Censuses were taken in 1881, 1885, 1891, and 1901, while Alberta was part of three of the provisional districts of Northwest Territories. Censuses have been taken every five years since 1906. The censuses from 1921 to the present are confidential and are kept at the National Archives of Canada, in Ottawa. Indexing is ongoing for the 1906 and 1911 censuses. The 1916 census is available on Ancestry.ca, and (free) at Family History Centers on AncestryInstitution.com. Census substitutes are school attendance records, tax rolls, and voter lists, available at the Provincial Archives. There is also a card file which lists the names of early settlers in each school district.
Internet sites which provide access to Alberta census records are: