Wales Language and Languages

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Although most Welsh records are written in English, understanding some basic elements of the Welsh language can help you with your research. Do not, however, rely on a translation of a record made by using a dictionary. Get help from someone who knows the language.
+
[[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] [[Wales]] [[Image:Gotoarrow.png]] Languages
  
=== The Welsh Alphabet ===
+
[[Image:Roadsign.png|thumb|161px]]
  
Though the Welsh and English alphabets are very similar, each has some letters not used in the other. The letters j, k, q, v, and z are not used in the Welsh language. The following double letters are treated as a single letter in Welsh: ch, dd, ff, ll, ng, ph, rh, and th. These letters are part of the Welsh alphabet.
+
Wales is a bilingual country. The Welsh language came from the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language. It was spoken throughout Wales and English border counties until the end of the 16th Century. It is said that the translation of the Bible into Welsh in 1588 began the standardization of the language.  
  
When you use a Welsh dictionary or an index written in Welsh, use Welsh, not English, alphabetical order.
+
Western and Northern Wales still speak predominantly Welsh. There has been a push in the last few decades to restore Welsh to is proper place in society. '''Welsh''' has equal status with '''English''' in the public sector in Wales and the teaching of both languages is compulsory in all schools up to the age of 16.  
  
=== Welsh Pronunciation ===
+
The most recent census figures for Wales (2001) indicate that 582,400 (21% of the population) were able to speak Welsh. However, in the western parts of the country the language is spoken by over 60% of the population. The number of younger people able to speak Welsh, throughout Wales, has risen significantly.
  
The sounds produced by certain letters in the Welsh alphabet are often misinterpreted and spelled incorrectly. This is particularly true of Welsh sounds not used in English. For example, the sound made by a double l (ll) is formed by placing the tongue at the roof of the mouth and blowing air sharply out the side. The sound comes when using it in conjunction with other letters. Words with ll are often misspelled. For example, Slanvihangel should be Llanfihangel, and Thlangthovery should be Llanddovery.
+
Wales has one television channel, [http://www.s4c.co.uk/ S4C (Sianel 4 Cymru)], and one radio station, [http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymru/radiocymru/ BBC Radio Cymru], broadcasting in the Welsh language.  
  
The letter dd, which forms the soft th sound, also causes confusion. Pontypridd should be pronounced with pridd rhyming with the word breathe.
+
Although most Welsh records are written in English, understanding some basic elements of the Welsh language can help you with your research. Do not, however, rely on a translation of a record made by using a dictionary. Get help from someone who knows the language.  
  
The following table lists Welsh letters and their sounds:
+
== Welsh Language Courses  ==
  
{| class="plain"
+
Many opportunities exist for learning to speak and read the Welsh language. [[Welsh Language Courses|Read more...]]
! Letter
+
 
! Pronunciation
+
== The Welsh Alphabet  ==
| a
+
 
| Ah as in father.
+
Welsh is a member of the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages.
 +
 
 +
Though the Welsh and English alphabets are very similar, each has some letters not used in the other. The letters q, v, and z are not used in the Welsh language and the letters j and k only occur in 'adopted' words. The following double letters are treated as a single letter in Welsh: ch, dd, ff, ll, ng, ph, rh, and th. These letters are part of the Welsh alphabet.
 +
 
 +
When you use a Welsh dictionary or an index written in Welsh, use Welsh, not English, alphabetical order.
 +
 
 +
== Welsh Pronunciation  ==
 +
 
 +
The sounds produced by certain letters in the Welsh alphabet are often misinterpreted and spelled incorrectly. This is particularly true of Welsh sounds not used in English. For example, the sound made by a double l (ll) is formed by placing the tongue at the roof of the mouth and blowing air sharply out the side. The sound comes when using it in conjunction with other letters.
 +
 
 +
The following table lists Welsh letters and their sounds:
 +
 
 +
{| width="95%" align="center" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" border="1" class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| b
+
! width="7%" | Letter
| Same as English b.
+
! width="73%" | Pronunciation
 
|-
 
|-
| c
+
| a
| K as in cat, never soft as in cease.
+
| An '''ah''' as in the English word "f'''a'''ther".
 
|-
 
|-
| ch
+
| b
| Like Scottish ch as in loch.
+
| Like an English '''b'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| d
+
| c
| Like English d.
+
| Always hard as in the English word "'''c'''at", never soft as in "'''c'''ease".
 
|-
 
|-
| dd
+
| ch
| Voiced th as in breathe.
+
| Like the Scottish '''ch''' as in "lo'''ch'''". Never as in the English word "'''ch'''oice".
 
|-
 
|-
| e
+
| d
| The sound as in breath.
+
| Like an English '''d'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| f
+
| dd
| Like English v.
+
| voiced ''th'' as in the English word "brea'''th'''e".
 
