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Translating monumental inscriptions is not too demanding for a non-Welsh speaker, as they tend to be simple in style and most fit the same format.

  • Most will tend to start with an opening phrase such as:
Welsh English
Er cof am In memory of
Er cof annwyl am In beloved memory of
Er serchog gof am In loving memory of
Er serchus cof am In loving memory of
Er coffadwriaeth am In remembrance of
Er coffadwriaeth parchus am In respectful remembrance of
Er coffadwriaeth serchog am In loving remembrance of
Er coffadwriaeth serchus am In loving remembrance of

  • followed by the name of the deceased
  • followed by a relationship to others;


Welsh English
Baban Baby
Brawd Brother
Brawd yng nghyfraith Brawd in law
Brodyr Brothers
Cefnder Cousin (m)
Cyfnither Cousin (f)
Cymydog Neighbour
Chwaer Sister
Chwaer yng nghyfraith Sister in law
Chwiorydd Sisters
Ewythr Uncle
Gwr Husband
Gwraig Wife
Hen- Great-
Mab Son
Meibion Sons
Mam Mother
Mamgu Grandmother (in the south and west)
Merch Daughter
Merched Daughters
Modryb Aunt
Nai Nephew
Nain Grandmother (in the north)
Nith Niece
Plant Children
Plentyn Child
Priod Spouse
Rhieni Parents
Tad Father
Tadcu Grandfather (in the south and west)
Taid Grandfather (in the north)
Wyr Grandson
Wyrion Grandsons
Wyres Granddaughter

  • followed by details of their life
Welsh English
Ganed/Ganwyd ... ... was born
Bu farw ... ... died Claddwyd ... Buried ...
yn .. mlwydd oed aged .. years
Dydd Sul Sunday
Dydd Llun Monday
Dydd Mawrth Tuesday
Dydd Mercher Wednesday
Dydd Iau Thursday
Dydd Gwener Friday
Dydd Sadwrn Saturday
Ionawr (Ion.) January (Jan.)
Chwefror (Chwe.) February (Feb.)
Mawrth (Maw.) March (Mar.)
Ebrill (Ebr.) April (Apr.)
Mai May
Mehefin (Meh.) June (Jun.)
Gorffennaf (Gor.) July
Awst August (Aug.)
Medi September (Sep.)
Hydref (Hyd.) October (Oct.)
Tachwedd (Tach.) November (Nov.)
Rhagfyr (Rhag.) December (Dec.)

  • and possibly details of his work


Welsh English
Athrawes Teacher (f)
Athro Teacher (m)
Bardd Poet, Bard
Bugail Shepherd
Cariwr Carrier
Cerddor Musician
Crydd Shoemaker, Cobbler
Cyfreithiwr Solicitor, Lawyer
Chwarelwr Quarryman
Dilledydd Draper
Ffermwr Farmer
Garddwr Gardener
Glöwr Collier
Masnachydd Merchant
Melinydd Miller
Mwynwr Miner
Saer Coed Carpenter
Saer Maen Stone Mason
Tafarnwr Publican
Telynor Harpist
Ysgolfeistr Schoolmaster
Ysgrifennydd Secretary

  • and possibly position within the church:

Church positions

Welsh English
Arweinydd y gân Precentor,one who leads the singing
Blaenor Elder, Deacon
Codwr canu Precentor, one who leads singing
Diacon Deacon
Emynydd Hymn Writer
Gweinidog Minister
Organydd Organist
Parchedig (Parch.) Reverend (Rev.)
Pregethwr Preacher
Trysorydd Treasurer

  • with possibly a final quotation:


Welsh English
Ac yn eu marwolaeth, ni wahanwyd hwy And in their death, they were not divided [2 Samuel 1:23]
Cofia nawr dy Greawdwr yn nyddiau dy ieuenctid Remember now thy Creator in the days of thy youth
Coffadwriaeth y cyfiawn sydd fendigedig The memory of the just is blessed [Proverbs 10:7]
Canys byw i mi yw Crist a marw sydd elw For me, to live is Christ and dying is gain
Da, was da a ffyddlon / ffyddlawn Well done thou good and faithful servant
Ei diwedd oedd heddwch Her end was peace
Gorffwys mewn hedd Rest in peace
Gwyn eu byd y tangnefeddwyr, canys hwy a elwir yn blant i Dduw Blessed are the peacemakers for they shall be called the children of God
Hedd, Perffaith Hedd Peace, Perfect Peace
Mi a ymdrechais ymdrech deg. Mi a orphenais fy ngyrfa. Mi a gedwais y ffydd. I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith [Timothy 4:7]
Ynghanol ein bywyd, yr ydym yn angau In the midst of life we are in death
Yr hyn a allodd hon, hi a'i gwnaeth Whatever she was able to do, she did

It should also be remembered that stonemasons were not always literate and spelling mistakes and poor mutations are quite common.


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