Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland
- This article is about a city in Maryland. For the surrounding county, see Baltimore County, Maryland. For other uses, see Baltimore (disambiguation).
Guide to Baltimore City, Maryland ancestry, family history, and genealogy, birth records, marriage records, death records, census records, and military records.
|Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland|
Location in the state of Maryland
Location of Maryland in the U.S.
|Founded||July 30, 1729|
|Address|| Baltimore City Courthouse|
111 N. Calvert Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
Baltimore City Website
- 1 Baltimore Maryland City Hall
- 2 History
- 3 Places/Localities
- 4 Resources
- 4.1 Cemeteries
- 4.2 Census
- 4.3 Church Records
- 4.4 Court
- 4.5 Directories
- 4.6 Education
- 4.7 Family Histories
- 4.8 Gazetteers
- 4.9 Immigration
- 4.10 Land
- 4.11 Local Histories
- 4.12 Maps
- 4.13 Military
- 4.14 Naturalization
- 4.15 Newspapers
- 4.16 Photographs
- 4.17 Probate
- 4.18 Research Guides
- 4.19 Taxation
- 4.20 Vital Records
- 5 Societies and Libraries
- 6 Websites
- 7 References
100 N. Holliday Street
Baltimore, Maryland 21202
Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. Courthouse
100 N. Calvert Street
Baltimore, MD 21202
City Health Department has birth, death and burial records.
Common Pleas Court has marriage records.
Clerk Circuit Court has divorce records, trust estates, adoption and name changes from 1853. Register of Wills has probate records.
- Founded 30 July 1729, named for Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Lord Baltimore, Proprietor of Maryland.
- Baltimore is anglicized name for the Irish Gaelic name, Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning the Town of the Big House referring to the O'Driscoll castle that still domains the town.
- In the War of 1812, the British troops attacked Baltimore after the burning of Washington, D.C., on the night of 13 September 1814 in the Battle of Baltimore. It was the scene of the poem "The Star-Spangled Banner."
- The Union troops occupied Baltimore to prevent the secession of Maryland from the Union during the Civil War, after Confederate sympathizers attacked the Union troops in the Baltimore riot of 1861. Maryland came under direct Federal administration.
- 7 February 1904, the Great Fire of Baltimore destroyed more than 1,500 buildings in 30 hours.
- 1851--The City broke off from surrounding Baltimore County, 13 May 1851 as an Independent City.
For animated maps illustrating Maryland county boundary changes, "Rotating Formation Maryland County Boundary Maps" (1637-1997) may be viewed for free at the MapofUS.org website.
There is no known history of courthouse disasters in this county.
- Abell, Belair, Coppin Heights, Inner Harbor, Waverly, Wyndhurst, more...
|Tombstone Transcriptions Online||Tombstone Transcriptions in Print||List of Cemeteries in the county|
|Findagrave.com||Family History Library||Findagrave.com|
|See Maryland Cemeteries for more information.|
- B'nai Israel Cemetery, Baltimore City
- Loudon Park Cemetery, Baltimore City
- Parkwood Cemetery, Baltimore City
- Most Holy Redeemer Cemetery, Baltimore City
- St. Johns Lutheran Cemetery, Baltimore City
Interment.net Cemetery Listings for Baltimore City, MD. Includes contact information for many cemeteries in the county and volunteer contributed index lists for many of them.
USGenWeb Archives includes a partial transcription for
Western Cemetery-Edmonson Ave. and Longwood St., Baltimore, MD 21234
- Loudon Park Cemetery (Baltimore, Maryland). Cemetery Records, 1853-1986. Salt Lake City, Utah: Genealogical Society of Utah, 1986. (On 66 Family History Library films beginning with 1429937.)
Many Baltimore City cemetery records have been published by various volunteers. The Baltimore County Genealogical Society has a good collection. You can use WorldCat.org to search for the name of the church you are interested in, and find out what libraries hold it. If you choose to buy instead of borrow, you may check Amazon.com or Heritage Books, Inc. Here is a partial list of books available:
- Holy Rosary Church Cemetery, Tombstone inscriptions of; Baltimore County, Maryland. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Towson, Md: Baltimore County Genealogical Society, 1999.
