To get started in American Indian Research
Various Spellings: Potawatomi, Potawatami, Potawatamie, Putawatimi, Pattawatima, Patawattimie, Pottwatami, Potawattimie, Pottawattimie, Pattawatima, Putawatame, Pottowotomee, Pottawatamy, Poutawatamie, Pottowautomie
- 1 Tribal Headquarters
- 2 History
- 3 Brief Timeline
- 4 Reservations
- 5 Bands and Groups of the Potawatomi Tribe and Their Reservations/Localities
- 6 Superintendencies
- 7 Records
- 8 Allotment Records
- 9 Correspondence and Census Records
- 10 Census
- 11 Enrollment
- 12 Military
- 13 Removal
- 14 Treaties
- 15 Vital Records
- 16 Important Web Sites
- 17 References
- 18 Bibliography
Citizen Potawatomi Nation
1601 S. Gordon Cooper Dr.
Shawnee, OK 74801
Website: Citizen Potawatomi Nation
- Citizen Band is so called because member of the Prairie Band applied for citizenship papers in the 1860's, having been granted the right by treaty.
Forest County Potawatomi
5416 Everybody's Road
Website: Forest County Potawatomi
Hannahville Indian Community
Website: Hannahville Indian Community
Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Potawatomi
Website: Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band
Nottawaseppi Huron Potawatomi Inc.
2221 1 1/2 Mile Road
Fulton, MI 49052
Website: Nottawaseppi Huron Band
58620 Sink Road
P.O. Box 180
Dowagiac, Michigan 49047
Website: Pokagon Band
Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation
16281 Q Road
Mayetta, KS 566509-8970
Website: Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation
- 1670: Nicholas Perot- French explorer made contact with the tribe
- 1754-63:The Potawatomi fought with the French during the French and Indian War
- 1775-83:The Potawatomi fought with the British against the Americans
- 1790-94:Little Turtle's War the tribe fought with other tribes to discourage non-Indian settlement
- 1809-11: Tecumseh's Rebellion fought with other tribes to discourage non-Indian settlement
- 1832: Black Hawk War fought with other tribes to discourage non-Indian settlement
- 1833: Census (M1831)
- after 1831: Many removed to: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan and Missouri, then on to Iowa, Kansas and Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
- 1833: Treaty of Chicago begins removal process
- 1836-37 Census - removal of Potawatomi from Chicago (M1831)
- 1838:The Tribe migrated from Indiana to Oklahoma is called the "Trail of Death"
- 1846: Land in Kansas was set aside as a reservation for the Potawatomi, Chippewa and Ottawa Tribes.
- 1867: A group of Potawatomi move from Kansas to a reservation in Oklahoma and forms the Citizen Band
- 1861 Treaty provided for allotment of the Potawatomi land to individual owners. Those who took allotments became citizens of the United States. They became known as "Citizen Potawatomi" They later sold their land and moved to Indian Territory. The Prairie Band, refued to accept allotments, and were assigned a small reservation in northeast Kansas.
- 1953-1954: The Prairie Band wins fight against Termination
Additional References to the History of the Tribe
Frederick Webb Hodge, in his Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, gave a more complete history of the Potawatomi tribe, with estimations of the population of the tribe at various time periods. Additional details are given in John Swanton's The Indian Tribes of North America.
E. Claspy. The Potawatomi Indians of Southwestern Michigan. Dowagiac, MI. 1966 FHL Book 970.3 P848c
Records of the Citizen Band of the Potawatomi Tribe, Shawnee, OK. FHL Film 126353
From the mid-1800's, the official policy of the United States government toward the American Indian was to confine each tribe to a specific parcel of land called a reservation. Agencies were established on or near each reservation. A government representative, usually called an agent (or superintendent) was assigned to each agency. Their duties included maintaining the peace, making payments to the Native Americans based on the stipulations of the treaties with each tribe, and providing a means of communication between the native population and the federal government.