|-
 
|-
| ff
+
| e
| Like English f.
+
| The sound as in the English word "br'''e'''ath".
 
|-
 
|-
| g
+
| f
| Hard g as in get.
+
| Like an English '''v'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| ng
+
| ff
| Sound as in longer.
+
| Like an English '''f'''
 
|-
 
|-
| h
+
| g
| Like English h.
+
| Hard '''g''' as in the English word "'''g'''et".
 
|-
 
|-
| i
+
| ng
| Long e as in meet.
+
| Sound as in the English word "lo'''ng'''er".
 
|-
 
|-
| l
+
| h
| Like English l.
+
| Like an English '''h''' but never silent.
 
|-
 
|-
| ll
+
| i
 +
| Long '''e''' as in the English word "m'''ee'''t".
 +
|-
 +
| l
 +
| Like an English '''l'''.
 +
|-
 +
| ll  
 
| No English equivalent. Made by putting tip of tongue on roof of mouth and blowing.
 
| No English equivalent. Made by putting tip of tongue on roof of mouth and blowing.
 
|-
 
|-
| m
+
| m  
| Like English m.
+
| Like an English '''m'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| n
+
| n  
| Like English n.
+
| Like an English '''n'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| o
+
| o  
| Long o as in go.
+
| Long '''o''' as in the English word "g'''o'''".
 
|-
 
|-
| p
+
| p  
| Like English p.
+
| Like an English '''p'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| ph
+
| ph  
| Like English f as in phone.
+
| Same as '''ph''' as in the English word "'''ph'''one".
 
|-
 
|-
| r
+
| r  
| Trilled r.
+
| Trilled '''r'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| rh
+
| rh  
| No English equivalent. Made by blowing while trilling an r.
+
| No English equivalent. Made by blowing while trilling an '''r'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| s
+
| s  
| Soft s as in sat, never as in advise.
+
| Always soft as in the English word "'''s'''at", never as in "advi'''s'''e".
 
|-
 
|-
| t
+
| t  
| Same as English t.
+
| Like an English '''t'''.
 
|-
 
|-
| th
+
| th  
| Unvoiced th as in wreath.
+
| Unvoiced '''th''' as in the English word "wrea'''th'''".
 
|-
 
|-
| u
+
| u  
| Long e as in tea.
+
| A long '''e''' as in the English word "t'''e'''a".
 
|-
 
|-
| w
+
| w  
| Oo as in broom.
+
| As an '''oo''' as in the English word "br'''oo'''m".
 
|-
 
|-
| y
+
| y  
| Uh as in come; or long e as in family.
+
| Like '''uh''' as in the English word "c'''o'''me"; or (at end of words) long '''e''' as in "famil'''y'''".
 
|}
 
|}
  
Note: The letters j, k, q, v, and z are not used in Welsh.
+
Note: The letters q, v, and z are not used in Welsh. The letters j and k are used only in adopted words like '''jam''' and '''kilo'''.
  
=== Using a Welsh Dictionary ===
+
== Using a Welsh Dictionary ==
  
If you cannot find a word in the dictionary, it may be that:
+
If you cannot find a word in the dictionary, it may be that:  
  
* Your dictionary is too small.
+
*Your dictionary is too small.  
* The word is mutated (see below).
+
*The word is mutated (see below).  
* The word is a conjugated verb. For example, dod (to come) is in the dictionary, but daeth (he came) is not.
+
*The word is a conjugated verb. For example, '''dod''' (to come) is in the dictionary, but '''daeth''' (he came) is not.  
* The word is a conjugated preposition. Am (about) is in the dictionary, but amdani (about her) is not.
+
*The word is a conjugated preposition. '''am''' (about) is in the dictionary, but '''amdani''' (about her) is not.  
* The word is a comparative or superlative adjective. Hen (old) is listed, but hn (older), and hynaf (oldest) are not.
+
*The word is a comparative or superlative adjective. '''hen''' (old) is listed, but '''hen''' (older), and '''hynaf''' (oldest) are not.  
* The word is a contraction. O (from) and yr (the) are both listed, but their contracted form o’r (from the) is not.
+
*The word is a contraction. '''o''' (from) and '''yr''' (the) are both listed, but their contracted form '''o’r''' (from the) is not.  
* The word contains double letters such as ch, dd, ll, ng, and rh, which are filed after single letters. For example:
+
*The word contains double letters such as '''ch''','''dd''', '''ll''', '''ng''', and '''rh''', which are filed after single letters. For example:  
** The word Would follow
+
**the word '''rhad''' (free) would come after '''ruban''' (ribbon)  
*** rhad (free) ruban (ribbon)
+
**the word '''dichell''' (treachery) would come after '''dicter''' (anger)  
*** dichell (treachery) dicter (anger)
+
**the word '''goddef''' (to bear) would come after '''godro''' (to milk)  
*** goddef (to bear) godro (to milk)
+
**the word '''gwyllt''' (wild) would come after '''gwylan''' (seagull)
*** gwyllt (wild) gwylan (seagull)
+
  
