Indians of Virginia
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Learn about the tribes and bands, state recognized tribes, records and reservation of the Indians of VIrginia.
Tribes and Bands of Virginia
- Chickahominy Indian Tribe
- Nansemond Indian Tribe
- United Rappahannock Tribe
- Upper Mattaponi Indian Tribe
- See also Melungeons, not a tribe, but probably part American Indian
Virginia State Recognized Tribes
- Cheroenhaka (Nottoway) Indian Tribe
- Chickahominy Tribe
- Eastern Chickahominy Tribe
- Mattaponi Indian Nation
- Monacan Indian Nation
- Monacan Nation
- Nansemond Indian Tribal Association
- Nottoway of Virginia
- Pamunkey Nation
- Patawomeck Indians of Virginia
- United Rappahannock Indian Tribe
- Upper Mataponi Indian Tribe
See Virginia Council on Indians list of state recognized tribes.
The Office of Indian Affairs (now the Bureau of Indian Affairs) established a network of schools throughout the United States, beginning with Carlisle Indian School, established in 1879. Some of these schools were day schools, usually focusing on Indian children of a single tribe or reservation. Some were boarding schools which served Indian children from a number of tribes and reservations.
In addition, other groups such as various church denominations established schools specifically focusing on American Indian children. (read more...)
The following list of Indian Schools in Virginia has been compiled from Hill's Office of Indian Affairs..., Hill's Guide to Records in the National Archives Relating to American Indians, and others.
From the mid-1800s, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. Those reservations named in bold are current federally-recognized reservations, with their associated agency and tribe(s). Others have historically been associated with the state or are not currently recognized by the federal government.
- John Hopkins University
- American Indians in Virginia are sometimes listed in the court order books.
For Further Reading
See also American Indian For Further Reading.
- FamilySearch Catalog Places search United States, Virginia - Native races for over 50 titles of interest
- Virginia Council on Indians listing of state recognized tribes.
- Dozens of articles about the history of American Indians in Virginia can be found by using the PERiodical Source Index (PERSI).
- Gilbert, William Harlen, Jr. "Surviving Indian Groups in the Eastern United States", 407-438 of the Smithsonian Report for 1948. Available online.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington D.C.:Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethonology, Bulletin #30 1907. Available online.
- Swanton John R. The Indian Tribes of North America. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin #145 Available online.
- Hill, Edward E. The Office of Indian Affairs, 1824-1880: Historical Sketches, Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc. 1974. (Family History Library book 970.1 H551o.)
- Hill, Edward E. (comp.). Guide to Records in the National Archives of the United States Relating to American Indians. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, 1981. (FHL book 970.1 H551g.)
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)