- Mt. Carmel Cemetery Records: 1854-1882. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications, 1998.
- Mt. Carmel Cemetery Records, 1883-1893, Baltimore, Maryland. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Westminster, Md: Family Line Publications, 1998.
- Mt. Carmel Cemetery Records: 1893-1905. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Westminster, MD: Family Line Publications, 1998.
- Mt. Carmel Cemetery Records: 1905-1936. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Westminster, MD: Willow Bend Books, 2001.
- Mt. Olivet Cemetery. Baltimore County Historical Society. Westminster, Md. (Rear 63 East Main Street): Family Line Publications, 1989.
- St. Stanislaus Cemetery, Tombstone Inscriptions of; Baltimore, Maryland. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Towson, Md. (P.O. Box 10085, Towson 21285-0085): Baltimore County Genealogical Society, 2002.
- Western Cemetery: Interment Records, Baltimore, Maryland. Baltimore County Genealogical Society. Baltimore, Md: Baltimore County Genealogical Society, 2004.
Federal Census reports available 1800-1930 including slave and veterans schedules.
1868--The Baltimore City Archives has a police census for some city wards of Baltimore on one microfilm.
Guide to Maryland Religious Institutions is not intended to be a complete listing of all Religious institutions in Maryland. It was originally based upon the churches recorded by the Federal Works Progress Administration during a records survey conducted from 1935 to 1941. It has been expanded by later acquisitions from religious organizations to the Maryland State Archives. Microfilm of sacramental records for about seventy-five parishes, mostly Baltimore city churches established before 1900, are available for public use at the Maryland State Archives in Annapolis.
The following records, have been digitized and made available to view for free online:
- 1668-1995 Maryland, Church Records, 1668-1995 at FamilySearch — index
- Evangelical Lutheran, Salem Church, Baltimore City, Register 1885-1979 (includes baptisms, confirmations, marriages, funerals, and communions)
- First United Evangelical Church, United Church of Christ, Baltimore City, Md. (MD State Archives includes Pauline Leitner's index to marriage records) MDGenSoc members may access: baptisms 1850-1874 [new in 2013], marriages 1851-1911, burials 1850-1919.
- German Evangelical Reformed: See United Methodist, Old Otterbein Church
- Lutheran, Zion Lutheran Church, Baltimore City, Holliday and Lexington Streets (includes church and parish registers 1785-1970s and various other records)
- Methodist Episcopal, City Station, Baltimore City, Various Records 1819-1865 (includes memoranda of white members, baptisms, and marriages)
- Methodist Episcopal, City Station, Baltimore City, Probationary Members 1830s-1866; Class Records 1844-1881; Marriages; Baptisms
- Methodist Episcopal, Finksburg Charge-Sandymount Church, Baltimore City, Various Records 1857-1947 (includes annual business meeting minutes, stewards minutes, treasurer's records, and Sunday School records)
- Methodist Episcopal, High Street Church Collection, Baltimore City, Various Records 1844-1896 (includes class records, treasurer's report, centenary fund, High Street Station, lists of members, marriages, and baptisms)
- Methodist Episcopal, Jefferson Street Church, Baltimore City, Registers 1854-1862, 1896-1915; Baptisms and Marriages 1862-1896; Membership 1864-1896, 1897-1915
- Methodist Episcopal, Mount Washington Church, Baltimore City, Various Records 1869-1920 (includes pastors, official members, members in full connection, classes, probationers, marriages, baptisms, pastoral and statistical records)
- Methodist Episcopal, Wesley Chapel, Baltimore City, Md. (includes persons admitted to classes 1859-1871, class records 1862-1871, and register 1870-1906)
- Protestant Episcopal (Church of England), St. Paul's Church, St. Paul's Parish, Baltimore City, Md. (includes parish registers 1790s, 1832-1935)
- Protestant Episcopal, Trinity Church, Baltimore City (includes parish registers 1845-1903 and vestry minutes 1879-1904)
- Roman Catholic, St. Alphonsus Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Registers 1845-1977; Indexes (many of the records are in Lithuanian)
- Roman Catholic, St. Brigid Church, Baltimore City, Record book 1858-1866