If a word you find in a dictionary does not make sense in the record’s context:
+
If a word you find in a dictionary does not make sense in the record’s context:  
  
* It may be part of a two-word preposition. Ol is a noun meaning "track." When it is combined with ar (on), the result is the preposition ar ol, meaning "after."
+
*It may be part of a two-word preposition. '''ôl''' is a noun meaning "track." When it is combined with '''ar''' (on), the result is the preposition '''ar ôl''', meaning "after".
* It may be part of an idiomatic expression. Hen by itself means "old," but hen bryd means "high time."
+
*It may be part of an idiomatic expression. '''hen''' by itself means "old," but '''hen bryd''' means "high time."  
* It may be an archaic word or have a changed meaning.
+
*It may be an archaic word or have a changed meaning.
  
Books that can help you understand Welsh are:
+
Books that can help you understand Welsh are:  
  
Bowen, John T., and T. S. Rhys Jones. ''Welsh: A Complete Course for Beginners.'' David McKay Company Inc., 1960. (FHL book 942.9 A8b.)
+
*Bowen, John T., and T. S. Rhys Jones. ''Welsh: A Complete Course for Beginners.'' David McKay Company Inc., 1960. (Family History Library {{FHL|246583|title-id|disp=book 942.9 G2b}}.)  
 +
*Evans, H. Meurig, and W. O. Thomas. ''Y Geiriadur Mawr (The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary).'' Swansea, Wales: C. Davies, 1981. (Family History Library {{FHL|491.66321 Ev15y|disp=book 491.66321 Ev15y}}.)
 +
*''Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (A Dictionary of the Welsh Language).'' Vol. 1-. Caerdydd, Wales: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru (Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press), 1950-. (Family History Library {{FHL|403.429 W465g|disp=book 403.429 W465g}}.) This dictionary is being published in volumes; publication is still in progress. It is the most authoritative dictionary and gives Welsh spellings and English definitions.
 +
*Williams, Stephen J. ''A Welsh Grammar.'' Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 1980. (Family History Library {{FHL|166348|title-id|disp=book 942.9 G2ws.)}}
  
Evans, H. Meurig, and W. O. Thomas. ''Y Geiriadur Mawr (The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary).'' Swansea, Wales: C. Davies, 1981. (FHL book 491.66321 Ev15y.)
+
=== Online  ===
  
''Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (A Dictionary of the Welsh Language).'' Vol. 1-. Caerdydd, Wales: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru (Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press), 1950-. (FHL book 403.429 W465g.) This dictionary is being published in volumes; publication is still in progress. It is the most authoritative dictionary and gives Welsh spellings and English definitions.
+
An online Welsh dictionary can be found at [http://www.geiriadur.net/ www.geiriadur.net]. To translate Welsh, go to [https://encrypted.google.com/ http://www.google.com/] and search for [http://www.google.com/language_tools?hl=en Language Tools]. Use one of the listed tools to translate Welsh into English or whatever language you choose.&nbsp;<br>
  
Williams, Stephen J. ''A Welsh Grammar.'' Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 1980. (FHL book 942.9 G2ws.)
+
You may also find more language aids, including a audio recording of the pronunciation of some Welsh place-names, through the GENUKI website at: [http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/#Lang www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/#Lang] From the above site, click on '''Sounds of Wales'''
  
You may also find more language aids, including a audio recording of the pronunciation of some Welsh place-names, through the GENUKI website at:
+
Language books can be found in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:  
  
[http://www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/#Lang www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/#Lang]
+
;'''WALES - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES'''
  
From the above site:
+
They can also be found in the Subject Search under:  
  
* Click '''Sounds of Wales'''
+
;'''WELSH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES - ENGLISH'''
  
Language books can be found in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under
+
== Mutations  ==
  
WALES - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES
+
In Welsh, the first letter of a word often changes or disappears. This is called mutation. For example, '''teulu''' (family) can appear as '''deulu''', '''nheulu''', or '''theulu'''. Mutated words are not in Welsh dictionaries, so use the following chart to change a mutated word back to its original form:
  
They can also be found in the Subject Search under
+
{| width="90%" align="center" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" border="1" class="wikitable"
 
