To get started in American Indian Research
Alternate Names: Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation, Washington (the official federally-recognized name)
- 1 Tribal Headquarters
- 2 History
- 3 Records
- 4 Important Web Sites
- 5 References
- 6 Bibliography
Kalispel Tribal Headquarters
P.O. Box 39
Usk, WA 99180
- Official web site of the Kalispel Tribe
Tribal Groups: The Upper Kalispel, Lower Kalispel and Chewelah (who live west of the Chewelah Mountains in Upper Colville Valley) are collectively known as Pend d'Oreille Indians.
The Kalispel Tribe acquired horses early, from the Spanish or other tribes.
For over twenty years 1760-1780 the Kalispel Indians were in conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke, and Sioux tribes. Their raids for horses against the Nez Perce and Yakima increased the conflict. They sought allies with the Spokan Tribe during this time.
The Jesuits established a mission among the tribe in 1841.
In 1855 the tribe ceded land and moved to Jocko Reservation in Montana Territory. Later the tribe was assigned to Kalispel Reservation in Washington.
- 1730: The Tribe acquired horses
- 1760-1781: Conflict with the Blackfeet, Apsaroke and Sioux - allies with the Spokan Tribe
- raids for horses - Nez Perce and Yakima
- 1841: Jesuits establish a mission
- 1855-1856: Yakima War
- 1855: July 16, Treaty
- 1858: Coeur d'Alene War
- 1872: Reservation established for the Coeur d'Alene, Kalispel
- 1880: Encroachments of non-Indians
- 1884: Chief Victor sought compensation of lost land and a separate reservation for the Lower Kalispel
- 1895: Indian Commissioner ordered Kalispel lands surveyed
- 1914: Kalispel Reservation was established
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Kalispel tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods.
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- Vital records
The following agencies of the Bureau of Indian Affairs had jurisdiction over the Kalispel for the time periods indicated. BIA agencies were responsible to keep such records as census rolls, allotment (land) records, annuity rolls, school records, correspondence, and other records of individual Indians under their jurisdiction. For details, see the page for the respective agency.
- Spokane Agency,
- Flathead Agency, -1905
- Colville Agency, 1885-1916
- Coeur d'Alene Agency, 1906-1937
- Northern Idaho Agency, 1938-
The Bureau of Indian Affairs compiled annual Indian Census Rolls on many of the reservations from 1885 to 1940. They list the names of individuals, their age, and other details about each person enumerated. For more information about these records, click here.
The following table lists the census rolls for the Kalispel Indians:
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
Post -1885 Census
M 595 RG 75 -- 692 Rolls
|FHL Film Number|
|Pend d'Oreille (Kalispel)||
|Washington, DC||703-713||Films: 575799-575470|
In 1905, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs assigned Special Agent Thomas Downs to investigate the enrollment of the Indians of the Flathead Reservation. The National Archives has microfilmed the resulting documents as their Microcopy M1350, consisting of 3 rolls of microfilm. These records are available at the National Archives and their Regional Archives, and at other research institutions, including the Family History Library in Salt Lake City. The records include census rolls for 1903, 1905, and 1908, as well as applications for enrollment and Agent Downs' field notes. It includes members of all tribes then living on the Flathead Reservation, including the Flathead, Kootenai, Pend d'Oreille, Kalispel, and Spokane tribes.
During the latter part of the 18th Century and most of the 19th Century, treaties were negotiated between the federal government and individual Indian tribes. The treaties provide helpful information about the history of the tribe, but usually only include the names of those persons who signed the treaty. For more information about treaties, click here.
Treaties to which the Kalispel Indians were a part were:
- 1855 October 17, with the Blackfeet
- 1855 July 16, at Hell Gate, with the Flatheads, Etc.,
Tribal Office Records
The Tribal Office is responsible for enrollment records, vital records, tribal police records, tribal court records, employment records and many others. They are an entirely different set of records from those kept by the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Most of them remain in the Tribal Office. For details, contact that office at the address for the Tribal Headquarters listed above.
Prior to the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, through their agencies, may have recorded some vital events. Some were recorded on health forms, such as the "Sanitary Record of Sick, Injured, Births, Deaths, etc." Others were recorded as supplements to the "Indian Census Rolls." Some were included in the unindexed reports and other correspondence of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
Some vital records for the Kalispel Indians include:
- Flathead Agency, M595, births and deaths and some marriages
Important Web Sites
- Corporate Charter of the Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation Washington
- Official web site of the Kalispel Tribe
- Pend d'Oreilles Tribe Wikipedia
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published