Institute offers over 200 comprehensive genealogy courses for a fee ($).

Contents

Colonial America, 1607-1783

Coastal Settlement

The earliest English and Dutch colonists came under the auspices of the great trading companies. They were here to expand the mercantile efforts of their mother countries. Their economy was based on what could be sold back to the home countries. Initially, they saw no reason to look beyond their eastern shores. A hundred years went by before they saw any need whatsoever to move on. By contrast, the 1700s influx of the Palatines and the Scots-Irish came to these shores for a different reason—to escape the persecution they had endured in the past. They had no intention of returning to their native lands or even to engage in commerce with them. They had the attitude, desire, and skills necessary to move on to frontier life which they saw as opportunity. By 1749, about 12,000 German-speaking persons had come to Pennsylvania, and they were agreeable to moving away from the coast in order to obtain good land. Likewise, the Scots-Irish were ready to move on, usually staying in one place for only about seven years.

Virginia has long been recognized as the seedbed of the nation. Before about 1730 settlements were primarily in the Atlantic coastal region. When persons wanted to travel between settlements they generally used the waterways or the old Indian paths. Although they constructed some crude roads, they usually found the water routes easier.

During the 17th century the Tidewater colonies of Virginia and Maryland experienced rapid growth. Tobacco planters welcomed swarms of indentured servants who exchanged seven years of labor in return for their passage across the ocean. Fur traders and yeoman farmers were driving back Spaniards on the Southern frontier. In the 1700s coastal settlements in Georgia were encouraged in order to hold the colony for English colonists.

In the early 1700s people went from Virginia to Maryland, but in the late 1700s people returned to Virginia because of lack of fertile land. The tobacco economy of both colonies led to migration as the land became exhausted and unable to support a good yield and financial prosperity.

As Virginians moved away from the Atlantic seaboard and toward the Appalachian Mountains, they first veered north or south rather than continuing west. They settled along the mountain front and kept in communication with the coastal areas by means of the streams that emptied into the ocean. The area known at this time as Carolina was considered part of the Virginia claim by the British, but the Spanish regarded it as theirs. Even before the 1663 land grants, Virginians established a settlement there on Albemarle Sound. Those who moved into the surrounding backwoods country were usually thrifty, hardy farmers who opposed the power of large plantation owners, preferring to locate where, through hard work, they could thrive on their own land. Eventually the southern frontier burst through the mountain gaps to flood into the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys.

North Carolina was settled originally by Virginians along with a few Englishmen by way of Albemarle Sound. South Carolina was made up of a more aristocratic population from England and Barbados who established large plantations.

Meanwhile, the coastal lowlands and river bottoms of the Northeast had been filled by colonists who transformed their wilderness into a new civilization considerably different from that of the Southern colonists.

Early Contact with the Indians

As early as 1637 the Pequot Indians tried to rid itself of white newcomers. The initial conflict was defused, and for about forty years, they posed no threat to the white villages in Massachusetts and Connecticut. But the time came when Indian insurrection in this area was put down without mercy.

In 1675 the King Philip’s War broke out due to white encroachment when “King” Philip convinced the Indians that the new frontier had to be rolled back. Of the 120,000 white residents in New England at this time, 16,000 were fighting men, and they were called upon to put down the threat.

By 1680 Indians in the South were in open warfare with whites in the backcountry, in large part due to the recklessness with which traders had dealt with the Indians which included capturing natives for sale as slaves.

Migration to the Connecticut River Valley

Land-hungry pioneers from coastal Massachusetts, attracted to the fertile valleys of the Connecticut River, had to travel through dense virgin forests. Such an expedition took two long weeks, over a route modern travelers on the Massachusetts Turnpike can cover in just over an hour. The Old Connecticut Path started at Cambridge and continued west through Waltham, then branched off just beyond Weston and past Westboro and Oxford to Springfield. Later a second trail, slightly shorter, was blazed to Springfield by way of South Sudbury and Worcester and became known as the New Connecticut Path. Before long, the villages of Windsor, Wethersfield, and Hartford sprang up in the Connecticut Valley. Trails also connected New Haven and the villages of her short-lived colony which extended along the coast to Stamford. Douglas Waitley, describes this migration route in Roads of Destiny; the Trails that Shaped a Nation, (Washington: R. B. Luce, 1970), 77-78.

Migration Out of Boston

The earliest migration patterns developed out of Boston. They went north along the coast to the Merrimac, also southwest to the Providence Plantation and the Connecticut Valley. Movement from Plymouth was both north and south and to a lesser degree west to Rhode Island and Connecticut.