+
WELSH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES - ENGLISH
+
 
+
If the word:
+
 
+
{| class="plain"
+
! Begins With
+
! Look Under
+
| a
+
| g
+
 
|-
 
|-
| b
+
! '''Initial consonant'''
| p
+
! '''Soft mutation'''<br>
 +
! '''Nasal mutation'''<br>
 +
! '''Aspirate mutation'''<br>
 
|-
 
|-
| ch
+
| P <br>pensil <br>(pencil)
| c
+
| B <br>ei '''b'''ensil e <br>(his pencil)
 +
| Mh <br>fy '''mh'''ensil i <br>(my pencil)
 +
| Ph <br>ei '''ph'''ensil hi <br>(her pencil)
 
|-
 
|-
| d
+
| T <br>tad <br>(father)
| t
+
| D <br>ei '''d'''ad e <br>(his father)
 +
| Nh <br>fy '''nh'''ad i <br>(my father)
 +
| Th <br>ei '''th'''ad hi <br>(her father)
 
|-
 
|-
| dd
+
| C <br>ci <br>(dog)
| d
+
| G <br>ei '''g'''i e <br>(his dog)
 +
| Ngh <br>fy '''ngh'''i i <br>(my dog)
 +
| Ch <br>ei '''ch'''i hi <br>(her dog)
 
|-
 
|-
| e
+
| B <br>brawd <br>(brother)
| g
+
| F <br>ei '''f'''rawd e <br>(his brother)
 +
| M <br>fy '''m'''rawd i <br>(my brother)
 +
| No Change
 
|-
 
|-
| f
+
| D <br>dosbarth <br>(class)
| b and m
+
| Dd <br>ei '''dd'''osbarth e <br>(his class)
 +
| N <br>fy '''n'''osbarth i <br>(my class)
 +
| No Change
 
|-
 
|-
| g
+
| G <br>gardd <br>(garden)
| c
+
| - <br>ei ardd e <br>(his garden)
 +
| Ng <br>fy '''ng'''ardd i <br>(my garden)
 +
| No Change
 
|-
 
|-
| h
+
| Ll <br>llyfr <br>(book)
| all vowels (including w and y)
+
| L <br>ei '''l'''yfr e <br>(his book)  
 +
| No Change
 +
| No Change
 
|-
 
|-
| i
+
| M <br>mam <br>(mother)
| g
+
| F <br>ei '''f'''am e <br>(his mother)
 +
| No Change
 +
| No Change
 
|-
 
|-
| l
+
| Rh <br>rhaglen <br>(programme)
| g and ll
+
| R <br>ei '''r'''aglen e <br>(his programme)
 +
| No Change
 +
| No Change
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
'''Soft mutation''' generally occurs:
 +
 
 +
*On singular feminine nouns following the definite article. For example: "pont" (a bridge), "y '''b'''ont" (the bridge).
 +
*After one of the prepositions: "am" (for) , "ar" (on), "at" (towards), "gan" (with), "tros" (over), "trwy" (through), "wrth" (by), "dan" (below), "heb" (without), "hyd" (until), "o" (from), "i" (to). For example: "dim" (nothing), "am '''dd'''im" (for nothing)
 +
*After the personal pronouns: "dy" (your), "ei" (his). For example: "pen" (head), dy '''b'''en (your head)
 +
*After the numerals "un" (one, but only sing. f.), "dau" (two m.), "dwy" (two f.), "saith" (seven), "wyth" (eight). For example: "brawd" (brother), "dau '''f'''rawd" (two brothers)
 +
 
 +
'''Nasal mutation''' generally occurs:
 +
 
 +
*After "fy" (my). For example "brawd" (brother), "fy '''m'''rawd" (my brothers)
 +
*After "yn" (in). For example "ym '''M'''angor" (in Bangor)
 +
 
 +
'''Aspirate mutation''' generally occurs:
 +
 
 +
*After "tri" (three m.), "chwe" (six). For example: "ceffyl" (horse), "chwe '''ch'''effyl" (six horses)
 +
*After "ei" (her). For example: "pen" (head), "ei '''ph'''en" (her head)
 +
*After "a" (and), "â" (with). For example: "caws" (cheese), "bara a '''ch'''aws" (bread and cheese)<br>
 +
 