- Roman Catholic, St. Francis Xavier Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Record 1889-1946; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. Ignatius Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Registers 1853-1936; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. James Church, Baltimore City, Baptismal Registers 1840-1908; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. James Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Registers 1937-1975; Marriage Registers of Those Baptized at St. James and Married Elsewhere 1909-1957
- Roman Catholic, St. James Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Registers 1840-1937; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. John the Evangelist, Baltimore City; Baptismal Registers 1877-1901; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. John the Evangelist, Baltimore City; Baptismal Registers 1888-1894, 1901-1915; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. Joseph's Church, Baltimore City, Baptismal Registers 1883-1919; Index
- Roman Catholic, St. Joseph's Church, Baltimore City, Marriage Registers 1839-1962; Indexes; Death Registers 1849-1962; Indexes
- Roman Catholic, St. Mary's Star of the Sea, Baltimore City, Md. (includes baptisms 1868-1910 and indexes, death registers 1922-1981 and index, and first communion register 1874-1893)
- Roman Catholic, Saints Philip and James Church, Baltimore City, Md. (includes indexed marriage register 1962-1978, indexed burials 1899-1951, and indexed death register 1951-1978)
- Roman Catholic, St. Vincent de Paul, Baltimore City, Md. (includes cemetery records)
- Roman Catholic, St. Vincent de Paul, Baltimore City, Md. (includes baptismal registers 1834-1880 and indexes)
- Roman Catholic, St. Wenceslaus Church, Baltimore City, Md. (includes baptisms (1868-1892), marriages (1872-1978), deaths (1880-1979), indexes, and other various records)
- United Methodist, Mount Washington Church, Baltimore City, Various Records 1916-1998 (includes memorial gifts, membership list, baptisms, full membership, marriages, deaths, and historical record)
- United Methodist (formerly German Evangelical Reformed), Old Otterbein Church, Baltimore City, Various Registers 1785-1883 (includes baptisms, marriages, deaths, and vestry minutes; some books are written in German)
- United Methodist, Sharp Street Memorial Church, Baltimore City: Bettye C. Thomas's History of Baltimore Sharp St. Memorial M.E. Church 1787-1920; Class Book 1825-1841; Church Record 1872-1884, 1872-1884, 1876-1885, 1888-1891
- United Methodist, Sharp Street Memorial Church, Baltimore City, Various Records 1839-1907 (includes church record, class roll books, class leaders roll book, Mount Auburn Cemetery records, and cemetery lot sales)
- United Methodist, West Baltimore Station, Membership Roll 1954-1958, Miscellaneous Records, Church Records 1851-1900, Church Records 1915-1942 (the last record is in Norwegian)
Many Baltimore City church records have been published by various volunteers. The Baltimore County Genealogical Society has a good collection. You can use WorldCat.org to search for the name of the church you are interested in, and find out what libraries hold it. If you choose to buy instead of borrow, you may check Amazon.com or Heritage Books, Inc. Here is a partial list of books available:
- Old Otterbein Church, Records of; Baltimore Maryland, 1785-1881. Maryland Genealogical Society. Westminster, Md: Willow Bend Books, 2001.
- St. Ann's Catholic Church, 22nd Street and Greenmount Avenue, Baltimore, Maryland Baptisms, 1873-1907, Marriages 1873-1907. Arthur, Edward Patrick. Lewes, Del: Colonial Roots, 2012.
- St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church: Baptisms, 1853-1882. Arthur, Edward Patrick. Lewes, Del: Colonial Roots, 2010.
- St. John the Evangelist Catholic Church Baptisms, 1883-1915. Arthur, Edward Patrick. Lewes, Del: Colonial Roots, 2012.
- St. Mary's Govans Catholic Church, Baltimore, Maryland Baptisms, 1850-1882, Marriages 1850-1912, Cemetery Records. Arthur, Edward Patrick. Lewes, Md: Colonial Roots, 2012.
- St. Michael the Archangel Church, Polish Baptisms in; 1869-1890. Hollowak, Thomas L. Baltimore: Historyk Press, 2000.
- St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Baltimore, Maryland: Baptisms, 1825-1871. Arthur, Edward Patrick. Lewes, Del: Colonial Roots, 2011.