By about 1740, movement patterns were developing northwest from Boston to Vermont country, and settlers were moving north along the Connecticut River from as far south as New Jersey. Movement remained strong from Boston north to New Hampshire and Maine. Three major roads developed to the south and west: the “lower road” which dropped almost south from Boston to Providence and then west along the Connecticut coast; the “middle road” which nearly followed the Great Trail to Windsor and Hartford and then dropped south along the Connecticut River and west along the coast to New York; and the “upper road” which went almost west from Boston with a little southerly movement to Springfield on the Connecticut River and then south along that river, joining the other roads.”

Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, “Migration Trails of the Eastern United States,” The Palatine Immigrant,” Vol. VI, No. 2, 1980, pp 51-52.

Early Migrations Out of Pennsylvania

After 1682, English and Welsh settlers from Pennsylvania moved into Maryland and Virginia.

By 1685 the population of Philadelphia had reached 2500, and other towns had begun to spring up along the coastal north-south Post Road which was already being referred to as the King’s Road.

From Philadelphia, the Lancaster Road, the first overland road, began as early as 1725 to what would become Lancaster, and then it went on to Harrisburg. In 1733 money was approved for the Great Conestoga Road.

After 1740 three major migration routes crossed Pennsylvania. One coming out of Philadelphia by the west branch of the Susquehanna River reached the Allegheny River at Kittanning. The Forbes’ Road was further south. Still a third followed the Potomac to Fort Cumberland and subsequently by Braddock’s Road crossed the divide to the Youghiogeny and Monongahela Rivers; many Virginians traveled this route. (Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, “Migration Trails of the Eastern United States,” 53.)

By 1760 Philadelphia’s population had soared to 20,000. As Philadelphia expanded, it drew commerce from both the interior of Pennsylvania and the newly emerging New Jersey farms. (Douglas Waitley, Roads of Destiny..., 94-96.)

As eastern Pennsylvania filled with Palatinate and Scots-Irish immigrants, many sought opportunities apart from their English neighbors. “These settlers, along with a few from New Jersey and the northern colonies, formed the backbone for the great western and southern migration which took place just before the Revolutionary War and shortly afterwards.” (Merlin C. and Eva M. Finnell, “Migration Trails of the Eastern United States,” 54.)

German Migrations

After 1700, German and Swiss-German immigrants to Pennsylvania began making their way west and south. They moved along four routes, three to the west, one south:

1. west to Pittsburgh, then down the Ohio River to Kentucky and southern Ohio, or directly to Ohio   overland on roads from the western sections of Maryland and Virginia

2. west from North Carolina into Kentucky or Tennessee

3. west along the Mohawk Valley, along shores of Lake Erie to northern Ohio

4. south through the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia and then on into Tennessee and Kentucky and from there north to southern Ohio.

By 1730 land-hungry Germans and Scots-Irish began to fill up the Shenandoah Valley. By mid-century, thousands more Germans were arriving into colonial America, and they spread throughout the areas where the farm land was reminiscent of what they had left behind, but without the restrictions from which they had departed.

Scots-Irish Migrations

The heavy German migration south was followed about twenty years later by many Scots-Irish families. Most pre-Revolutionary Scots-Irish had come to Pennsylvania. They moved first, north, along the Susquehanna River Valley, around 1720. After about ten more years, they moved southwest into Pennsylvania’s Cumberland Valley and on West as far as Indians and the French would allow. At about this same time, other Scots-Irish families from the Cumberland Valley began the trek through the Shenandoah Valley to Roanoke. Around 1740 some of these migrants chose to go west out of the Valley into what is now northern West Virginia. Between 1740 and 1755, others of the Scots-Irish chose to go east out of the Valley into the back country of Virginia, central North Carolina, or northwestern South Carolina. Just prior to the outbreak of the Revolutionary War, Scots-Irish from Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania began to move through the Cumberland Gap into Kentucky. At about that same time, many who had stayed in Pennsylvania moved over the Appalachians into southwestern Pennsylvania and northwestern Virginia. By the time of the Revolutionary War, more than a quarter million Scots-Irish were located in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and the colonies to the south.

____________________________________________________________

Information in this Wiki page is excerpted from the online course US Migration Patterns offered by The National Institute for Genealogical Studies. To learn more about this course or other courses available from the Institute, see our website. We can be contacted at wiki@genealogicalstudies.com

We welcome updates and additions to this Wiki page.