 +
In general, if you are unable to find a word:
 +
 
 +
{| width="95%" align="center" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="4" border="1" class="wikitable"
 
|-
 
|-
| mh
+
! If the word begins with:
| p
+
! Also look under:
 +
! Example:
 
|-
 
|-
| n
+
| a
| d and g
+
| g  
 +
| ''yn yr ardd'' (in the garden) - ''gardd'' (a garden)
 
|-
 
|-
| ng
+
| b
| g
+
| p
 +
| ''yr ail bont'' (the second bridge) - ''pont'' (a bridge)
 
|-
 
|-
| ngh
+
| ch
| c
+
| c  
 +
| ''chwe cheiniog'' (six pence) - ''ceiniog'' (a penny)
 
|-
 
|-
| nh
+
| d
| t
+
| t  
 +
| ''dy dad'' (you father) - ''tad'' (a father)
 
|-
 
|-
| o
+
| dd
| g
+
| d
 +
| ''y ddraig'' (the dragon) - ''draig'' (a dragon)
 
|-
 
|-
| ph
+
| e
| p
+
| g
 +
| ''yr efail'' (the smithy) - ''gefail'' (a smithy)
 
|-
 
|-
| r
+
| f
| g and rh
+
| b and m
 +
| ''y ferch'' (the girl) - ''merch'' (a girl)
 
|-
 
|-
| rh
+
| g
| r
+
| c
 +
| ''ei gi e'' (his dog) - ''ci'' (a dog)
 
|-
 
|-
| th
+
| h
| t
+
| all vowels (a, e, i, o, u, w, y)
 +
| ''ei henw hi'' (her name) - ''enw'' (a name)
 
|-
 
|-
| w
+
| i
| g
+
| g  
|}
+
|  
 
+
=== Mutations ===
+
 
+
In Welsh, the first letter of a word often changes or disappears. This is called mutation. For example, teulu (family) can be deulu, nheulu, or theulu. Mutated words are not in Welsh dictionaries, so use the following chart to change a mutated word back to its original form:
+
 
+
{| class="vertical listing"
+
! Initial consonant
+
! Soft
+
! nasal
+
! aspirate
+
|
+
P
+
 
+
pensil
+
 
+
(pencil)
+
|
+
B
+
 
+
ei bensil e
+
 
+
(his pencil)
+
|
+
MH
+
 
+
fy mhensil i
+
 
+
(my pencil)
+
|
+
PH
+
 
+
ei phensil hi
+
 
+
(her pencil)
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| l
T
+
| g and ll
 
+
| ''yn ei lyfr e'' (in his book) - ''llyfr'' (a book)
tad
+
 
+
(father)
+
|
+
D
+
 
+
ei dad e
+
 
+
(his father)
+
|
+
NH
+
 
+
fy nhad i
+
 
+
(my father)
+
|
+
TH
+
 
+
ei thad hi
+
 
+
(her father)
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| m
C
+
| b
 
+
| ''fy mrawd i'' (my brother) - ''brawd'' (a brother)
ci
+
 
+
(dog)
+
|
+
G
+
 
+
ei gi e
+
 
+
(his dog)
+
|
+
NGH
+
 
+
fy nghi i
+
 
+
(my dog)
+
|
+
CH
+
 
+
ei chi hi
+
 
+
(her dog)
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| mh
B
+
| p
 
+
| ''fy mhen i'' (my head) - ''pen'' (a head)
brawd
+
 
+
(brother)
+
|
+
F
+
 
+
ei frawd e
+
 
+
(his brother)
+
|
+
M
+
 
+
fy mrawd i
+
 
+
(my brother)
+
| No Change
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| n
D
+
| d and g
 
+
| ''fy narlun i'' (my picture) - ''darlun'' (a picture)
dosbarth
+
 
+
(class)
+
|
+
DD
+
 
+
ei ddosbarth e
+
 
+
(his class)
+
|
+
N
+
 
+
fy nosbarth i
+
 
+
(my class)
+
| No Change
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| ng
G
+
| g
 
+
| ''fy ngeiriadur i'' (my dictionary) - ''geiriadur'' (a dictionary)
gardd
+
 
+
(garden)
+
|
+
---
+
 
+
ei ardd e
+
 
+
(his garden)
+
|
+
NG
+
 
+
fy ngardd i
+
 
+
(my garden)
+
| No Change
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| ngh
LL
+
| c
 
+
| ''fy nghath i'' (my cat) - ''cath'' (my cat)
llyfr
+
 
+
(book)
+
|
+
L
+
 
+
ei lyfr e
+
 
+
(his book)
+
| No Change
+
| No Change
+
 
|-
 
|-
|
+
| nh
M
+
| t
 +
| ''fy nhrwyn i'' (my nose) - ''trwyn'' (a nose)
 +
|-
 +
| o
 +
| g
 +
| ''yr olygfa'' (the view) - ''golygfa'' (a view)
 +
|-
 +
| ph
 +
| p
 +
| ''ei phapur'' (her paper) - ''papur'' (paper)
 +
|-
 +
| r
 +
| g and rh
 +
| ''yr hen reilffordd'' (the old railway) - ''rheilffordd'' (a railway)
 +
|-
 +
| th
 +
| t
 +
| ''ei theledu hi'' (her television) - ''teledu'' (a television)
 +
|-
 +
| w
 +
| g
 +
| ''y wadd'' (the mole) - ''gwadd'' (a mole)
 +
|}
  
