England and Wales Census, 1861 (FamilySearch Historical Records)
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|England and Wales|
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|The National Archives|
What is in the Collection?
This collection will include records for 1861.
The index was republished on 23 February 2011 to reflect both the ecclesiastical parish and civil parish for each event to provide further assistance in locating entries.
The index has been created by FamilySearch.org. The images were provided by Findmypast.com.
The Registrar General created the national censuses. Enumerators went door to door collecting the data in census books. The 1841 census was taken on June 7. Censuses taken between 1851 and 1931 were conducted on a single day, sometime between March 31 and April 8. The census takers listed only those who spent the night in each household, so individuals who were traveling or at school were listed where they spent the night.
The Registrar General created censuses for various reasons, including population studies, accessing military readiness, compiling lists of eligible voters, and tracking relief to the poor.
The information gathered by the census taker is only as reliable as the person who provided the information. While some information may not be completely accurate, it can still provide important clues in locating an ancestor.
The 1861 census also has missing pieces or parts of enumeration books. findmypast and provides a detailed list of the missing areas, remember to scroll to that section on this page. Be sure to check to see that your ancestors living areas are not listed in the missing lists.
Census records usually contain the following information:
- Date, place, registration district, parish and county where census was taken
- Given and surname of each member of household
- Gender, age, and marital status of each member
- Birthplace of each member
- Relationship of each member to head of household
How Do I Search the Collection?
As you are searching it is helpful to know such information as your ancestor’s given name and surname, some identifying information such as residence, approximated birth date or age, and family relationships. Remember that there may be more than one person in the records with the same name as your ancestor and that your ancestor may have used nicknames or different names at different times.
To search this collection by name:
Fill in the requested information in the initial search page. This search will return a list of possible matches. Compare the information about the ancestors in the list to what you already know about your ancestors to determine if this is the correct family or person. You may need to look at several images and compare the information about the individuals listed in those images to your ancestors to make this determination.
For tips about searching on-line collections see the on-line video at [FamilySearch Search Tips and Tricks].
What Do I Do Next?
Carefully evaluate each piece of information about them. These pieces of information may give you new biographical details that can lead you to other records about your ancestors.
- Use the age listed to determine an approximate birth date. This date along with the place of birth can help you find a birth record. Birth records often list biographical and marital details about the parents and close relatives other than the immediate family.
- Birth places can tell you former residences and can help to establish a migration pattern for the family.
- It is often helpful to extract the information on all families with the same surname in the same general area. If the surname is uncommon, it is likely that those living in the same area were related.
- Be sure to extract all families before you look at other records. The relationships given will help you to organize family groups. The family groupings will help you identify related families when you discover additional information in other records.
Tips to Keep in Mind
- Married family members may have lived nearby but in a separate household so you may want to search an entire town, neighboring towns, or even an county.
- You may be able to identify an earlier generation if elderly parents were living with or close by a married child.
- You may be able to identify a younger generation if a young married couple still lived with one of their sets of parents.
- Additional searches may be needed to locate all members of a particular family in the census
- Occupations listed can lead you to employment records.
General Information about These Records
Population schedule for England, Wales, Isle of Man and Channel Islands showing population as of 7 April 1861.
Census schedules consist of large sheets with preprinted rows and columns. The schedules are arranged by county and then divided by civil parish, while some are further subdivided into smaller enumeration districts, each district being an area that could be enumerated in a day. The only exception to this is the 1841 census, which was arranged by “hundreds” (administrative subdivisions of land). For reference purposes, the National Archives assigned a piece number to each enumeration district and stamped a folio number in the upper right corner of each right-side page. The number refers to entries on both sides of the page (both the recto and verso of the folio). Almost all the residents of England, whether were citizens or not, are included in the census
The British government has taken censuses every 10 years since 1801, except for 1941. This census covers those living in England and Wales on 8 April 1861.
Known Issues with This Collection
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Citing this Collection
Citing your sources makes it easy for others to find and evaluate the records you used. When you copy information from a record, list where you found that information. Here you can find citations already created for the entire collection and for each individual record or image.
- "England and Wales Census, 1861." Database. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : accessed 2016. From "1861 England, Scotland and Wales census." Database and images. findmypast. http://www.findmypast.com : n.d. Citing PRO RG 9. The National Archives, Kew, Surrey.
Record Citation (or citation for the index entry):