Sometimes, a single agency had jurisdiction over more than one reservation. And sometimes, if the tribal population and land area required it, an agency may have included sub-agencies.
The boundaries of reservations, over time, have changed. Usually, that means the reservations have been reduced in size. Sometimes, especially during the later policy of "termination," the official status of reservations was ended altogether.
The following list of reservations has been compiled from the National Atlas of the United States of America, the Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America, and other sources. There are no current federally-recognized reservations in Illinois.
Bands and Groups of the Potawatomi Tribe and Their Reservations/Localities
The term or designation of Potawatomi Indians is a very broad categorization of several bands and/or federally recognized tribes within the group so named. For the most part, they have historically ranged from Canadian border on the north to Oklahoma on the south and from Ohio on the east to the Mississippi River Valley and beyond on the west. Some of the tribes, bands, or groups of Potawatomi, with their colonies or reservations, include:
- Citizen Potawatomi Nation -- (Oklahoma)
- Forest County Potawatomi Community -- (Wisconsin)
- Hannahville Indian Community -- (Michigan)
- Nottawaseppi Huron Potawatomi, Inc. -- (Michigan)
- Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Potawatomi -- (Michigan)
- Pokagon Band -- (Michigan and Indiana)
- Prairie Band of Potawatomi -- (Kansas)
Records for Superintendencies exist in the National Archives and copies of many of them are also available in other research facilities.
The majority of records of individuals were those created by the agencies. Some records may be available to tribal members through the tribal headquarters.They were (and are) the local office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and were charged with maintaining records of the activities of those under their responsibility. Among these records are:
- Allotment records
- Annuity rolls
- Census records
- Health records
- School census and records
- Vital records
Agencies with jurisdiction of the Potawatomi tribe: 'In the East: Fort Wayne Agency, Indiana Agency, Green Bay Agency, Chicago Agency, Mackinac Agency In Iowa: Council Bluffs Agency, In Kansas: Fort Leavenworth Agency, Potawatomi Agency, Great Nemah Agency, Kickapoo Agency, In Indian Territory: Sac and Fox Agency, Quapaw Agency
- 1863 Potawatomie Land rolls http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com
- 1887 Potawatomie-Prairie Band Land
- 1887 Potawatomie Citizens Band Land Allotment Roll-Kansas http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com
Correspondence and Census Records
|Tribe||Agency||Location of Original Records||
M234 RG 75 Rolls 962
M595 RG 75 Rolls 693
|-||-||-||-||-||-||FHL Films: 580771-580774|
|Potawatomi||Carter and Laona Agencies, 1911-27||Chicago||-||-||Rolls 22, 230-23||FHL Film: 573868|
|Potawatomi||Grand Rapids Agency,1900-26||Chicago||-||-||-||FHL Film: 576857|
|Potawatomi||Great Lakes Consolidated, 1875-1952||Chicago||-||-||Rolls 170-71, 176||FHL Films: 576859-576860|
|Potawatomi||Fort Wayne and Indiana, 1824-50||Washington D.C.||Rolls 304, 354-61||-||Rolls 230-33||-|
|Washington D.C. and Chicago||Rolls 132-34, 315-36, 402-15||-||-||FHL Films: 576861-576863|
|Potawatomi||Winnebago Agency, 1864-1965||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 931-47||-||-||FHL Films: 583122-583129|
|Council Bluffs Agency, 1837-47||Washington D.C.||Rolls 215-18||-||-||-|
|Osage River Agency, 1837-47||Washington D.C.||Rolls 642-51||-||-||-|
|Ft. Leavenworth Agency, 1847-51||Washington D.C.||Rolls 300-03||-||-||-|
|Horton (Potawatomi) Agency 1851-80||Kansas City||-||-||Rolls 210, 392-95||-|