mam
+
== Latin  ==
  
(mother)
+
Until 1733 many records were kept in Latin. Sometimes records written in English contain some Latin words. Knowing some Latin will help you read these records. For help with Latin words, see the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077) or the following books:
|
+
F
+
  
ei fam e
+
*Ainsworth, Robert. ''Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius''. London, England: F. Westly and A. H. Davis, 1836. (Family History Library {{FHL|232221|title-id|disp=book 473 Ai65a 1836; film 599788}}.)
 +
*Simpson, Elizabeth, comp. ''Latin Word-List for Family Historians''. Birmingham, England: Federation of Family History Societies, 1985.<ref>The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, ''Research Outline: Wales'' (Salt Lake City: Corporation of the President, 2000), 42-44. NOTE: All information in the original research outline has been added to the FamilySearch Wiki, where it is both enhanced and updated by the genealogical community.</ref>
  
(his mother)
+
==== See also  ====
| No Change
+
| No Change
+
|-
+
|
+
RH
+
  
rhaglen
+
Other countries with Celtic languages:
 
+
(programme)
+
|
+
R
+
 
+
ei raglen e
+
 
+
(his programme)
+
| No Change
+
| No Change
+
|}
+
  
=== Latin ===
+
*[[France Language and Languages]] (Breton)
 +
*[[Ireland Language and Languages]]
 +
*[[Isle of Man Language and Languages]]
 +
*[[Scotland Language and Languages]]
  
Until 1733 many records were kept in Latin. Sometimes records written in English contain some Latin words. Knowing some Latin will help you read these records. For help with Latin words, see the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077) or the following books:
+
== External links  ==
  
Ainsworth, Robert. ''Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius''. London, England: F. Westly and A. H. Davis, 1836. (FHL book 473 Ai65a 1836; film 599788.)
+
{{Wikipedia|Welsh language}}
  
Simpson, Elizabeth, comp. ''Latin Word-List for Family Historians''. Birmingham, England: Federation of Family History Societies, 1985. (FHL book 478.1 S581.)
+
*[http://www.byig-wlb.org.uk/English/Pages/index.aspx Welsh Language Board]
 +
*[http://www.bbc.co.uk/cymru/radiocymru/ BBC Radio Cymru]
 +
*[http://www.s4c.co.uk/ S4C (Sianel 4 Cymru)]
 +
*[http://cymdeithas.org/english/ Welsh Language Society]
 +
*[http://www.britannia.com/celtic/wales/language.html Britannia Travel Guide]
 +
*[http://www.walesindex.co.uk/pages/483.html Wales Index]
 +
*[http://users.comlab.ox.ac.uk/geraint.jones/about.welsh/ Geraint Jones' Welsh information]
  
=== Web Sites ===
+
== Sources  ==
  
http://www.britannia.com/celtic/wales/language.html
+
<references />
  
http://www.walesindex.co.uk/pages/483.html
+
{{Place|Wales}}
  
http://users.comlab.ox.ac.uk/geraint.jones/about.welsh/<br />
+
[[Category:Wales]] [[Category:Language_and_Languages]]

Revision as of 15:21, 2 December 2012

Gotoarrow.png Wales Gotoarrow.png Languages

Roadsign.png

Wales is a bilingual country. The Welsh language came from the Brythonic branch of the Celtic language. It was spoken throughout Wales and English border counties until the end of the 16th Century. It is said that the translation of the Bible into Welsh in 1588 began the standardization of the language.

Western and Northern Wales still speak predominantly Welsh. There has been a push in the last few decades to restore Welsh to is proper place in society. Welsh has equal status with English in the public sector in Wales and the teaching of both languages is compulsory in all schools up to the age of 16.

The most recent census figures for Wales (2001) indicate that 582,400 (21% of the population) were able to speak Welsh. However, in the western parts of the country the language is spoken by over 60% of the population. The number of younger people able to speak Welsh, throughout Wales, has risen significantly.

Wales has one television channel, S4C (Sianel 4 Cymru), and one radio station, BBC Radio Cymru, broadcasting in the Welsh language.

Although most Welsh records are written in English, understanding some basic elements of the Welsh language can help you with your research. Do not, however, rely on a translation of a record made by using a dictionary. Get help from someone who knows the language.

Contents

Welsh Language Courses

Many opportunities exist for learning to speak and read the Welsh language. Read more...

The Welsh Alphabet

Welsh is a member of the Brythonic branch of the Celtic languages.

Though the Welsh and English alphabets are very similar, each has some letters not used in the other. The letters q, v, and z are not used in the Welsh language and the letters j and k only occur in 'adopted' words. The following double letters are treated as a single letter in Welsh: ch, dd, ff, ll, ng, ph, rh, and th. These letters are part of the Welsh alphabet.