- St. Paul's Church Records 1826-1935: (Baptisms, Marriages, Burials). King, Kay R. Lewes, Delaware: Colonial Roots, 2010.
- Saint Stanislaw Kostka Church, Births from the Baptismal Record of; 1879-1889. Hollowak, Thomas L. Baltimore, Md. (2804 Florida Ave., Baltimore 21227): Historyk Press, 1992.
- Second German Evangelical Lutheran Church, Baltimore City, Maryland, 1835-1867. Ruppert, Gary B. Westminster, Md: Willow Bend Books, 2006.
- Trinity German Lutheran, 1853-1877: Baltimore City, Maryland. Ruppert, Gary B. Westminster, Md: Willow Bend Books, 2002.
Roman Catholic Archive
St. Mary's Seminary & University
5400 Roland Avenue
Baltimore, MD 21210
The Diocese of Baltimore was the first Catholic diocese in the United States. Established in 1789, it included the entire country at the time. Records were transferred to the new dioceses as they were created. Original sacramental records are kept by the parishes. Some records not available for public use at the Maryland State Archives in Annapolis may be found at the Associated Archives at St. Mary's Seminary & University. Certificates may be issued by the parish of origin.
Diocesan history: The Premier See: A History of the Archdiocese of Baltimore 1789-1989, Thomas W. Spalding (Baltimore, Md. : Johns Hopkins University Press, 1989).
Catholic newspaper: The Catholic Review
PO Box 777
Baltimore, MD 21203
the newspaper is not generally helpful to genealogists - carried few obituaries. The earlier newspaper for the diocese was The Catholic Mirror, 1850-1908. The newspapers are on microfilm at the main branch of the Encoh Pratt Library in Baltimore.
- Fold3.com ($) has Baltimore City Directories 1863-1923 (5 yrs. missing) available online. Fold3 is free at some libraries and at National Archives research rooms.
- Internet Archive (free) has similar coverage as Fold3. You can search Internet Archive or see a list linking to each directory from the University of Maryland website.
- Baltimore College of Dental Surgery Yearbooks - from 1901 to 1989. Some gaps, but this is likely to be filled in over time.
It is anticipated that this bibliography will eventually identify all known family histories published about residents of this county. Use this list to:
- Locate publications about direct ancestors
- Find the most updated accounts of an ancestor's family
- Identify publications, to quote Elizabeth Shown Mills, about an ancestor's "FAN Club" [Friends, Associates, and Neighbors]
- [Brispo] Russell, George Ely. "Portuguese and Spanish Colonists in Seventeenth-Century Maryland," The American Genealogist, Vol. 76, No. 1 (January 2001):50-60; Vol. 77, No. 1 (Apr. 2001):138-147. FHL 973 D25aga v. 76
- [Decosta] Russell, George Ely. "Portuguese and Spanish Colonists in Seventeenth-Century Maryland," The American Genealogist, Vol. 76, No. 1 (January 2001):50-60; Vol. 77, No. 1 (Apr. 2001):138-147. FHL 973 D25aga v. 76
- [Philpot] Russell, George Ely. "Brian Philpot Family of Maryland: With Notes on English Relatives," The Genealogist, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Fall 2003):131-165.
The New Early Settlers of Maryland database is a great place to start searching for immigrants who had arrived in the colony by the 1680s. The database "comprises 34,326 entries from Gust Skordas' Early Settlers of Maryland and Carson Gibb's Supplement to the Early Settlers of Maryland." Available online, courtesy: Maryland State Archives.
Other Baltimore City immigration resources include:
- Coldham, Peter Wilson. "Intercepted Letters Relating to America 1777-1811," The Genealogist, Vol. 14, No. 2 (Fall 2000):184-200; Vol. 15, No. 1 (Spring 2001):53-74. [Discusses overseas contacts of individuals with the following Baltimore County surnames: Albers, Anspach, Barry, Barton, Beatty, Beays, Belt, Bolte, Brothers, Brown, Browne, Brune, Buchanan, Burke, Campbell, Caton, Clarke, Courteney, Dickey, Dicky, Donnell, Dormy, Dorsly, Duncan, Gernon, Gillmer, Gilmore, Gittings [Gettings], Goverts, Graf, Grant, Grundy, Gwin, Haslett, Hoffman, Hollins, Holmes, Hudson, Kalkman, Konig, Lone, McCreery, McFadon, Maris, Merryman, Moncrieff, Olliver, Patterson, Pringle, Salmon, Sears, Sherlock, Smith, Somervell, Spears, Sterrett, Stewart, Stiles, Taylor, Thompson, Thorowgood, Valck, Von Kapffe, Von Stapff, Walsh, Williams, Williamson, Wilson, Yellot, Young, Zwisler.]