|Great Nemaha and Kickapoo, 1837-80||Washington D.C. and Kansas City||Rolls 307-14, 371-74||FHL Film: 576899|
|Potawatomi, Indian Terr.||Quapaw/Shawnee/Sac and Fox, 1871-1952||Washington D.C. and Fort Worth||Rolls 703-13||-||Rolls 453-54, 490-96||FHL Films: 581405-581410|
|Shawnee Agency, 1890-1952||Fort Wayne||-||-||Rolls 490-96||FHL Films: 581865-581871|
|Potawatomi, Citizen||Sac and Fox Agency, Oklahoma, 1889-1919 with gaps||Fort Wayne||-||-||Rolls 453-55||FHL Films: 581444-581449|
Lac du Flambeau 1910-1935 FHL films: 576918-576921
Laona - 1916-1927 FHL Film: 576922
- 1870-1880 Potawatomie, Citizen Band in Kansas http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com
- 1880 Potawatomie Roll - Prairie Band http://freepages.genealogy.rootsbeb.com
- Records of the Citizen Band of Potawatomi Tribe. (arranged by identification number,includes dates of birth and death,)FHL|film: 1206353 item 1
Black Hawk War (1832):
- Wisconsin soldiers who served in the Black Hawk War (Wisconsin Historical Society) - Transcription of Wisconsin Muster Rolls from the Black Hawk War. Lists soldiers in the 18 companies of "Iowa" militia (i.e., Iowa Co, Michigan Territory), plus the Menominee and Potawatomie warriors and one militia company raised at Green Bay.
National Archives. M574 Special Files of the Office of Indian Affairs, 1807-1904. Roll 14 File 98, Emigration of Potawatomi Indians in 1838-39 FHL film 1,498,178
Potawatomi Trail of Death - 1838 Removal from Indiana to Kansas. By Shirley Willard and Susan Campbell. C. 2003 Fulton County Historical Society, Rochester, Indiana. FHL book: 970.3 P847w
This books contains:
- Father Petit's account of the removal
- Journal of an Emigrating Party
- Muster Roll of Potawatomi Indians Removed from Indiana 1818 transcribed by Ivan Nunemaker
- Muster Roll of a Remnant of Pottawatomie Indians of Indian Collected by John Tipton at Twin Lakes and Placed under Wm. Polke, U.S. Agent, to be conducted to the Osage River, Western Territory
- Biography of John Tipton
- Tipton Letters
- Officers / Employees Serving on Removal by Ivan Nuemaker
- Muster Roll of Pottawatomies of Indians Fow'd by Wm. Polke 18 Dec. 1838 as del'd to A.S. Davis, Subagent
- Biography of William Polke
- A Survivor's Account by Chief Simon Pokagon
- 1789January 9, at Fort Harmar
- 1795 August 3, at Greenville
- 1805 July 4, at Fort Industry
- 1805 August 21, at Grouseland
- 1807 November 17, at Detroit
- 1808 November 25, at Brownstown
- 1815 July 18, at Portage des Sioux
- 1815 September 8, at Spring Wells
- 1816 August 24, at St. Louis
- 1817 September 29, at the Miami
- 1818 October 2, at St. Mary's
- 1818 September 17,
- 1821 August 29, at Chicago
- 1825 August 19, at Prairie du Chien
- 1826 October 16, on the Wabash
- 1828 August 25, at Green Bay
- 1828 September 20, on the St. Joseph River
- 1829 July 29, at Prairie du Chien
- 1832 October 20, at Camp Tippecanoe
- 1832 October 26, on Tippecanoe River
- 1832 October 27, on Tippecanoe River
- 1834 December 4,
- 1834 December 10,
- 1834 December 16,
- 1834 December 17,
- 1836 March 26,
- 1836 March 29
- 1836 April 11,
- 1836 April 22,
- 1836 August 5, on Yellow River
- 1836 September 20, at Chippewanaung
- 1836 September 22, at Chippewanaung
- 1836 September 23, at Chippewanaung
- 1837 February 11, at Washington
- 1846 June 5 and 17, at Council Bluffs
- 1861 November 15, at Kansas River
- 1866 March 29,
- 1867 February 27, at Washington
- Potawatomi Agency, M595, births and deaths 1918-1935, FHL|Film: 580774
- Sac and Fox Agency, M595, births and deaths 1930-1939, FHL|Film: 58144
- Lac du Flambeau - Potawatomi birth and death 1924-1932, FHL|Film: 576920
Important Web Sites
- Constitution of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation
- Potawatomi Tribe Wikipedia
- National Atlas of the United States of America -- Federal Lands and Indian Reservations Available online.