When you use a Welsh dictionary or an index written in Welsh, use Welsh, not English, alphabetical order.

Welsh Pronunciation

The sounds produced by certain letters in the Welsh alphabet are often misinterpreted and spelled incorrectly. This is particularly true of Welsh sounds not used in English. For example, the sound made by a double l (ll) is formed by placing the tongue at the roof of the mouth and blowing air sharply out the side. The sound comes when using it in conjunction with other letters.

The following table lists Welsh letters and their sounds:

Letter Pronunciation
a An ah as in the English word "father".
b Like an English b.
c Always hard as in the English word "cat", never soft as in "cease".
ch Like the Scottish ch as in "loch". Never as in the English word "choice".
d Like an English d.
dd voiced th as in the English word "breathe".
e The sound as in the English word "breath".
f Like an English v.
ff Like an English f
g Hard g as in the English word "get".
ng Sound as in the English word "longer".
h Like an English h but never silent.
i Long e as in the English word "meet".
l Like an English l.
ll No English equivalent. Made by putting tip of tongue on roof of mouth and blowing.
m Like an English m.
n Like an English n.
o Long o as in the English word "go".
p Like an English p.
ph Same as ph as in the English word "phone".
r Trilled r.
rh No English equivalent. Made by blowing while trilling an r.
s Always soft as in the English word "sat", never as in "advise".
t Like an English t.
th Unvoiced th as in the English word "wreath".
u A long e as in the English word "tea".
w As an oo as in the English word "broom".
y Like uh as in the English word "come"; or (at end of words) long e as in "family".

Note: The letters q, v, and z are not used in Welsh. The letters j and k are used only in adopted words like jam and kilo.

Using a Welsh Dictionary

If you cannot find a word in the dictionary, it may be that:

  • Your dictionary is too small.
  • The word is mutated (see below).
  • The word is a conjugated verb. For example, dod (to come) is in the dictionary, but daeth (he came) is not.
  • The word is a conjugated preposition. am (about) is in the dictionary, but amdani (about her) is not.
  • The word is a comparative or superlative adjective. hen (old) is listed, but hen (older), and hynaf (oldest) are not.
  • The word is a contraction. o (from) and yr (the) are both listed, but their contracted form o’r (from the) is not.
  • The word contains double letters such as ch,dd, ll, ng, and rh, which are filed after single letters. For example:
    • the word rhad (free) would come after ruban (ribbon)
    • the word dichell (treachery) would come after dicter (anger)
    • the word goddef (to bear) would come after godro (to milk)
    • the word gwyllt (wild) would come after gwylan (seagull)

If a word you find in a dictionary does not make sense in the record’s context:

  • It may be part of a two-word preposition. ôl is a noun meaning "track." When it is combined with ar (on), the result is the preposition ar ôl, meaning "after".
  • It may be part of an idiomatic expression. hen by itself means "old," but hen bryd means "high time."
  • It may be an archaic word or have a changed meaning.

Books that can help you understand Welsh are:

  • Bowen, John T., and T. S. Rhys Jones. Welsh: A Complete Course for Beginners. David McKay Company Inc., 1960. (Family History Library book 942.9 G2b.)
  • Evans, H. Meurig, and W. O. Thomas. Y Geiriadur Mawr (The Complete Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary). Swansea, Wales: C. Davies, 1981. (Family History Library book 491.66321 Ev15y.)
  • Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru (A Dictionary of the Welsh Language). Vol. 1-. Caerdydd, Wales: Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru (Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press), 1950-. (Family History Library book 403.429 W465g.) This dictionary is being published in volumes; publication is still in progress. It is the most authoritative dictionary and gives Welsh spellings and English definitions.
  • Williams, Stephen J. A Welsh Grammar. Cardiff, Wales: University of Wales Press, 1980. (Family History Library book 942.9 G2ws.)

Online

An online Welsh dictionary can be found at www.geiriadur.net. To translate Welsh, go to http://www.google.com/ and search for Language Tools. Use one of the listed tools to translate Welsh into English or whatever language you choose. 