- List of imported servants and transported convicts from Europe who served labor terms in Colonial Baltimore City and County, Maryland (work in progress), courtesy: Immigrant Servants Database. [Includes Richard J. Cox's abstracts of Maryland Gazette runaways.]
Through a Joint eGovernment Service of the Maryland Judiciary and the Maryland State Archives, free images and indexes of the complete series of Baltimore City Deed Books (1653-present) have been uploaded to their website: A Digital Image Retrieval System for Land Records in Maryland. (Requires free registration.)
- A Census of Pensioners for Revolutionary or Military Services: With their Names, Ages, and Places of Residence, as Returned by the Marshalls of the Several Judicial Districts, Under the Act for Taking the Sixth Census]. 1841. Digital version at Google Books et. al. 1967 reprint: FHL Collection 973 X2pc 1840. [See Maryland, Baltimore City on page 128.]
- "Baltimore Privateers from 1777 to 1783," The Maryland and Delaware Genealogist, Vol. 31, No. 2 (Spring 1990):46-47; Vol. 31, No. 3 (Summer 1990):88-89, .... FHL US/CAN Book 975 B2m.
War of 1812
Cranwell, John Philips and William Bowers Crane Men of Marque : a history of private armed vessels out of Baltimore during the War of 1812 (Norton, c 1940, New York) pages 427 Bibliography pages 415-418, FHL 975.26 M3
- 1861-1865 - Maryland, Civil War Service Records of Confederate Soldiers, 1861-1865 at FamilySearch — index
- 1861-1865 - Maryland, Civil War Service Records of Union Soldiers, 1861-1865 at FamilySearch — index
Since the city broke off from surrounding Baltimore County in 1851, the Civil War records for the city of Baltimore will be in the city's military records rather than with the county's records.
Regiments. Service men in Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland served in various regiments. Men often joined a company (within a regiment) that originated in their county. Listed below are companies that were specifically formed in Baltimore (Independent City), Maryland:
- - 1st Regiment, South Carolina Infantry (Butler's) (1st Regulars), Company G
- - 1st Regiment, Maryland Eastern Shore Infantry Company I
- - 1st Regiment, Maryland Infantry, Potomac Home Brigade, Company C, and C
- - 2nd Regiment, Maryland Cavalry (6 months, 1863-1864), Company A, B, and E
- - 2nd Regiment, Maryland Eastern Shore Infantry, Company F
- - 3rd Regiment, Maryland Cavalry, Company A,B,H, and K
- - 5th Regiment, Maryland InfantryCompany B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and K
- - 6th Regiment, Maryland Infantry Company F, and I
- - 8th Regiment, Maryland Infantry, Company B, C, D, F, and G
- - 9th Regiment, Maryland Infantry (6 months, 1863-1864) , Company A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, and K
- - 21st Regiment, Virginia Infantry (Confederate). Company B (Maryland Guard).
Though it does not appear on the FamilySearch Catalog under the naturalization section of the City of Baltimore or Baltimore County, the Family History Library has acquired published abstracts of Baltimore naturalizations from 1784 through 1854:
- Oszakiewski, Robert Andrew. Maryland Naturalization Abstracts. Baltimore County and Baltimore City [1784-1854]. Westminster, Maryland: Family Line Publications, 1995. Available at FHL US/CAN Book 975.2 P48o.
