Virginia CensusEdit This Page
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Online Virginia indexes and images
|Online Federal and State Population Schedules of Virginia|
|Free||Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)*||Pay|
|Internet Archive||Misc.||Heritage Quest||Fold3||Ancestry FHL||Ancestry Library||Ancestry Home||Archives||Family Link|
|Family Search||Internet Archive||Misc.||Heritage Quest||Fold3||Ancestry FHL||Ancestry Library||Ancestry Home||Archives||Family Link|
|Free||Free at Some Libraries (usually with a library card)||Pay|
Federal population schedules
|1940 N/A||1900 and Soundex||1850||1810|
|1930 and Soundex||1880 and Soundex||1840|
|1920 and Soundex||1870||1830|
|1910 and Soundex||1860||1820|
|1940 N/A||1900 T623 and Soundex T1076||1850 M432||1810 M252|
|1930 T626||1880 T9 and Soundex T776||1840 M704|
|1920 T625 and Soundex M1592||1870 M593||1830 M19|
|1910 T624 and Soundex T1278||1860 M653||1820 M33|
Indexes: fiche, film, or book
For a list of microform and book indexes for the population schedules of Virginia, click here
Federal non-population schedules
Online indexes and images
|Online Federal Non-Population Schedules for Virginia|
||Free||Free at Some Libraries (usually with library card)||Pay|
|Year||Type||Record Search||Census Bureau||Google Book||Heritage Quest||Ancestry FHL||Ancestry Library||Ancestry Home|
- 1890 Union veterans schedules are available at the Family History Library on Family History Library films 338265-66. They are also available at the National Archives.
The Library of Virginia has the original 1850, 1870, and 1880 schedules. Duke University (William R. Perkins Library, Duke University, Durham, NC 27706) has the 1860 schedules. The 1850 and 1860 schedules for the area that later became West Virginia are also on microfilm at the Family History Library and the West Virginia Archives and History Library.
Indexes: fiche, film, or book
For a list of microform and book indexes for the non-population schedules of Virginia, click here.
State and colonial censuses
Virginia took censuses in the years before the first federal census was taken. The dates are listed below. State census records may have columns that were different or more unusual than those found on federal censuses. The responses and years of coverage may give additional information on the family.
|Virginia state and colonial censuses|
|No statewide state census was taken, but many county censuses were taken at different years from 1782 to 1786.|
|1786||County of Greenbrier.|
|1785||Counties of Albermarle, Amelia, Amherst, Fairfax, Greenbrier, Halifax, Harrison, Lancaster, New Kent, Norfolk, Orange, Pittsylvania, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Shenandoah, and Stafford.|
|1784||Counties of Cumberland, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Nansemond, Northumberland, Rockingham, Surry, and Warwick.|
|1783||Counties of Amherst, Chesterfield, Essex, Gloucester, Greenbrier, Greensville, Lancaster, Middlesex, Nansemond, Powhatan, Prince Edward, Princess Anne, Richmond, and Shenandoah.|
|1782||Counties of Amelia, Charlotte, Cumberland, Fairfax, Fluvanna, Frederick, Halifax, Hampshire, Hanover, Isle of Wight, Mecklenburg, Monongalia, New Kent, Northumberland, Orange, Pittsylvania, Surry, Sussex, and Warwick AND, the City of Richmond and the City of Williamsburg.|
Not technically a census, the 1696 Association Oath Rolls serve as a census substitute. The original records are found in class C 213 at the National Archives, Kew, England. Gandy published abstracts of oath takers living in British plantations, including Virginia:
- Gandy, Wallace. The Association Oath Rolls of the British Plantations [New York, Virginia, Etc.] A.D. 1696. London: the author, 1922. Digital version at Internet Archive; reprint: FHL Collection 970 F2L 1995. [Virginia entries begin on page 30]
In addition to the federal censuses, lists of residents are available for some colonial years. The lists of 1624 and 1787 have been published and are available at FHL Collection. These censuses list only the heads of households.
Several census substitutes have been compiled, including:
- Virginia in 1740: A Reconstructed Census. Miami Beach, Florida: T.L.C. Genealogy, 1992. (Family History Library book 975.5 X22t 1740; Family History Library film 1697799 Item 3 ).
Existing and lost censuses
For a list of available and missing Virginia censuses, click here.
For a listing of names omitted from the microfilmed 1820 Federal Census of Virginia see:
- Gerald M. Petty, "Virginia 1820 Federal Census: Names Not on the Microfilm Copy," The Virginia Genealogist 18, no 2 (April-June 1974):136-139.
- When the 1820 Federal Census of Virginia was microfilmed nine pages were accidentally missed. The missing pages were from seven different counties (Accomac, Monongalia, Prince Edward, Pittsylvania, Randolph, Shenandoah, and Southampton), and reference over 175 individuals. Included in the article are the names, county, and page number references for those who were missed. The list can also be accessed online at the Shenandoah County GenWeb Project. See 1820 Census page 150, Shenandoah County, Virginia for digital copies of the missing Shenandoah County pages.
Why use a census?
A well-indexed census is one of the easiest ways to locate where an ancestor's family lived and when they lived there. You can also use censuses to follow the changes in a family over time, and identify neighbors. These and other clues provided by censuses are important because they help find additional kinds of records about the family.
More about censuses
Click here for additional details about how to use censuses, such as:
Sources and footnotes
- ↑ FamilySearch, a free online service of the Family History Library, including free images of many federal censuses, including an index of the 1880 federal census of the United States; connected with 1880 census images provided by Ancestry.com, a subscription site.
- ↑ Internet Archive, a free online service includes free images of most of the federal censuses.
- ↑ HeritageQuest has arranged with many subscribing public libraries in the United States to allow users free access on home computers by means of their personal library card numbers. HeritageQuest provides images of all surviving 1790 to 1930 federal censuses, and indexes to many but not all of them.
- ↑ Fold3, formerly known as Footnote.com, a subscription site partnering with the National Archives and includes some federal censuses. Free access is available at many public libraries.
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 5.2 Ancestry.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources. They have three online editions: (1) an FHL edition free only at the Family History Library and a few Family History Centers, (2) a slightly smaller Library edition free only at some public libraries, and (3) a Home edition subscription service for individuals.
- ↑ Archives.com, a subscription site that provides online indexes and images to all surviving federal census records, among other sources.
- ↑ FamilyLink.com, a subscription site that provides online images (and some indexes) to all surviving federal and many state census records, among other sources.
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Virginia censuses from 1810 to 1860 enumerated some residents on land that would become West Virginia in 1863
- ↑ 9.0 9.1 HeritageQuest has slave owner schedule images only.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 Ann S. Lainhart, State Census Records (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing, 1992)[[FHL book 973 X2Lai]], 107-108.
- ↑ Henry J. Dubester, State Censuses: An Annotated Bibliography of Censuses of Population Taken After the Year 1790 by States and Territories of the United States (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1948)[FHL Book 973 X23s; Fiche 6018062], 62.
- ↑ Cliff Webb, "Association Oath Rolls - Background to the Documents," Origins Network.