You may also find more language aids, including a audio recording of the pronunciation of some Welsh place-names, through the GENUKI website at: www.genuki.org.uk/big/wal/#Lang From the above site, click on Sounds of Wales

Language books can be found in the Place Search of the Family History Library Catalog under:

WALES - LANGUAGE AND LANGUAGES

They can also be found in the Subject Search under:

WELSH LANGUAGE - DICTIONARIES - ENGLISH

Mutations

In Welsh, the first letter of a word often changes or disappears. This is called mutation. For example, teulu (family) can appear as deulu, nheulu, or theulu. Mutated words are not in Welsh dictionaries, so use the following chart to change a mutated word back to its original form:

Initial consonant Soft mutation
Nasal mutation
Aspirate mutation
P
pensil
(pencil)
B
ei bensil e
(his pencil)
Mh
fy mhensil i
(my pencil)
Ph
ei phensil hi
(her pencil)
T
tad
(father)
D
ei dad e
(his father)
Nh
fy nhad i
(my father)
Th
ei thad hi
(her father)
C
ci
(dog)
G
ei gi e
(his dog)
Ngh
fy nghi i
(my dog)
Ch
ei chi hi
(her dog)
B
brawd
(brother)
F
ei frawd e
(his brother)
M
fy mrawd i
(my brother)
No Change
D
dosbarth
(class)
Dd
ei ddosbarth e
(his class)
N
fy nosbarth i
(my class)
No Change
G
gardd
(garden)
-
ei ardd e
(his garden)
Ng
fy ngardd i
(my garden)
No Change
Ll
llyfr
(book)
L
ei lyfr e
(his book)
No Change No Change
M
mam
(mother)
F
ei fam e
(his mother)
No Change No Change
Rh
rhaglen
(programme)
R
ei raglen e
(his programme)
No Change No Change

Soft mutation generally occurs:

  • On singular feminine nouns following the definite article. For example: "pont" (a bridge), "y bont" (the bridge).
  • After one of the prepositions: "am" (for) , "ar" (on), "at" (towards), "gan" (with), "tros" (over), "trwy" (through), "wrth" (by), "dan" (below), "heb" (without), "hyd" (until), "o" (from), "i" (to). For example: "dim" (nothing), "am ddim" (for nothing)
  • After the personal pronouns: "dy" (your), "ei" (his). For example: "pen" (head), dy ben (your head)
  • After the numerals "un" (one, but only sing. f.), "dau" (two m.), "dwy" (two f.), "saith" (seven), "wyth" (eight). For example: "brawd" (brother), "dau frawd" (two brothers)

Nasal mutation generally occurs:

  • After "fy" (my). For example "brawd" (brother), "fy mrawd" (my brothers)
  • After "yn" (in). For example "ym Mangor" (in Bangor)

Aspirate mutation generally occurs:

  • After "tri" (three m.), "chwe" (six). For example: "ceffyl" (horse), "chwe cheffyl" (six horses)
  • After "ei" (her). For example: "pen" (head), "ei phen" (her head)
  • After "a" (and), "â" (with). For example: "caws" (cheese), "bara a chaws" (bread and cheese)

In general, if you are unable to find a word:

If the word begins with: Also look under: Example:
a g yn yr ardd (in the garden) - gardd (a garden)
b p yr ail bont (the second bridge) - pont (a bridge)
ch c chwe cheiniog (six pence) - ceiniog (a penny)
d t dy dad (you father) - tad (a father)
dd d y ddraig (the dragon) - draig (a dragon)
e g yr efail (the smithy) - gefail (a smithy)
f b and m y ferch (the girl) - merch (a girl)
g c ei gi e (his dog) - ci (a dog)
h all vowels (a, e, i, o, u, w, y) ei henw hi (her name) - enw (a name)
i g
l g and ll yn ei lyfr e (in his book) - llyfr (a book)
m b fy mrawd i (my brother) - brawd (a brother)
mh p fy mhen i (my head) - pen (a head)
n d and g fy narlun i (my picture) - darlun (a picture)
ng g fy ngeiriadur i (my dictionary) - geiriadur (a dictionary)
ngh c fy nghath i (my cat) - cath (my cat)
nh t fy nhrwyn i (my nose) - trwyn (a nose)
o g yr olygfa (the view) - golygfa (a view)
ph p ei phapur (her paper) - papur (paper)
r g and rh yr hen reilffordd (the old railway) - rheilffordd (a railway)
th t ei theledu hi (her television) - teledu (a television)
w g y wadd (the mole) - gwadd (a mole)

Latin

Until 1733 many records were kept in Latin. Sometimes records written in English contain some Latin words. Knowing some Latin will help you read these records. For help with Latin words, see the Latin Genealogical Word List (34077) or the following books:

  • Ainsworth, Robert. Thesaurus Linguae Latinae Compendiarius. London, England: F. Westly and A. H. Davis, 1836. (Family History Library book 473 Ai65a 1836; film 599788.)
  • Simpson, Elizabeth, comp. Latin Word-List for Family Historians. Birmingham, England: Federation of Family History Societies, 1985.[1]

See also

Other countries with Celtic languages:

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has more about this subject: Welsh language

Sources

  1. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Research Outline: Wales (Salt Lake City: Corporation of the President, 2000), 42-44. NOTE: All information in the original research outline has been added to the FamilySearch Wiki, where it is both enhanced and updated by the genealogical community.