- Afro-American Ledger - newspaper digitized in Google News Archive; includes 1906-1917
- Afro American - newspaper digitized in Google News Archive; includes 1902-1992
- Baltimore Afro-American - more digitized issues; covers 1943-2003
- 1799-1801 issues of the American & Commercial Daily Advertiser - Google News Archive
- 1800-1880 issues of the American & Commercial Daily Advertiser - newspaper digitized in Google News Archive
- 1854-1869 issues of the American & Commercial Daily Advertiser - Google News Archive
- 1857-1902 - issues of the Baltimore American & Commercial Advertiser - Google News Archive
- Baltimore Bee - 200 issues from 1875-1876 in Google News Archive
- Baltimore Morning Herald - 1100+ issues digitized in Google News Archive
- Baltimore Sunday Herald - 60 issues digitiezed in Google New Archive
- Baltimore Sun 1837-1985 - complete, OCR search capable (library card required, non-resident: $)
- Baltimore City newspapers are identified in "Guide to Maryland Newspapers," available online, courtesy: Special Collections, Maryland State Archives.
- Baltimore Sun Photgraphic Archives - digitized photos of those appearing in the paper. The paper plans to see them online.
Many of those who died in Baltimore will be listed in the administration accounts, and may even have a will.
- "Maryland, Register of Wills Books, 1629-1983." Images. FamilySearch. Maryland, registers of wills books. County Registrar of Wills in Maryland. Includes Baltimore City.
Online Probate Records
- 1604 – 1878 Maryland Wills and Probate Records 1604-1878 at Ancestry.com — index and images $
- 1635 – 1743 Maryland Calendar of Wills 1635-1743 at Ancestry.com — index and images $
- 1796 – 1940 Maryland Probate Estate and Guardianship Files , 1796-1940 at FamilySearch images
- Barnes, Robert. Guide to Research in Baltimore City and County. 2nd Edition. Westminster, Md.: Family Line Publications, 1993.
- "A Guide to Research in the Public Records of Baltimore City," available online, courtesy: Baltimore City History website.
- 1658 - 1940 Maryland County Marriages, 1658-1940 at FamilySearch — index
- 1666 - 1970 Maryland Marriages, 1666-1970 at FamilySearch — index
- 1875 - 1972 Baltimore City Death Certificate Index 1875-1972, available online, courtesy: Vital Records Indexing Project, Maryland State Archives.
Societies and Libraries
The following societies and libraries are useful in genealogical research. While some collections are available at multiple locations, these often have unique collections. In most cases, a visit to their website will give you an idea of what they hold.
- Baltimore City Archives - unique special collections
- Baltimore County Genealogical Society - popular collection of books, microfilms, etc.
- Enoch Pratt Free Library - city directory microfilms etc.
- Maryland Genealogical Society - partnership with MdHS
- Maryland Historical Society - church records etc.
- Maryland State Archives - vital records, church records, and much more
- Maryland State Law Library - Baltimore Sun microfilms, published genealogies
Family History Centers
Family History Centers provide one-on-one assistance and free access to premium genealogical websites. In addition, many centers have free how-to genealogy classes. See Family History Center for more information. Search the online FHC directory for a nearby family history center.
- Baltimore City, Maryland Genealogy, History and Facts (Genealogy Inc)
- Baltimore City History: research guides to public records, maps, populations, and local histories.
- "Baltimore City," in Genealogical Sources in Periodicals at The Maryland State Archives.
- The Baltimore City MDGenWeb Project, a member of The MDGenWeb Project, an affiliate of The USGenWeb Project. Links to Marriages, Baltimore Death Certificates, Obituaries, Births, Baltimore Death Index, Divorce, Ship passenger lists, Military, Immigration, Wills, Family group sheets, Census, Church records of Marriage, Birth, Death and Baptisms.
- The USGenWeb Archives Project for Baltimore City.
- The USGenWeb Archives Project for Baltimore City. (Mirror site)
- FamilySearch Catalog, Baltimore City
- Baltimore City Genealogy (LDS Genealogy)
- Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), Baltimore City, Maryland page 317, At various libraries (WorldCat); FHL Book 973 D27e 2002.
- Handybook for Genealogists: United States of America, 10th ed. (Draper, Utah: Everton Pub., 2002), 181. [FHL book 973 D27e 2002].
- Susan A. Riggs, 21st Virginia Infantry (Lynchburg, Va.: H.E. Howard, c1991). FHL Book 975.5 M2vr v. 72.