- Isaacs. Katherine M., editor. Omni Gazetteer of the United States of America. U.S. Data Sourcebook, Volume 11 Appendices, Bureau of Indian Affairs List of American Indian Reservations, Appendix E, Indian Reservations. Omnigraphics, Inc., 1991.(Family History Library book 973 E5)
- Guide to Federal Records in the National Archives; Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.
- Hodge, Frederick Webb. Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1906 Available online.
- Klein, Barry T., ed. Reference Encyclopedia of the American Indian. Nyack, New York: Todd Publications, 2009. 10th ed. WorldCat 317923332; FHL book 970.1 R259e.
- Malinowski, Sharon and Sheets, Anna, eds. The Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes. Detroit: Gale Publishing, 1998. 4 volumes. Includes: Lists of Federally Recognized Tribes for U.S., Alaska, and Canada – pp. 513-529 Alphabetical Listing of Tribes, with reference to volume and page in this series Map of “Historic Locations of U.S. Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Canadian Native Groups” Map of “Historic Locations of Mexican, Hawaiian and Caribbean Native Groups” Maps of “State and Federally Recognized U.S. Indian Reservations. WorldCat 37475188; FHL book 970.1 G131g.
- Vol. 1 -- Northeast, Southeast, Caribbean
- Vol. 2 -- Great Basin, Southwest, Middle America
- Vol. 3 -- Arctic, Subarctic, Great Plains, Plateau
- Vol. 4 -- California, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Islands
- Sturtevant, William C. Handbook of North American Indians. 20 vols., some not yet published. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978– .
- Volume 1 -- Not yet published
- Volume 2 -- Indians in Contemporary Society (pub. 2008) -- WorldCat 234303751
- Volume 3 -- Environment, Origins, and Population (pub. 2006) -- WorldCat 255572371
- Volume 4 -- History of Indian-White Relations (pub. 1988) -- WorldCat 19331914; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.4.
- Volume 5 -- Arctic (pub. 1984) -- WorldCat 299653808; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.5.
- Volume 6 -- Subarctic (pub. 1981) -- WorldCat 247493742; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.6.
- Volume 7 -- Northwest Coast (pub. 1990) -- WorldCat 247493311
- Volume 8 -- California (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 13240086; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.8.
- Volume 9 -- Southwest (pub. 1979) -- WorldCat 26140053; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.9.
- Volume 10 -- Southwest (pub. 1983) -- WorldCat 301504096; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.10.
- Volume 11 -- Great Basin (pub. 1986) -- WorldCat 256516416; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.11.
- Volume 12 -- Plateau (pub. 1998) -- WorldCat 39401371; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.12.
- Volume 13 -- Plains, 2 vols. (pub. 2001) -- WorldCat 48209643
- Volume 14 -- Southeast (pub. 2004) -- WorldCat 254277176
- Volume 15 -- Northwest (pub. 1978) -- WorldCat 356517503; FHL book 970.1 H191h v.15.
- Volume 16 -- Not yet published
- Volume 17 -- Languages (pub. 1996) -- WorldCat 43957746
- Volume 18 -- Not yet published
- Volume 19 -- Not yet published
- Volume 20 -- Not yet published